suggests the advisability of providing chalkboards, a projection screen, arid closed circuit television. Microphone outlets for recording and broadcasting should be considered. Schools being built now should be planned to make possible the use of performing groups for broadening the cultural life of the whole school.

Rehearsal Halls - Combined Vocal Instrumental facilities Let it be said at the outset that acoustically, one room cannot serve for both vocal and instrumental rehearsals with completely satisfactory results. Some communities, however, find it economically unsound to provide space for both instrumental and vocal groups while employing only one teacher. It is therefore expedient to consider space for the combined vocal-instrumental situations. Provisions for changing the reverberation characteristics of such a room with drapes or other materials ore a possibility.

In many one-teacher situations, one room is the nucleus of all music activities. In the small est of music departments, a single all-purpose room can bo planned in remix of space to accommodate the vocal and instrumental group rehearsals, small ensembles and individual rehearsals, library, instrument and equipment storage, instrument repair facilities, office, and teaching studio as well as various other music classes insofar as the scheduled school day permits. Although space can be provided for this multipurpose situation, few of these activities can be adequately housed in one room without croating undesirable acoustical

conditions for the other activities. It may be dangerous to ask elementary school children and the majority of junior high school pupils to sing in such compromise situations. While variable acoustical control may bo employed, the installation of such materials may be more expensive than providing additional facilities. When possible, separate special rooms for instrumental and choral activities should be provided, since vocal groups require a much "warmer" room than do bands and orchestras.

Space in such a combination room will have to be figured on the basis of the suggestions made for instrumental rehearsal halls. The room might be thought of as the future in* strumentol room, expansion to separate facilities being the ultimate goal.

Practice Rooms Practice rooms are a facility peculiar to the teaching of music, with some special problems not encountered by administrators or architects in planning other elements of the school. Among the factors which must be considered are isolation of sound, size, ventilation, amount of use, and supervision.

Number. The number of practice rooms needed by a music department should be related to the number of students involved and the adminiatrative policies concerned with their use rather than by the amount of space created by tha architect in splaying the back wall of the rehearsal hall* Some authorities recommend that students practice as much as possible in school, so that assistance and supervision are possible. Many feel that it is particularly important that practice room facilities are available for those students who play the larger instruments because of the difficulty in carrying the instruments home. These practice rooms should be convenient to the targe rehearsal room, so that the moving of heavy, large instruments is minimized. In determining the number of practice rooms needed by a collegiate school or department of music, a calculation simitar to that shown at the top of the page might be used.

Size. Practice rooms vary in size according to their various functions. Individual practice rooms are quite satisfactory in the 55 to 65 sq ft range. This provides sufficient space for an upright piano, a chair, and a music stand—but little more. Public schools, once planned with several rooms of this size in the music suite, are now being buill with slightly larger rooms for ensemble practice, reflecting the increased emphasis on small groups, both vocal and instrumental. Colleges which plan large blocks of small practice rooms will also want to provide a number of larger rooms for ensemble practice, or to accommodate grand pianos {2) or organs.

Other Considerations. More and more school buildings in the Worth as well as the South are being air-conditioned, and this is a distinct advantage where practice rooms are concerned. In fact, there is no other woy to provide proper sound isolation. If the building is air-conditioned, the practice rooms can be arranged in blocks, spaced compaclly. and planned without outside windows. Sound filters should be provided for the air ducts to

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Fis. 1 Governoi Thomas Johnson High School. Frederick. Md henry Powell Hopkins and Aisocibioi, Architects prevenl iransmission of sound from one room to another, nnd the return air ducts should be placed in the ceilings or waits« not in the doore Construction to ensure adequate transmission loss witl make practice rooms more expensive than ordinary classrooms, but economies may be effected here with more justification than in some other parts of the music suite

Nonparaltel walls have been widely used to avoid reflection of sound in these small rooms Double glass windows in the doors, or opening on the rehearsal hall or teacher's office in schools, permit supervision without interrupt tion Electronic monitoring devices are sometimes incorporated-

Class Piano Rooms Many school systems are now providing class instruction in piano as welt as in the band and orchestra instruments. Some schools have constructed specially designed rooms for this type of instruction. These rooms should be as near as possible to the other music rooms in order to realize complete utilization in a coordinated music program. There should be acoustical treatment of the walls and ceilings, end insulation against sound transmission to and from other classrooms as prescribed by the acoustical consultant, Careful consideration should be given to sound conditioning of rooms for class piano if several pianos are used, due to the percusaive action of tone production of several performers, The front wall should be equipped with blackboard (plain and with music staves), bulletin board space, music cabinet, and electrical outlets. Space should be provided for television, phonograph, and recording facilities-

If electronic pianos are used in such a room, it is useful to provide an adequate number of electric outlets in the floor to avoid the need for extension cords and the hazard they present, Organ class instruction is now finding increasing lavor in several of our larger cities, and properly wired rooms should be planned if Ihia activity is to be part of a school's program.

