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'This table does not include the supporting facilities which are a necessary pari ol both the basic science and clinical science facilities

+ To compute the gross area, it is estimated that 85 percent of the lota! gross area is eveilable as usable space, while the remaining 36 percent will provide space for exterior walls, partitions, corridors, stairs, elevators, and duct ways and chases lor mechanical and electrical re quirements $ In the leaching hospital

§ Preclinkat pathology is laugh! m the basic science facilities Space for clinical pathology may be provided in the teaching hospital ical department. Usually this department confines its teaching activities la students in one or both of the third and fourth years. Teaching activities may expand to include such courses as reproductive biology In addition, there are teaching responsibilities (or residents and fellows Interns ore generally not assigned to this service except as part of a rotating program. Student groups may be smaller than in some services and, therefore, teaching space should be sired accordingly

Psychiatry The department of psychiatry consists of specialists concerned with the functions and disfunctions of the mind and emotions-

Offices for members of the department of psychislry may be used for somewhat different purposes than staff offices of other clinical departments. For example, not only do psychiatrists use their offices for desk work, study, and conferences with students and others, but they may also use them as interview rooms for psychiatric patients. Clearly, this will have an effect upon the design of the psychiatric departmental office suite in that it may be necessary lo incorporate waiting rooms for patients and space for the administrative control of patients in addition to the usual departmental administrative space, teaching space, conference rooms, and reference libraries.

Consultation rooms connected by a one-way viewing screen or TV with an adjoining observation area are frequently required

In general, studies involving psychiatric patients are best carried out in research facilities associated with the psychiatric bed area, and laboratory studies nol involving patients are best carried oui in departmental research laboratories.

Preventive Medicine In general, however, the discipline of preventive medicine comprises physicians who are concerned with the natural history of disease and the factors in the environment which have an effect upon morbidity and mortality. They are interested in raducing the incidence of avoidable disease end preme ture death through control of those factors which may contribute to disability and incapacity.

There is usually a close relationship between the staffs of pediatrics, medicine, obstatrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and preventive medicine, and this should be borne in mind in the location and assignment of office space,

SELECTING THE SITE Preferred Locations

Denial educators generally prefer certain locations for a dental school. The obvious choice, a university campus, has impressive advantages. It offers students and faculty a richer cultural life and often a more pleasant environment. Adequate housing and student facilities may be more readily available than in other locations. If the university also has « medical school on campus, students and faculty can enjoy a close association with other health professions.

Location in a health center is also advantageous, since it offers access to a complex of health facilities and provides day-to-day opportunity for close cooperation between the health professions- A metropolitan location generally assures the school an ample supply of patient» for teaching clinics.

The Site Itself

Topography and Dimensions High ground with natural drainage is desirable, but the elevation should not be so high that approach on foot is difficult- A patient entrance at ground level and a service drive to the basement area should be feasible. A gently sloping lot has advantages, since it offers entrances on 1 wo levels; traffic in and out of the building is automatically divided between them, and the movement of people and supplies can more easily be diverted over separate routes within the building. The site selected should be of sufficient size to permit later expansion.

Where land costs are favorable and where parking facilities are planned, a building site covering a minimum of 10 to 12 acres is advisable.

Utilities Sewerage, water, electricity, telephone. and gas must be available on the Bite or be extendible to it at reasonable cost. Utilities must also have adequate capacity. Transportation uitd Parking Convenient public transportation is a necessity. Buns should be frequent, with adequate peak-hour service. Good public transportation materially reduces the parking problem. It also makes it easier for the school to secure and retain service and clerical employees, Even with good public transportation, first-class roads should connect the school directly with local traffic arteries.

The site should permit adequate parking areas for students, faculty, and patients. Generally. one parking place for each full-time faculty member and one for every two parttime members is advisable A site in a suburban area should also allow two parking places per entering class student (ECS) for students, if possible, and another two places per ECS for clinic patients.

In determining how much land will be needed tor parking, allow 1 30 cars per acre (for 45

Public Health Service, U S Deparlmenl of Health Education and Welfare, 1962

parking) as a guide if parking tots are to be used Parking lots, however, are likely to become desirable building sites, and multilevel garages or underground parking may prove a more permanent solution to the parking problem

SPACE RELATIONSHIPS The Effect of Traffic Patterns

The arrangement of the many elements of a school is determined largely by the movement of students, faculty, patients, and materials, Clinics The most common and effective way of reducing traffic within the school is by physical separation of the clinical facilities from the remainder of the school. Staffed by a separate faculty and visited daily by large numbers of patients whose presence elsewhere in the school could be disruptiv», the clinical facilities are logically a physical entity. For this reason, physical separation will continue to be advisable even though efforts to break down the rigid separation which exists between the clinical and basic science teaching programs are successful,

However, if they are successful, there probably will be a need to locale certain clinical areas so that students can move between the clinics and the basic science areas without disturbing the clinical routine Planning committees should therefore consider the possible implications of this change for traffic patterns within the school

Basic Science and Preclinical Laboratories-The activities of freshmen and sophomores are largely confined to these areas; by locating them in reasonable proximity, with other facilities used by these students nearby, traffic within the school could be materially reduced, However, since laboratory sossions «re normally scheduled lor a lull half day, with students shifting between laboratories only once a day, locating these areas on separate floors or in separate wings may well resolve a particular school's problems of space arrangement.

A Design which Controls Traffic Flow

Figure 1 is a space diagram showing the relationships between and within the clinical and preclinical denial science areas of a school which will locate its basic science facilities in another wing or on another floor.

All student facilities are located close to '.heir major areas of activity, Note the proximity of student lounges and locker rooms to ihe teaching facilities used by the students. Freshmen and sophomore locker rooms are adjacent to the preclinical laboratories, while locker rooms for junior and seniors are close to the clinic. Locker rooms for both groups adjoin the student lounge and bookstore And are located near the student entrance- Lecture rooms, used by both preclinical and clinical students, are readily accessible from all student areas.

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Fig. 1 Space relationships: proclinttai ant) clinical dontnl scran» ,irons

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