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tones are generally described, and (hey are substantially the same whether small*group or class-size laboratories are utilized.

Low-Bench Disciplines

Teaching Laboratory The disciplines which share the low-bench teaching laboratory are those employing microacopy as their principal technique— hlatology (the microscopic study of normal tissue), pathology (the microscopic study of diseased (issue), and microbiology (the study of microorganisms). Laboratory Benches and Arrangement. Laboratory benches are usually 30 to 32 in. high to permit studenta to sit comfortably for long sessions at the microscope. Stools have back reate and adjustable seats. Either single or double-width benches may be used- However, because all students sit along one side of single-width benches, these can be more easily arranged to permit all students to face the demonstration area. A four-position bench is particularly desirable In the class-size laboratory, since it permits the division of the class into groups of 16 or less without splitting the group at any bench. If double benches are used, the eight-position bench is preferred.

Clearances of 3 ft between single-width benches and 4 ft 6 in. between double-width benches are required. Side aisles, center aisle, and main cross aisle should be 6 ft wide. Work Station at the Bench. Each position at the bench should be at least 42 in, wide to allow both adequate knee space and room for a base cabinet containing drawers for storing slides and supplies snd a cupboard for storing a microscope. Water, gas. and electricity should be available at each position. The need for an air outlet is limited, and a vacuum is seldom used A lead cup sink at each position

{or a bench-long drain trough with a sink at one end) is necessary.

Bench Tops. 9ench-top surfacing should be resilient, to minimize slide breakage, as well se stain and alcohol resistant. Bench tops should be as free of joints as possible. Srancf-up Work Areas. Wall counters (37 in. high) are located along the sides of the laboratory ares. These provide bench space of stand-up height, where students may set up portable equipment, conduct experiments with animals, or take part in other assigned projects. Counter-top handwashing sinks with knee- or foot-operated valves should be Installed and supplied with hot and cold running water. Gas, airt and electricity outlets will also be needed. One set of outleta for evsry four work stations at the counter is adequate.

Demonstration. The demonstration eras should have a table, retractable projection screen, and a chalkboard at least 4 ft high and as long as the supporting wall permita Additional small chalkboards —3 by 4 ft — should be available throughout the laboratory. At least one for every 16 students should be provided, and all chalkboards should have adequate illumination. A bulletin board la alao advisable. Because small-group laboratories easily accommodate demonstrations, no separate areas are needed for this purpose in schools employing the unit arrangement. Each of the small-group laboratoriea will require its own projection acreena, chalkboards, and a bulletin board.

Stationary Equipment. One noncorrosive fume hood should be provided for every 16 students. Stationary centrifuges in the same ratio are desirable for microbiology. Space will be needed for incubators one for every eight students —and for refrigerators— one tor every 16 students.

Ancillary Facilities Each discipline sharing the low-bench teaching laboratory must have certain ancillary facilities available.

Space for the preparation of mlcroaoope slides ia necessary for any laboratory In which hietology and pathology are taught. Preferably, this area consists of two interconnecting rooms. In one, the embedding room, tissue la processed and embedded in paraffin. This room should have two counters, 31 in. in height, one to be used as • workbench for prsparing and processing specimens and the other for mixing eolutions. Placing a plain worktable at one end of the paraffin oven pro* vidas an efficient arrangement for the embedding procedures. For eaay access from either side, the worktable ahould be located near the center of the room. Wall cabinets for storing solutions and other supplies should ba provided.

The second room ia uasd for sectioning, staining, and atoring tha completed alidea. Counters 31 In. high and 2 ft wide should be provided in this room. Each work station at the counter should have knee space of sufficient width and a base unit with drawers for storing blank slides. All of the counteriopa in theae slide preparation rooms should be resilient and stain-resistant.

For microbiology, a media preparation room should be provided adjacent to the teaching laboratory. Usually the work of a trained technician, media preparation requires space for several items of equipment, including e range or hot platea for cooking the material, an autoclave for sterilizing test tubes end media, a refrigerator for storage of culture media, and often an incubator for testing the sterility of media prior to use. This ares should be dustfree. Wall counters 37 in. high, equipped with base cabinets and air, gas, distilled water and electrical outlets, are needed tooth in the kitchen area end in the area where media are transferred to leat tubes, in the latter, burette stands are normally placed on the counter top,

A fairly large area for glassware washing and atarilization should adjoin the teaching laboratory, Commercial glass-washing and drying machines, an autoclave, and often a hot air aterilizer muat be accommodated, as well as sink and drainboards, space for storing the carts which carry glassware and Petri dishes to and from the area, and a worktable for glassware storage.

Storage rooms for chemicals, glassware, equipment, and other materials are necessary. Among the items of portable equipment which may be used and will require 6pace for storage are water baths, incubators, and spectrophotometry*

An animal holding room where small animals may be held for observation or experimentation completes the list of the larger ancillary areas required in conjunction with this laboratory.

Special Facilities Additional facilities which are of special value for research and teaching in the low-bench disciplines include a cold room and electron microscope setup.