Rogulai Classrooms Regular academic classrooms are used by many schools for classes in music history, appreciation, theory, composition, arranging, and other music education classes Though the acoustical treatment may not need to be as extensive or expensive as in some other parts of the music suite, if the learning to take place in the room is to involve listening to music, more than ordinary care must be taken to block out extraneous sounds. A classroom that will be used primarily for general music classes needs ample storage space for books, records, rhythm instruments, autoharps, piano keyboards, pictures, and similar equipment Provision should be made tor a projector screen mounted at ceiling height or in a ceiling recess.

In some situations it may be possible to provide a projection room adjoining the classroom, or even between two clasarooms so that the projector can be prepared without losing class time. If a classroom is to be used primarily for theory classes, it will be desirable to have staff lines painted on tba chalkboard Conversely, if music literature classes are to be the principal occupants, painted staff lines are less desirable. If a college classroom is to be used largely for music education classes, it will need adequate locked shelf space or will need to be planned adjacent to a storage room (with shelves) for the large amount of material used in such classes. In e campus school situation. classrooms may need to be provided with rows of coat hooks and shelf space

Littaninq Facilities Several types of listening facilities are in common use in collegiate music schools today, and each presents specific planning problems. As independent study becomes more common in secondary schools, some similar facilities will become desirable in the muaic department or in the school library The principal systems include the following:

1. A number of soundproofed listening rooms or cubicles are each provided with a record player The student receives phono recordings from a central location (often the departmental office) and is his own operator

Z, A bank of record playera or turntables is placed in a central control room Worktables in an adjoining room are supplied with a number of receiving channels and sets of earphones. The student requests a particular recording, which is played by the monitor m charge of the control room, and the student listens through earphones

3. Tapes are made available to the student, who listens either in a cubicle as in (1) above, or in a central room (in which earphones are necessary).

4, Tapes are administered through a control room, as in (2) above, and the student listens through earphones.

The planning of a listening facility is diciatecf first of all by the kind of equipment the department uses, or the kind to which it wishes to change The number of listening rooms or cubicles, the size of the control room and the number of channels available, the number of places at the worktables can be calculated by a method similar to that employed in the case of practice rooms. The design of the system, if methods (2) or (4) are used, must of course precede the planning of the area Other than providing for adequate space and convenient location in relationship to other muaic areas, no general observations will be needed in this section.

In many cases a college will set aside certain classrooms as theory laboratories. It may be desirable to provide cubicles in which students may work with individual tape recorders, phono records, or similar equipment. Certain storage and conlrol requirements must also be planned in such situations.

Studios Traditionally much of the teaching of music has been done on a one-to-one basts, Though this country has accomplished much through group instruction, it is still true that advanced instruction is almost always given to a single student- In colleges and conservatories this is carried on in studios which also serve as the faculty members' offices It is desirable also for schools to provide an office for each full-time music instructor Most frequently it is located adjacent to the teacher s rehearsal hall and is provided with windows that enable him to keep an aye on ensemble rehearsals being conducted by students in the hall or in practice rooms.

In a college it is not difficult to determine ihe proper number of office-studios, since Ihe figure corresponds directly with the number of applied music teachers More difficult is the matter of assuring the responsible authorities thot space devoted to the studios will be fully used, A college instructor teaching applied music is likely to have a teaching schedule of 18 to 24 hours par week, and he will wish to do his own practicing and professional work in his studio. Occupancy of somewhere between 30 and 40 hours per week may thus be expected Administrators may aspect a 50 to 60 hour-per-week occupancy as they do in the case of classrooms and practice rooms. They may need help to see that an applied-music teacher cannot work effectively if he has to share a studio.

Srze The music teacher's office needs to be larger than a small practice room since he will, in all probability, have his desk and files there There should be enough additional space tor group lessons if he has the need Music files, instrument storage, and work areas frequented by students should not be in the office-studio

College studios will vary in size with the instructor's specialty Studios of the senior piano staff will ideally be large enough to ac* commodate two grand ptanos and the usual office furniture of desk, file cabinets, and bookshelves- Studios of instructors of voice and other instruments, traditionally requiring only one piano, can be a bit smaller if acoustic conditions are otherwise met Nonparallel walla are recommended, but the studio should not be designed in such a way that piano placement and disposition ot furniture are made difficult.

