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By CHESTER ARTHUR BERRY, Ed.D.

STUDENT UNIONS Organization

Since by definition the term college union he* two meaning» — organization and building —It is necessary to Investigate the nature of each. The organization of students, faculty, end alumni which composes the union usually operates with 0 governing board at its head. This board, which may or may not include representatives of the three groups, is responsible for the operation of the union, although much of the detail is handled by trained staff members and much of the guiding philosophy is originally that of the professional staff. Tha board itself is concerned largely with questions of policy and implements its policies through the work of various volunteer committees end the paid staff of the union.

Tha committees consist almost entirely of students and may or may not include members of the governing boerd. At Michigan State University the following standing committees operate; education, library, merit, outings, publications, publicity, social, and tournament. At the University of Nebraska standing committees for 1950-51 included: general entertain* merit; special aotivitlea; convocations and hospitality; music activities; house and office; public relations; recreation; dance; end budgets, orientation, and evaluation. Regardless of the titles and varying functions, most of the committees serve as the links whioh connect the boarda with the general campua population. The committees plan and execute programs, attending to such details as scheduling, publicizing, decorating, and budgeting. They may choose records for the music library, prints for tha art collection. They may halp in the orientation of freshmen or study a proposed change in furniture arrangement. Thay may run the billiards tournament or a book review hour. The committees, sensitive to campus needs end interests, kaap tha union dynamic, flexible, and busy.

Building

The nature of a college union building varies with each structure, whether approached from either the functional or the physical stend-point. Functionally it is a community center of the first order. It mey be a library, art gallery, art workshop, theater, billiard and bowling room, dance center, scene of concerts and fo-ruma, informal outing and sports headquarters, office building, hotel, public relations agency, ticket bureau, general campua Information bureau, convention headquarters, and post office. The uniqueness of college unions demands custom planning, with the result that, physically, union buildings differ as local situations differ. While the overall purposes of unions remain relatively alike, their functional and structural natures vary.

The functions housed by the union building ideally are thoee needed to make it the focus

Pfenning a Co/leg* Union Building, Teachers College Prs»», New York, I960.

of the recreational, cultural, social, and civic lite on the campus, Needless to say. many ex* isting campus facilities such as the library, art museum, gymnasium, or theater cannot and should not be duplicated in a new union building, but the incluaion of as many such facilities as are feasible is desirabla to assure that tha widest possible range of educational experiences are made available by the union.

Structurally, of course, the union building must house efficiently the facilities required by the union functions while suggesting its purposes by its appearance and design. Its atmosphere should meet tha local requirements, ff the union is considered "the living room of tha campus/" it ie logicel that it reflect the friendliness and warmth of a living room. If tt exists largely to serve as a convention center and ho* telT it might well offer a more formal environment but, it should be pointed out. auch an approach may result in a building and an opera* tlon which do not meet the terms of definition of a college union. Whatever the local requirements may be, it eeems well to remember that much of the activity of a union ie informal In nature and that most of the participation in its activitiea is cerriad on by informal college students. The nature of a collage union building, then, might well be largely informal to reflect the character of the activities which it houses.

The well-planned union building separetea its areas by functions to permit efficient communi* cation, supervision, and operation. It does not place bowling areas next to conference rooms or information desks on upper levels. By separating yet coordinating its components, it continually offers the opportunity for new experiences, so that the walk from the coffee shop to the games area, for example, may lead students pest a music room or by an art exhibit It literally surrounds those who use it with opportunities, and this pervasiveness is a part of the nature of a union.

Facilities and Activities

The diversity of facilities and activities of a union building makes their clossification into a few major categories difficult. Nevertheless, there are some aspects of similarity of use, such as noiso, service, or supervision, which appear to recommend it« The eight classifications include:

1. Administrative, service, and meintenance

2. Food

3. Quiet

4. Theater

5. Hobby

6. Games

7. Outdoor

8. Miscellaneous

Insistence on rigid separation of sctivities into areas Is, of course, fruitless. Thus, lis* tening to records or working on tha college newspaper are hobbies whioh might well take place in the quiet area, and a bridge tournament held in the main lounge would defy cataloging, involving as it does a quiet hobby which Is a game.