The cold room is essentially a refrigerator room. It contains counter space and sink for work that must be done at low temperatures. Safety door latcl es and warning lights arc mandatory features.

An electron microscope unit requires at least three rooms: one to house the microscope itself, another for slide preparation, and a third —a darkroom —for developing, enlarging, and printing electron micrographs.

High-Bench Disciplines

Teaching Laboratory The disciplines which share the high-benoh teaching laboratory are those for which laboratory work requires that the student stand and move about to perform experimenta- These include physiology (the study of the process of living organisms), pharmacology (the science of drugs), end biochemistry (the study of the chemical compounds and processes occurring in organisms). Laboratory Benches and Arrangement. Laboratory benches are usually 37 in. high. Stools of adjustable height are provided. Except for their height, benches may be similar in design and arrangement to thoso in the tow-bench laboratory. The four-position bench has particular merit because much of the work1 especially in physiology, consists of special projects undertaken by a teem of four students. Work Station at the Bench, The student s work station is also similar to that in the low-bench lab. Each station should have a base cabinet with both drawer and oupbosrd space. Adequate knee room should toe provided, even though students stand a good share of the time.

Hot, cold, and distilled water should be available at each bench poaition. Oas and electricity are also required. In addition, low-voltage direct currant and control circuits should be available from a central panel. Bench Tops. Bench tops should be of stone or of acid-raaistant composition stone because of the reagents uaed in biochemistry. Sit-down Work Area. Low counlers, with resiliant counter tops, and under-counter cabinets are placed along one or more of the laboratory walls. Gas, hot and cold water, air, and electric outlets will be needed, and counter-top sinks should be equipped with knee- or foot-operated valves for hand-washing. Stools with adjustable seats should be provided

Demonstration Area. The demonstration space and equipment are like that of the low-bench lab. In addition» physiology teaching makes extensive use of electric polygraphs and the Van Slyke machines, often to the extent of one to each four students. If the unit laboratory is used, no demonstration area Is necessary since each unit can easily accommodate demonstrations,

Stationary Equipment. Fume hoods —one to every 16 students—should be provided. Because flammable and explosive chemicals are used, the hoods should be inslalled a safe distance from fire exits. Burette stands, approximately 5 ft in length, are used by both biochemistry and pharmacology students. One to every 16 students is an accepted ratio Movable Equipment, A greot variety of movable equipment may be used, A few movable tables of stand-up height may be required for some of the experiments in pharmacology and physiology involving animals Table tops are of laminated wood with a stain resistant finish, and a shelf is provided for storing ammnl boards. In addition, a deep-freeze unit, cenm-fuges, refrigerators, incubators, end much of the electronic apparatus used in physiology are part of the movable equipment used in the laboratory for which space is required, First aid kits and blankets are necessary, although these generally occupy no floor space but are mounted on the wall.

Ancillary Facilities Both biochemistry and pharmacology require a preparation room adjacent to the teaching laboratory for mixing reagents and storing chemicals and glassware. Storage and washing facilities are included in this room. Well counters similar to those in the teaching laboratory and wall cabinets permit this room to be used as a research area during off periods

Each discipline requires storoge and supply areas, some of them special in nature, Special provisions must be made, for example, for storing anesthetics. Although only o limited supply of cylinders holding oxygen or anesthetics should be kept here (additional storage should be allotted al ground level), the storage area should be located along an exterior wall, with floor and ceiling louvers installed to provide gravity ventilation. The room should be locked. For chemical storage areas, fire hazards must be minimized. Narcotics require locked storage. Generally, rooms used to store instruments and equipment should be amply supplied with electrical outlets so that equipment can be used without being removed from the room.

Animal rooms and cold rooms are among the other facilities used regularly in conjunction with the leaching program of the high-bench laboratory.

Special Facilities Many of the special facilities used for research and teaching In the high-bench disciplines require unusual construction or safety features.

The chromatography room is a biochemistry research laboratory where various processes are employed to separata organic substances. In laboratories where paper or column chromatography La performed, fume hoods capable of exhausting toxic or inflammable vopors are required, and the laboratory must be maintained under negative air pressure lo prevent the spread of vapors. Where gas chromatography is used, it must also be possible to seal off the laboratory in the event of fire. Some instruments used in this laboratory depend upon radioactivity as an ionization source; if these are installed, safeguards must be provided, even though the radioactivity level is low.

In the uJtracentrifuga room, another small laboratory often used in biochemistry research, the selection of equipment will largely deter* mine the requirements. Depending upon its anticipated use, the ultracentrifuge may be either electrically powered or air driven. At least port of the housing for this equipment is of heavy armor plate, Additional cooling may be needed in ihe room to offset heal produced by operation of ihe equipment,

Constant-temporature rooms, or controlled* lemperature rooms, as they are sometimes called, are used to house small animals under constant temperature and humidity conditions. The work area in this room usually consists of 31-in,-high counters, with a sink and oullet for gas. air, and electricity. Space may be needed for counter-top food storage. At least one floor dram will be required so that the room may be completely washed down

The space allotted for the radioisotope lab-oratory should be divided into two rooms, the radioisotope laboratory proper (radiochemistry laboratory) and the uptake-measuring room (counting room).