The size ot the studio may also be determined by olher duties of the faculty member As an academic adviser, he may need additional space for file cabinets, if he uses the room for seminars he may require space for a table and chairs. In virtually all cases a small mounted chalkboard in each studio will be a valuable asset.

Recital Hail A room intended for recitals or lor performances by chamber muaic groups or small ensembles may be termed a recital hail Anything larger falls into the category of theater or auditorium. Thus, planning the recital hall may well begin with a decision about the hall 6 intended use and its sealing capacity. This will in turn influence the size of its stage and bring about certain limitations of use A hall seating 250 people, say. can scarcely have a stage large enough to seat an orchestra and chorus, or even a large bend. Schools may combine the idea of a recital hall or little theater with the need for areas for large-group instruction.

As in the case of other large special-use rooms, one may think of a recital hall as including severnl subareas also Chief among these are performers' dressing room or rooms, pipe-organ chambers (if the hall is to have an organ), recording or broadcasting control room, and box office In each case, the location of these subareas should be considered in relation to ease ot concert operation For example, a control room should have a view of 1he entire stage, and performers' rooms should be located on the same floor as the stage rather than a floor above or below; otherwise both lose much of their convenience

The seating capacity of the recital hall having been determined, its shape, proportions. etc,, become matters for the architect. But a number ot practical considerations, often overlooked even by experienced architects, may be listed here Foi example, the lighting panel or dimmer panel should be located on Ihe same side of the stage as the dressing room, for that is the side at which the stage manager will normally stand in order to communicate with the performers. A bell or phone system should connect the backstage area with the box office, for efficiency in concert operation Doors leading from the wings onto the stage must be wide enough to provide lor the passage of a grand piano—a small detail, yet one that has often been missed. Jf delivery of pianos or other large equipment is anticipated, the stage should have acceas to a loading dock And even if the music building caters primarily to campus audiences, provision for parking areas should be considered

Even at the college level, the recital hall, as in the case of the large rehearsal room*, will probably double as a classroom or large lecture hall at certain times- It may be necessary, therefore, to provide thealer-type seats with folding lablet arms so that the needs of both concert audience «nd note-taking students may be mat A large ceiling-mounted projection screen may be found desirable, as well as connections to the recording studio Some thought should be given to the location of a projector, since a special projection booth is unlikely in a small recital hall

Fine Ads Combinations Many schools ere adopting the administrative policy ol establishing fine arts departments and housing art. drama, and music in units separate from the classroom area- Buildings of this nature usually consist of a music complex, a drama complex, and a visual arts complex, Dance may sometimes be included (see Fig. 2).

The music complex has been described earlier The drama complex consists of a small theater with a capacity of 300 to 500. workroom , dressing areas, one or more classrooms, storage rooms, radio-television control and listening areas, costume storage and work area, and library.

Auxiliary Areas

Storage Areas Adequate storage areas, planned with traffic patterns in mind, are important to the proper functioning of a music facility Storage, with proper heat and humidity control, is necessary for musical instruments* robes and uniforms, music, records, and various types of equipment With careful planning, the storage areas con be conveniently placed and at the same time serve as o buffer between two sound-producing areas such as the instrumental ond choral rehearsal halls (see Fig. 3).

Instrument Storage Instrument storage facilities should bo located so as to minimize the moving of instruments. Sufficient free floor space should be provided to permit smooth flow of traffic Storage cabinets located within the rehearsal areas are inaccessible during rehearsal periods and frequently cause congestion during period changes.

Uniform end Roho Storage- Storage facilities should be planned for the school-owned band and orchestra uniforms, choir robes, or vestments, This closet space should be cedar-lined A well-constructed, close-fitting door will help protect against moths and dust. The closet space should be high enough so that the uniforms and robes will noi touch the floor when hanging on the racks. Some provision should be made to space the uniforms and robes at equal intervals and to facilitate identification A separate (pigeonhole) compartment tor the caps, belts, and other miscellaneous equipment should also be provided.

Music Library Music libraries will range from a single set of tiling cabinets in the music room to the school of music library complete with stacks, reading rooms, charging desk, listening facilities, and work areas. In most colleges there will also be smaller libraries (band,


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