Far from definitive, the table merely Indicates the type of program which can fit into each area. Much of the duplication of function which occurs among areas is caused because all facilities are not likely to be found in any union building, with the result, for example, that the ballroom or meeting rooma of a the-starless building may assume many of the functions which are best performed in the theater. Conflicting events also demand alternote expedients, such es showing motion pictures in a large meeting room on dress-rehearsal night or holding a club meeting in a rehearsal room on an evening when meeting rooms are at a premium. The table does not exhaust the flexibility of use by any means. Obviously the small building without cardroom, chess room and ballroom can use its lounges for many of the events listed for those areas. The success and attendance (not necessarily synonymous) of various programs elso determine their locations, so that an exceptional muaic recital might well be held In the theater while a bridge tournement might never require the use of the ballroom.

Not all of tha facilities mentioned are discussed here. Some, such as cooparetive groceries or ice skating rinks, occur so seldom in connection with unions that they can scarcely be considered as union facilities. Others — bookstore, faculty space, hotel unit, swimming pool, university administrative officea, beauty and barber ehops, or chapel —are facilities about which there is widely varying opinion and are usually justified only by local circumstances.

Administrative« Service and Maintenance Areas

A glance at the Classified Facilities Table reveals that union program activities as such are infrequently held in most of these facilities- The program potential of the barber shop and check rooms, for example, is not very high. Closer examination of the table shows that nearly all of the activities are in the nature of services and most of them, in all probability, are performed by paid staff members. If the union board hss its offices located away from the administrative offices, the function of staff members is even more pronounced, since many of the services rendered, such as interviewing and training union committee applicants or oper* ating a talent agency or a date bureau, are carried on in the student offices.

Food Areas

Examination of the Classified Facilities Teble shows thet the variety of food services offered by union buildings equals that of large, modern hotels. They include soda fountaina and grill, cafeterias, private dining rooms, service dining rooms, coffee shops, faculty dining rooms, commutera1 lunchrooms, women's dining rooms, and banquet rooms.

Since the dining service is the main source of union revenue and caters regularly to a large segment of the campua, It is extremely important that tt be planned, constructed, and operated properly.

functionality As In other union building faclll* ties, the functions of the food service areee vary with the inatitutlona. The existence of

Student Unions other asling liicilitios on and oil the campus, Ihe policies nf such facilities {a In carte, five-or seven-day board bills, semester contracts), the location of emitting places ns well as thai of the union building, the prevalence and sirre of conferences and conventions, end the institution's future plans are some of the items which should be considered.

Fond Aiaa Components An all-inclusive union food operation, embracing sods fountain end grill*: cafeteria; private, woman s, faculty, banquet, and service dining rooms; coffee shops: snd commuters' lunchroom Includes many components in common with other food operations elsewhere, since the flow process is hesicslly Ihe same. Such components include receiving, storage, meat cutting, vegetable preparation, cooking, bakery, ice cream, sated, service (cafeteria counter or waitress pantryj, dining, pot-washing, dishwashing, garbage and trash storage, maintenance, employees' facilities, rest rooms, coat rooms, and otfices. Alt unions neither need nor are able to afford such a comprehensive plant, end only the largest ceo use ell components. Certainly few small unions can nflord to hire s butcher lor a meal-cutting room, and many provide only refreshment services through a soda fountain or grillroom.

Receiving The receiving facilities of the food area need not be separate from those for the rest of Ihe union building. If combined to serve all the other arees, thay may permit the employment of s receiving clerk. A central storeroom lor nonperishable items is quits feasible es welt, sod such arrangement may make It possible for even tbe smaller unions to use a receiving clerk-storekeeper- Obviously, both vertical end horizontsl transportation Is needed in such an operation and, since the frequency and perishability of food deliveries are high, tha receiving room should be nssr the food esrvlcs department.