The radiochemistry laboratory is the room where shipments of radioisotopes are received and stored, Here, too, specimens are made ready for examination, and dosages are prepared and administered. Items contaminated with radioisotopes are either cleaned, held for decay of radioaclivity, or stored prior to disposition.

In the counting room, the uptake of the radio-aciive substance is prepared and the radioactive content of specimens is accurately determined. If the counting room is separated from the radiochemislry laboratory by a corridor, the possibility that stored isotopes will interfere wilh counting can be substantially reduced.

The location of the radioisotope laboratory some distance away from x-ray equipment prevents interference with measurements of radioactivity. The basement is usually the besl location, since it simplifies provisions for waste disposal and shielding. In most schools, a basement laboratory will also be convenient to the central animal quarters, and this is highly desirable. If the main radioisotope laboratory is some distance away from these animal quarters, schools may want a separate and specially designed radioisotope laboratory within the animal quarters,

Safety features and special devices are essential to guard against radiation contamination.

Wall shielding is a necessary safeguard against radioactive penetration, and the average building partition will not usually suffice for this purpose. Plastic, wood, or other light material is adequate shielding against beta radiation. Solid concrete or solid brick walls will be necessary for protection against gamma rays.

Interior wall surfaces should always be of a smooth, nonporous material. High-gloas enamel paint is best suited for this purpose, To facilitate decontamination, strippable vinyl plostic or replaceable wall panels are installed near sinks and other critical areas.

The floor in a radioisotope laboratory is usu-ully a concrete slab. The slab must have a protective covering or coating to prevent radioactive contamination from spillage. The floor Should always have a heavy wax coaling, which will fill cracks and serve as waterproofing. Counter tops should be stainless steel, with splash-back trims. Sinks should be made of

observation control landscape screening a ossgurE glass

Fig. 7 Layout o I anatomy laboratory of class size.

observation control landscape screening a ossgurE glass

Fig. 7 Layout o I anatomy laboratory of class size.

»taiiiliiss steel »net equipped with foot or knee controls, Each sink should h»vo two drarn-boards.

Holding tank» must be provided for (he collection of large amount» of radioactiva materials or small amount« of the moro dangerous isotopes

Special radio-chemical fume hoods are necessary Because of the dangers of air movement, hoods should never he placed near windows, doors, or ventilators.

A deluge shower will also he needed.

Anatomy

The Oiss&ction Room Dissection tablas are the basic laboratory equipment, They ore approximately 24 by 7<i in. Aisles at the table sides should be 5 ft wide and those at the ends 3 ft f> in.

Dissection rooms are, as a rule, planned to accommodate full classes. Though class size largely determines room size, space should be allowed to accommodate a few additional tables for use by graduate studentk and fox demonstrations (See Fig 7.)

Good table lighting is essential Often, ad Instable lighting fixtures are attached to both sides of each table If tables are on casteis cleaning of the room will be considerably easier

The dissection room should be equipped with an adequate number of hand basins

Rnumi, industrial sinks are a good choice, since they accommodate more students simultaneously than those of standard design One sink for every four tables is an accepied ratio.

The dissection room should include counter unils with drawers and cupboards for storing students instruments. Storage space should also be provided for such supplies as wood blocks, mallets, arm rests» embalming fluids

Because of the odor of the preserving fluids, air conditioning with a 100 percent air exhaust should be provided in the dissection room.

As the anatomy dissection room is frequently washed down, durable, waterproof flooring is required Providing storage space for the dissection tables will moke it possible to use the dissection room for other purposes.

Ancillary Facilities

Several additional rooms either near or adjacent to the dissection room »re required Storage space for cadavers must bo provided and bone Storage space will also be needed If neuroanatomy is taught in the dissection room, storage for gross specimens must be available, too,

Generally, schools will need sufficient storage capacity for 1,5 cadavers for every four ECS If the school policy is to hold cadavers for one year prior to use, storage requirements will double Cadavers are commonly stored in targe walk-in refrigerators. Because the method of preservation and storage affects ancillary »pace requirements, the system to be used should tie determined early in the programming »tage. and specifics should be worked out with the aid of qualified consultants.

A room equipped for embalming is often provided, though dental schools with access to medical school facilities will probably need only a minimum of space for this purpose, As for final disposal, cadavers are usually cremated. The dental school can either provide its own crematory tor this purpose, share facilities with a medical school, or arrange periodic transfer of cadavers to public Facilities for cremation

Because »t should never be necessary to move cadavers through public areas, facilities for cadaver storage and embalming should be as near as possible to the dissection room, and all three should be located at ground level Wherever practical, loading platforms should open directly into the cadaver storage area to facilitate delivery and removal,

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