Id) L snooE

Mill lei Multiform

(g) Porallel sectirtg

Fig 1 (com ) Id) L-ihape — expandable. St. Jirtin-Viannay, Ftudiii«. N.Y. (el Multiform. Mount Snow Chapel, Wilmington Vt. (f) Multifocal. Thomai Kerk Riformad Chutch, Amaterdam, The Hathartamlt. Karal Sitnnni. Archi tact Is) Pataflei tasting. Dtihndoi Synagogue, Lakewuod, N.J. 0mi». B ratty, & Wuntewtki, Arsbiteelt lagand for Fig. I

















17 ARK

if) MullifCJCui them ore numerous entrances, which are related to parking areas.

A fairly large congregation <600) is accommodated without a gymnasium ' effect or very large structural spans. Many times the cruciform ptan is chosen less for the inherent symbolism thai* for the smaller scale imparted to the building exterior.

Genital Plans based on the concept of an encircling congregation are to be found in quite ancient churches- Liturgical reevaluation has generated renewed interest in this concept in addition to the previously discussed problem concerning loss of eye contact by the preacher, certain nonreligious activities taking place in the church may also suffer. Not all the seats will have good viewing angles for motion pictures or slides. Likewise, a lecturer may also find an audience distributed for a span of 270 around the lectern an unusual condition

Nevertheless, the sense of Intimacy and oneness is very great and may overcome all objections. While the accompanying example (Fig. 1c) is hexagonal, many geometric forms ure possible. The portion of iho space not utilized for seating in this example is used for support facilities There is the immediate problem that the external form is not internally complete, and this can be a grave fault- The architect should be equally concerned about the deleterious effect on a clearly expressed worship space form when a multitude of small support facility spaces are ' tacked on.

"L" or "T" Expandable As stated previously, the varying requirements for worship space sealing have caused a variety of plans thnt are expandable to be developed. The moat compelling argument for this type of plan is thai the space can be tailored to the number of participants. Unfortunately, this argument has resulted in the building of many churches that are flexible, but in which those who worship in the overflow area feel like outsiders. The ceiling height, floor and wall finish, and lighting of the expansion space should be in harmony with those of the smaller worship area to which It is joined. Worshipers in the expansion space should not gel the feeling thai ihey are looking through a doorway. Undoubtedly the best approach is to design the tola! worship area and then to introduce dividing partitions.

Figure I d illustrates a church for over 600, of which only 120 are accommodated in the permanent chapel. The expansion space is sized for basketball, with a small siege platform at one end. The orientation of the seats is deliberately reversed from performance to worship. The enclosed garden visible from the chapel in related more to the expansion space than to the chapel, The altar is rotated depending on the size of the congregation.

Multiform Current interest is focused on a rather random deployment of tha congregation around the altar platform. The plan then reflects this arrangement by articulating each group of pews. This nonrigid plan is informal and invites Innovation if a movable altar platform and seating are used

Figure la is the plan of a small inlerfaith chapel with parking on two sides and vesting space for the three chaplains, Fairly conventional wood framing is supported on columns so located as to avoid interference with viewing angles.

Multitocus A relatively new liturgical innovation has been included in the illustrations since it may develop into a significant plan form. Here the thought is to move the focus of interesl with the liturgical actions around the space. Fixed seating is not compatible with this approach, nor is it likely to be used for large congregations because of the possibility of confusion.

The Dutch church plan (Fig. If) shows the seating used for preaching and singing, with a large standing space about the communion table for that pari of ihe service.

Parallel Seating While not entirely unique In the history of church design, parallel seating Is not a common arrangement. As illustrated in the synagogue plan (Fig. l_f/|, this approach is worthy of thoughtful examination. The problem of expansion is also neatly solved

Organ and Choir Location

For many years, the choir has been located in the church either in monastic fashion before the altar or in the voice of angels position in the choir loft Due in no small part to the relocation of the altar so that the celebrant can face the congregation, the choir location is being rethought.

Possibly just as worship service is losing its performance quality, so too the choir is being asked to lead the congregation's singing rather than to perform before it. Hence locations of

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