StDiegB Storaga En tha food area includes dry storas or nonperishables, day stores, refrigerated stores, fro»n stores, garbage and trash storsga. Some may include several subdivisions such as freezers for meat, fruit, vegetables, end ice cream or dairy end meat, fruit, and vegetable refrigerators.

Service Areas Tha service areas are directly botwean the various preparation areas and the dining areas in the flow chart. They are usually the places where tha food is placed on tha individual platas and distributed end may take the form of a cafeteria counter, a serving kitchen or pantry, a waitress station, a serving counter in the kitchen, or a station in a short-order kitchen. In this area food must be kept hot or cold and dishes storad. Dispensing of food occurs here for consumption in the dining area. Refinements and vsristions of this besic operation differ according to the type of food ssrvica being offered.

Tha praparad food in larger union buildings may go in several directions from tha central kitchen. Cafeterias, counters, banquet service kitchens, soda fountains, coffee shops, employ, sis' cafeteria courtiers, private and public dining room kitchens, and commuter lunchrooms may all be served from this single area, with auxiliary food preparation completed at the serving scene.

Supplying food to these service arses calls for various kinds of trans portal ion. Cafeterias demand a rather steady stream of food for two or mora hours at s tims, while banquets and private dinners demand that sli parsons be

Classified Facilities Table

Administrative, Service, and Maintenance Offices

Check and coot rooms Informal ion center Bookstore Non-union offices Ticket office Barber shop Beauty shoo Post office Maintenance shop Lobby

Western Union office Shops

Lost end found Fond:

Soda fountain and prill Cafeteria

Private dining rooms Service dining jooms Coffee shop Faculty dining room Co mm u tots' lunchroom Woman's dining room Quiet 1 Meeting rooms Lounges

Music listening room Libratv Guest rooms Dormitory Chapel

Other [acuity space Games: Table lennls room Cardroom Billiard room Hobby:

Photographic studio Art shop Craft shop Theater: Auditorium Stage

Dressing rooms

Shops

Lobbies

Ptpjeclicn booth Outdoor: Cemenl slab Sun decks Picnic areas Miscellaneous Ballroom

Music recital room Music practice loom Television room Convention hall Non-Union: Campus newspapei College yearbook Student governmenl Student radio station

Duplicating at eg Rest topms Janitorial spaces Bulletin hoards Bank

Delivery area Tresh tooms Elevator

Mechanical rooms 5 to rage

Employees' lockets and rest rooms Pey telephones Corridors P-A system

Banquet room

Otfices

Kitchen

Dishwashing toom Garbage room Refrigeration room Trash room

Commuters' lockets Box lunch lockets Commuters' sleeping rooms International canter Student activities area Student organisation otfices An room

Bowling alleys Chess toom

Outing club Ilea [I Quarters Amateur redio transmitter Lending art library

Stage house Costume shop Costume storage Rehearsal room Ticket office Offices

Games Parking

Swimming pool Ice skating rink Cooperative grocery Ski slide

Student amateur radin club Religious advising Outing club Others lorvftd nearly simultaneously Public dining rooms, coffee shops, and soda fountains require more individual service-

Many unions do a brisk take-out business with coffee, sondwiches, and similar refreshment being purchased lor consumption outsido the building. Much of this business occurs late in the evening when food is taken back to living units for consumption during study hours- The soda-fountain-short<-ord»r facilities with their long operating hours and particular menu are best equipped to handle this operation.

Dining Rooms Basically, the function of the dining room is the housing of eaters. If this were its only function, the most economical and efficient way to fulfill it would be achieved by using long tables with stools stored under them and with one large room used for ell eating. Since some of the union's education and service programs are carried out in the dining areas, they must do much more than just house eaters- In addition to eating, such activities as card and chess playing, dances, carnivals, entertainment, concerts or recitals, radio forums, or speeches may occur in them. They may house displays or serve as polling places. Meetings and private parties may take place in some of them, classes in etiquette or home-making in others. In some, conferences or con» ventions for hundreds may be occurring simultaneously with intimate tète-a-têtes in others. Therefore, more than mere feeding stations, the dining rooms are really gathering places for people. They are importent in bringing students, faculty, alumni, staff, and the public together, and they further the unifying concepts of the term union.

