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TABLE I Spatial Requirements tar Various Types ol Theatrical Productions

General Acting a tea characteristics siie Shape

Pageant end symphonic drama Dramatic episodes. orocessiens, marches. Ftom 2,000 to 5.000 so It. depending Rectangular with espect ratio between

(lances, end ctowd scenss Masses of on the scale of the pageant 1 10 3 and 2 to 3.

performers Engaged in simple but si pensive movements beloia vary large audiences

Grand opera

Vaudeville, is vue

Dance

Musical: folk opera, operetta, musical comedy, musical drama

Large numbers ot performers on the actrng area at one time; often mote than one hundred in big scenes end finales. Movement is martial precessions end group dances end the costumes are elaborate Soloists perform downstage center, close to the tootlighis but within the bounds of the conventional oroscenium. pnncipels play twosome and group scenes in the area neat I he audience, and choruses and supernumeraries requite space upstage The ballet and the chorus of soldiers, pilgrims, peasants, or whet not, sometimes fill the entire acting stea The performance Is viewed objectively by the audience end does not benefit by intimate contact between performance and audience

Vaudeville end tevue emphasize the human scale Although the vaudevillian keys his performance lor the last row in the gallery, Ihe form is characterized by intimate direct relationship between performer and audience: monologues straight to the from, confidential asides to Ihe front row, and audience participation in illusions. Other acts {acrobatics, etc I are played across Ihe line of audience vision for ma«imum at!eel. Graceful and expressive movements of human figures in designed peItems, chiefly in two dimensions bul with the thitd dimension introduced by leaps and carries Dccasionel elevetion ol parts of the siege floor Singles, duets, trios, Querists, groups The movement demands maximal cleet stage soace

These lofrns embody on a smaller scale Ihe production elements of gtend opera, plus a certain freedom and a Quest tor novelty which encourage Ihe d eve lop-menl of now performance devices Close audience contact of soloists end specialists is borrowed tram vaudeville and revue Big scenes involve many dancers, singers, and showgirls, often with spBCe-filhng costume and movement, fifty people on stage at one time is not unusual

Minimum: 1,000 sq ft Usual About 2,500 so It Reasonable maximum 4.000 so ft

Minimum: 350 so ft Usual About 450 so ft Reasonable mexrmum 700 sq It

Minimum 600 sg It Usual About 1.200 so It Reasonable maximum I.BOO sq ft

Quadtilateiel with an aspect ratio between 1 to 2 and 2 to 3 Sides converge toward the beck of the stage, following the sight lines from Ihe extieme laterel positions.

Rhomboid with aspect ratio about 1 to 3 Sides converge toward heck ol stage following the sight lines from the extreme lateral seats

Proscenium:

Rhomboid with aspect ratio between 1 to 2 and 2 to 3 Sides convetge toward the back of the stage following the sight lines from Ihe extreme lateral seats

Arena

Circle, square, ot rectangle 13 hv 4 aspect ratio! at ellipse 13 by 4 aspect ratio).

Anything under 700 sg ft it constricting Rhomboid with espect ratio about 3 to 4 Reasonable meximum 1,200 sq ft May protect into and be surrounded by audience lopen stage ot atone) since Irontal espact ol pertoimers has minimal and strece-filling duality has maximal significance

Allongement

Proscenium

Orchestra

Co mm sut

Long dimension of acting aiea pel pen dicular ID general sight line. Audience entirely on one side, elevated to perceive two-dimensional movement Large openings at ends and in side opposite audience 101 processions, gtoup an nances and exits Some elevation ot portion ot act in o area apposite audience, purely for compositional reasons

Long dimension perpendicular to the general sight line Audience elevated to perceive two-dimensional movement

Either no proscenium with performers entering the "pageant field" from beyond the lateral sigh! lines, or structural or natural barriers to delineate the side limits of the acting area and conceal backstage apparatus and activity "Curtains" of sliding panels, lights or lountains tor concealing the acting area, often the concealment is by blackout only

Space for 100 musiciens between audience and acting area Conductor must see performance.

Primarily an outdoor form, it is often staged in makeshift or adapted theatres, utilizing athletic fields and stands ot natutal amphitheatres A tew permanent pageant theolies have heen bmli

Width equal to the long dimension of the acting area

Pit far GO to SO musicians Conductor must have good view ot anion

Movement in two dimensions in aclmg area is a significant visual component, predicating elevation of I he seating area [0 make this movement visible

Long axis ot the acting area perpendicular to the optimum sight line Audience grouped as close as possible to the optimum sight line The ioiBslatje is an essential part of the acting area; steps, ramps, and runways into the house are useful

Widlh egual to the long dimension ot the acting area. Flexibility is to some advantage in revue hut ot Irttte value in vaudeville

Music and music cues closely integrated with both vaudeville and revue pel tor motices Pit space lor from 15 to 30 musicians Conductoi and percussionist must have good view ot the action

Most of Ihe visual components ot vaude ville end revue are such that they ate perceived best in the conventional audience-performance relationship The comic monologist who must confront his audience is defeated by the open stage and arena arrangements

Neatly souate acting area so thai dance patterns may be arranged >n depth and movement may be m many directions including along Ihe diagonals Many dance figures reauire circular movement. Many entrances desirable, especially from Ihe sides of the acting area

Proscenium.

Long axis at acting ate a perpendicular to the optimum sight line Mechanized mobility of structural parts to prpduce changes in acting area artongement are desirable. Forestages. sides I ages acting atea elevators.

Arena:

Numerous wide entrances lor actors and stage hands via the aisles or through tunnels under Ihe seating banks Ramps preferable to stairs ot steps Experimentation possible in rendering stage flexible by lifts, and in development ot Hying systems over the acting area

Proscenium not leally necessary, though useful es concealment for lighting instruments and dancers awaiting en trances, other devices such as pylons, movable panels, and curtains may be substituted

Usually as wide as the acting area, but should be adaptable to changes in the arrangement of the acting area described in the preceding column

Arena None

Music almost always accompanies dancers For dance as part of opera oi musical show, orchestra is in pit For dance as specific performance, as in battel. orchestra may be in remote location and music piped in Maximum orchestra for dance: BO musicians in pit for classical ballet Minimum one dtummer _

Music an integral auditory component, sometimes integral visually Elevating orchestra pit to accommodate from 20 to 40 musicians

Arena

Orchestra pi I beside the acting area parellal to long axis and opposite principal entrance This unavoidably imparts a performer orientation toward the orchestra end favors the seats in that general direction

Oence in its various manifestations is the performance form best suited to the open stage or arena since it possesses the least amount of lecial-expiession significance and the gteBtesi amount ol movement and pattern in two or three dimensions Elevation ot the audience to perceive best the patterns ol dance is desirable______

The assumption hy ballet Pi a greater shore in the performance ot musical comedy indicates I be need for a high general sight line fiom ihe eudience A phenomenon of the last 20 summers has been the growth ot the musical theatre arena under canvas by which huge audiences have been enabled to see revivals of standard end Broadway musicals at popular prices though with general reduction of scenic investiture to that which is possible in the arena form The movement has heen economically feasible and generally profitable

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