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cal item. Food odors are best controlled by bringing air into the dining room and exhaust* ing it through the kitchen at 30 air changes per hour minimum. In the kitchen itself, 30 to 60 air changes are desirable,

Space and how it's used, though, is the key A good guide is to allow 12 to 15 sq ft per seat in planning the dining space. Smaller tables will use more space, but will encourage more quiet conversation. The small table for four persons, which makes most of floor space and yields the most elbow space when standard trays are placed on its top is 30 X 40 in. Four standard 14 X 1ft in. trays will not fit on a 36 in. sq table. Mixing round tables with rectangular ones relieves the monotony of the repetitious, institutional look. Manufacturers provide tables which are 29 in. and 24 in. high for the younger children. All kinds of table and seating types folding, fackkntfing, folding into walls, stacking — allow for countless arrangements and flexibility,

To review briefly, in planning for food service, the simple objectives are getting the food to the student, getting the students to the food, and providing an enjoyable dining atmosphere.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION Gymnasiums

In this keep-fit, diet-craze, body-bent, sports-minded age. physical education programs have gained a new focus, and top-notch facilities are getting built, from multipurpose 40 X 60 ft rooms in the elementary grades to multi-gyms and specially spaces in the large high schools. The basketball court is the common denominator of the gymnasium plan, overlapped by oiher court layouts and enlarged for other uses including spectator seating.

Making up the right kind of environment are the factors diagrammed below Places to play well in should be welt designed in all ways, more than super-space boxes. The gymnasium, the whole physical education unit, is most u I ways a place for other performance use, and so its internal planning relationships must serve its everyday use, but its public use sets other demands for its relation in the total plan. Its great volume begs other considerations for separate, special ventilating systems, structural systems, and related massing concerns of its exterior (see Fig. 141).

Fig. 141

The gymnasium complex in Fig. 142 shows several relative points: direct relation to parking and playfields, public lobby space and rest rooms, double-decking of locker facilities and auxiliary, or balcony, gym space equating to the height of the main gym, "boys" and "girls" gyms divided by a folding partition opening to allow the total space tor exhibition game use. with bleachers folding out and down from the balcony gyms, and the whole volume given better scale and character inside and out with beams and undulating angular roof/ceiling treatment.

Table 9 gives recommended dimensions for various gymnasium sizes-

The basic relationship of elements and planning fundamentals for a gymnasium are shown in Figs. 143 to 147. In the typical school the staff for boys and girls have a working relationship to oaeh other and a responsibility for instructional supervision to both the gymnasium and locker spaces, as well as a preferred, as-direct-as-possible relationship to the total school, or corridor entry. The staff offices are, in effect, control centers- The locker rooms should be so located and planned to allow direct access lo the outdoor playfields as well as to the gym.

Expansion potential should always be considered, and the physical education parts should not be "locked" into other plan elements. As enrollment increases, oft-times added practice gyms or auxiliary spaces like wrestling rooms, a pool, or more locker space may be needed.

The gymnasium itself develops from many functional and prescribed requirements as are noted on Fig. 143.

Figure 148 illustrates a field house complex, with large balcony gyms (above the locker areas! flanking the main exhibition gym Spectator seating is accommodated by folding/rolling bleachers at both levels. Those at the main floor level can be folded back against the locker room wall to allow more usable space in the main gym and those on the balcony can be rolled and folded back, or could be detailed to fold up to form a wall between the balcony and main gym spaces

TABLE 9 Recommended Dimensions in feet loi

Gymnasiums

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