The variety of dining facilities found in the larger union buildings attests to the variety of dining functions demanding service. There are the soda fountains or snack bars where s quick bite or cup of coffee may be obtained or where acquaintanceships are made and friendships cemented. This, more than any other single spot on campus, Is apt to be the gathering place. Smoke, juke box music, laughter, conversation and crowds typify it, and informality is its keynote- The coffee shops offer informal dining, with or without table service, for a relaxed meat or casual entertaining; the cafeteria provides the low-priced three meals a day; and the dining room, with its linen, service, crystal, and other fine appointments, is the place for a full-course meat, special date, or folks from home. The banquet hall provides for the numerous student, faculty, and other organizational dinners that occur throughout the year but which abound each spring, and the private dining rooms cater to luncheon or dinner meetings for groups, classes, guests, or others

Quiet Areas

All the quiet areas of the union building need not be connected, but they should be isolated from the noisier sections such as kitchens, workshops, or game areas Actually, quiet areas subdivide quite easily by function to permit separation. Thus, the fiving quarters such as guest rooms, guest dormitories, or commuters' sleeping rooms should be separated from the busier lounges and meeting rooms, and their combination permits more efficient operation, supervision, and housekeeping. Student activity areas (rooms with desks and files not permanently assigned) and student offices (permanently assigned spaces) should be together for ease of communication and supervision. The facilities for day students, if they are distinguished from those normally used by all students, should adjoin each other, including their lunchroom and lounge. The location of meeting rooms near each other permits flexibility of use, easy transfer of furniture and equipment, proper supervision and maintenance resulting from concentration of people, ond economy of time between meetings. Lounges may be spread throughout the building to serve various sections and may vary in kind with the sections they serve

Some of the quiet areas may well be served by separate entrances, included among which could be the chapel, guest quarters, faculty lounge, international center, and student activities and office spaces. Problems of control arise when this situation occurs and it may have some divisive effect on the union, but late operating hours in the newspaper office or guest wing may dictate separation of such areas from the whole building, as may the partial operation of the building during vacation periods.

Music listening (properly soundproofed), library or browsing, and art display rooms can be located together in a sort of cultural center. If this is done, the issuing of records, books, and periodicals and prints from a central location and supervision of that area proves economical. These areas are likely to offer less attraction than the game areas, for example, while supplying experiences of value in broadening the horizons of undergraduates Their location, however, in a fairly prominent spot may encourage more patronage, but since heavy traffic and accompanying noisiness may result, a choice may be necessary between prominence end peacefulness of position

Meeting Rooms Expansibility A glance at the Classified Facilities Table shows a w«de variety of uses to which meeting rooms and lounges may be put and the degree of interchangeability which exists between the functions of the two areas If lounges are not to be used for formal programs but solely for spontaneous, informal use, the number of meeting rooms required is larger than that demanded when the use of lounges permits more flexibility. It seems quite certain, at any rate, that tho meeting room facility will require expansion early.

The need tor many smell meeting rooms doss not eliminate the demand for larger ones Enough of each is expensive and the compromise of dividing large rooms into smaller ones by means of folding or sliding walls is a widely accepted one, even though it is a compromise with faults centering largely around the acoustic problem.

Some small meeting rooms, equipped with tables and seating, may double as conference rooms, and the tables themselves may serve as rostrums for meetings as well as conference tables.

The addition of a small 16 mm projection booth at the end of a meeting room simplifies the showing of motion pictures to small groups and eliminatas much of the need for transporting and setting up equipment in a room where its noise, light and extension cords detract from the film showing. Such a booth, separated from the meeting room by a wall and glass port, can serve many groups and relieve much of the load normally placed on o theatre, particularly if this booth looks into a larger room which may be subdivided

A variety of lounges —men's, women's, faculty, commuters', mixed'—may be included in a union building To a certain extent, the kind of institution involved determines the kinds of lounges which ere desirable. A residential college does not need a commuters1

lounge; a women's college probably finds a mens lounge superlluous, although it may wish to have a room available which can be converted to serve such a purpose on special occasions- The existence and location of a faculty club may determine the desirability of a faculty lounge, and the facilities and entertaining regulations in living units bear on the size and number of mixed lounges. The presence and availability of other lounges on campus should be considered in planning the union building lounges.

Reading Rooms While all colleges have libraries, they seem to be considered primarily places for work, so that much can be done by a union browsing or reading room to stimulate good recreational reading habits on the campus. Avoidance of the "library stigma" may be achieved by using comfortable surroundings with air conditioning, fireplaces, decorative plants, proper lighting, by not numbering the binding of books and by meeting the reading needs through a selection committee- Certainly atmosphere is important if the browsing room is to be the sort of place where students and olhers go for intellectual stimulation or satisfaction, or to while away some time.

The normal functions most likely to be carried out in the browsing room are book, periodical and newspaper slorage, reading and book selection. Books are usually shelved around the periphery of the room, and this area should be separated from furnishings and equipment by an aisle wide enough to permit persons to select their books easily. Periodicals and newspapers require less browsing room and may be incorporated in a lounge arrangement of furniture by use of standard racks, or by storage on coffee or other tables.

Music Rooms Marked changes have occurred in the field of music listening. Record changers, the long playing record, tape recorders, and high fidelity have increased tremendously the interest In reproduced music and have offered unions, among others, a real opportunity for improving the lovel of musical understanding and interest of their students. At the same time, problems of control end usage have been raised since record and tape playing equipment is costly and complex, records easily damaged and the noise potential great enough to transform the so-called quiet areas of the union building Into pandemonium. The whole music listening program must be thought out well in advance because this aspect of the union building is dependent to a very great extent upon the manner in which the program func* tions. Individuals listening to music may do so in booths, small rooms or lounges of varying sizes. They may be using earphones which can disturb no one, commercial combination phonograph-radios, or custom-built high fidelity sets. They may be playing the records themselves or may have requested selections which an attendant is playing from the control point. Records and tapes may be kept with the player and used by anyone, they may be issued by an attendant or they may be private property. Per* sons using record players may be required to pass a test in the operation of the equipment. Planned group listening such as record coffee hours may be hafd in a multipurpose lounge equipped with a player or a speaker from e master system, or they may take place in a music lounge specifically designed for music listening, recorded and live. Economy may demand that listening booths be connected with the reading room where group concerts are held. Obviously, many of these items must be considered before the building is planned, because such items aa conduits, storage racks, acoustics, equipment, furniture, electrical outlets, glazed doors for supervision, nnd cataloging methods determine much of ihe utility of the music room.

Commuters Areas Nonresident studonts at col* leges near or in metropolitan centers afford many problems to unions, a number of which center around their nonparticipntion in most of the union s programs. Their demands on the college naturally differ from those of the residents. They need parking space on the campus, a place to eat a bag or light lunch, storage place for books, lunches, and simitar equipment, a spot for resting or, perhaps, an occasional overnight stay. While the union is not necee-sarily the only location on the campus where such services may be rendered, it seems to be the logical place for many of them. Furthermore, many of the day students are quite likely to eat in the union and to use it as their headquarters, and so it seems logical to plan to meet as many of their demands .as possible in advance. H the union building is to be a unifying factor on the campus, it must be prepared to serve the offtimes large[nonresident]sag-ment of the student body

Guest Rooms Many union buildings contain overnight guest facilities, the extent of which ranges from a single room or suite ihrough large, barracks-like halls to elaborate hotels with full commercial service The facilities may be intended primarily for university guests, such as convocation speakers, for visiting groups such as athletic teams, for parents or returning alumni, for the guests of students or tor conventions. They add to the service aspects of the union building and offer little to its educational program aside from the training the Jerger units Afford to student employees end to students who are majoring in hotel administration. The inclusion of guosl rooms in the union building depends upon many diverse elements, such as present and future neods, facilities existing elsewhere, nearby hotels, curricular development, operating hours, operating costs and other union facilities, and csreful study is indicated. The feet that the Associotion of Cottage Unions lists hotel units among the doubtful facilities to be Included in union buildings should serve to reinforce the need for careful study-

Student Activities Area A student activities area is a space housing a number of desks and filing cabinets which con be used by varying student organizations for a portion of the academic year- Thus groups which do not need an office or room of their own can be accommodated with a minimum of space allocation The number of groups and activities on each campus that might use such an area determine its size, and it appears wise to consider that the existence of such an area might well increase requests for its use, thus making a somewhat oversized original plan advisable.

Theater

Need Like so many other parts of the union building, the theater must be custom-built to suit its campus. It is quite likely thai a union building located near s modern, well-equipped theeter can utilize these facilities for Its program and not need a theater of its own. On the other hand, the demands on such a theater by drematic and other groups may render the theater unavailable for the variety of octivitles which the Classified Facilities Table indicates may be held therein, thus making desirable the inclusion of a theater in the union building. With a well-housed drama program already in operation, ihe theater requirements may be pared down so that nothing mora then an auditorium and platform suits the union's needs-Such a solution appears most questioneble, however, since it provides little more then a forum for speakers, a location for motion pictures ond stage for formal music concerts. Such activities as variety or vaudeville shows, fashion shows, orchestrel end choral concerts, sing contests and dance recitals become difficult to present without proper stage, scenery, dressing, shops, wing and lighting faoilltie*. The use of road shows —ballet, drama, opera, and the like—by the union is obvtaied. It may be that such activities can be housed elsewhere, but (he demands on theaters of dramatic groups for practice and for rehearsal and staging time, of music groups for practice and concert time, of assemblies, meetings and conferences for auditorium time, of departments and organizations for space for motion pictures, lectures and demonstrations, indicate that h close study of ell present demands upon theater fscilitiee be studied and that future possibilities. particularly as suggested by other campuses with adequate union theaters, be considered before plans ere drawn up. Th# place of other existing theaters end assembly halls in the campus scheme of things, including policies governing their use. should be given grave consideration.

A union theater would seem to suit most of its purposes if It houses the roquirements of a fairly orthodox collegiate drama progrem and adds such items as an elevating forestage-orchestra pit: audience access to stage for variety shows, sing contests and the like; fluctueting seating capacity by means of sliding paneis or draperies; reception or lobby lounge; broadcasting facilities; possible combination craft-scenery shops, and still and motion« picture equipmeni to achieve the flexibility which is an earmark of the union building.

To function completely, the union theeter would be composed of:

Auditorium Stage Forestage Orchestra pit Proscenium arch Dressing rooms Scene shop Costume shop Light booth Makeup room Rehearsal room

Projection booth Sound system Screen Stage house Lobby

Ticket office Scenery storeroom Control board Resl rooms Coat room

Lounge or green room

Some of these facilities, such as lounge, coat room, rest room or rehearsal room, may be a part of the union building end serve e double purpose, so that a nearby lounge may be used for receptions or a properly shaped meeting room double for use during live rehearsals

Arts and Crafts Shops

The variety of offerings which the union's shops can provide ie large- Some of these offerings, such as photography, demand specialized facilities and equipment; others, such as leetherwork or jewelry making, require little and can be accommodated in a general shop area. The tools of some crafts may be used in common by participants in other union activities, so that tha scene, maintenance, and woodworking shops may use the same power toola and central materials sourcas and the camera club and campus publications the ssme studios. The size of the union and the university, the organizational scheme and expected use of the various shops would determine the possibility of such a combination. Among the arts and crafts activities which e union might embrace aret

Painting General woodworking

Sketching Picture framing

Block printing Cabinet making

Poster making Metal and jewelry work

Silk screening Ceramics

Clay modeling Drefting

Weaving Photography

Rug making Leatherwork

Drawing Graphic arts

Fly tying Sewing

Plastic work Knitting

While edherents of nearly each art or craft could develop a list of reasons why thair favorite activity should be allocated separate epace and equipment, much of it with special requirements such as north light for sketching or humidity control for clay modeling, enough compromises and combinations can be effected to provide a variety of activities within a reasonable area.

Outdoor Games

The extent to which the games orea should be developed ie dependent in large degree on what is available elsewhere on the campus. The number of games within the union's province which can be played outside might include badminton, bowling on the green, boccie, croquet, curling, clock golf, horseshoes, shuffleboard, table tennis, giant checkers, deck tennis, roque, quoits, and o variety of table gemes such as chess, checkers, or cards.

Integration of Areas

Some union facilities must be located on the street level; others operate most efficiently on other levels. There are strong reasons for placing food services, information center, bookstore, ticket offices, ballroom, and administrative offices on the ground floor, while other areas such as publication offices or student activity offices may be in less eccessible locations Guest rooms, which receive relatively little iraffic and funclion batter in quiet, fit nicely into higher floors and more remote wings. The task of putting Ihe various elements of a union building together so thet each fulfills its own function while complementing that of the others is nearly certain to demand com* promises Realism may dictate that such revenue-producing facilities as a bookstore or soda fountoin take precedence in location over e music room or browsing library, even though it may be educationally desirable to expose, at least by propinquity, those entering the building to the latter rather then ihe former Traffic to the most popular areas of the union building should not be so directed that it causes great crowds of people to throng its passages and stairways to the disturbance of other sections and to the detriment of building maintenance. Some seldom-used facilillas, such as a ballroom or hobby shop, may finally be placed on the top floor because there is no room olsewhere for them.

Segregation by Function Whenever practical, areas should be separated by function, as previously described in the section on game rooms, where supervieion, instruction, and equipment control for all were made possible. Such areas may assist others in llteir functions whan properly located and so, while complete in themselves, they can nevertheless help and be helped by others. Thus, a self-contained game area receives players from a nearby coffee shop, and the presence of such a shop induces gamesters to stop for refreshments when leaving. It is tv be hoped that persons walking by a corridor case containing a craft display might be interested in utilizing the out-of-the-way hobby shop,

Some principles in combining the elements of the union building into an entity are elementary. The games area is noisy and should not be next to sleeping rooms or private dining or meeting rooms. Kitchens demand considerable delivery, removal, and storage, hence they should be near driveways, storeroom«, and receiving spaces. The information center should be near the main entrance- The theater should have its own exits and entrance and is probably be si situated in its own wing. Similar or related activities may suggest combinations such as the ballroom-banquet room or t heat reradio station- The browsing, music, and art rooms can be worked into a unit which is serviced and supervised by one central control or which, al least during rest periods or emergencies, can be satisfactorily administered by one person.

The kitchen should connect with the ballroom and with certain of the lounges and meeting rooms, even if only by conveyors or elevators, to provide adequate service for receptions, coffee hours, intermission refreshments, and, possibly, banquets. Thus, those areas served by the kitchen but not on the same level must be vertically aligned with it if they are to be serviced by a dumbwaiter.

Public Spaces So far, then, the food areas are best located largely on the ground level with the games rooms no! too remote from the refreshment area and with some meeting rooms and lounges directly above the kitchen. The theater crowds at intermission may use the refreshment service il it is not too far distant, hence this wing, which offers some meeting space while sometimes needing additional reception and rehearsal room, might well ad join the foot-meeting-room section. A review of this portion of the building so far reveals it to be a busy place with many persons using it for eating, meeting, and theater work. Service facilities such as coat rooms, toilets, and public telephones ore needed, and multipurpose lounges prove valuable. If the costume and ettage shops or« to hove any connections with the hobby shops, the latter must be included in this section of the building. By the same token, if the darkroom facilities are to be used by the campus publications, these offices might well be located here.

Reception Center The main entrance, lobby, and information desk go together. In ttome union buildings the information center includes ticket, cigarette, and other sales, a fost and found service, and, possibly, some office functions.

Figures 1-21 are reprinted from Planning College Union Facilities for Multiple-use, Association of College Union»—International, Madison, Wisconsin, 1966.

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