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Laboratory annual workload of 40,000 lo 75.000 teals, The estimated technical staff required to handle this workload is 4 to 7 medical technologists, based on the annual workload per technologist (Tables 1 and 5), The nontechnical staff would include one or more laboratory helpers in the glass washing and sterilizing unit and a secretary to handle the administrative work. This plan provides lor a laboratory department having a full-time pathologist. 11 is assumed that a histology unit will be needed.

A laboratory service performing a yearly volume of 40,000 to 75,000 tests requires the same types of technical units as one that handles 70,000 to 120,000 laboratory tests. The space requirements for ihe technical work areas of the units are reduced, however, because the workload is less and fewer technologists are needed. (See Fig. 1/j.)

Technical, Administrative, Auxiliary Areas. The plan provides four laboratory modules where the technical procedures performed include hematology, urinalysis, biochemistry, histology, and seroiogy-bacteriology. Only the biochemistry unit is reduced in area because of less work and simpler procedures. The decreased work volume in the other units does not warrant further reduction of their work areas

The principle ol having equipment such as centrifuges, refrigerators, and recording desks close to the working unit which is to use them was followed as in Plan A

Because of the decreased workload, the working area and the space for clerical personnel also are reduced,

The glass washing, sterilizing, storage space, and technicians' locker facilities also are reduced.

Plan D presents a design which might be used for a laboratory service in a small hospital It allots the same areas for the technicol. administrative, and auxiliary service units that Plan B provides, but the total square footage is less However, more difficulty is encountered in providing as efficient a relationship between the administrative and auxiliary services and the technical laboratory units as in the plans for larger departments (See Fig. 2.)

Plan C a suggested plan for a general hospital laboratory service handling an annual workload of from 20,000 to 30,000 tests The estimated technical staff required to handle this workload is 2 to 3 medical technologists, based on the workload per technologist and the annual volume of tests (Tables 1 and 2) The nontechnical staff would include one laboratory helper and a clerk-typist (See Fig. 1c.)

The utilization of the standard laboratory module previously described permits even the small laboratory to be divided into technical, administrative, and auxiliary service work areas where the technologists may work in ┬źn area designed for the specific task.

Because of the decreased workload in a laboratory of this size, it is feasible to combine the hematology, bacteriology, and serology units by providing half a module for hematology and the other half for bacteriology and serology. A second module is provided for urinalysis and biochemistry, storage space, end refrigerator Only the more common and simple laboratory procedures would be done in these units

A glass washing and sterilizing area is provided directly opposite but apart from the technical work areas.

The administrative area provides a small waiting room where a clerk-typist receives patients and laboratory requests and specimens. In this area, a room is also provided for performing basal metabolism tests and

Fig. 2 Plan D alternate plan (40.000 to 75,000 feitt annually).

Fig. 4 Diagram of piping behind laboratory workbenches.

electrocardiograms. This room olso can be used for obtaining blond specimens from ambulant patients.

Utility Sorvices

The utility service systems required in the operation of the loboratory include water, waste, gas, vacuum and compressed air. Because of the importance of these systems, the need for continuity of service, and Ihe probability of future expansion, careful study is necessary in designing them for safety and efficiency

Piping systems should not be exposed because they create housekeeping problems as dirt collectors and may be hazardous; many are noisy and unsightly. They should be located where they will be easily accessible for service and repairs with a minimum of disruption of normal laboratory services. A sufficient number of valves, traps, and cleanout openings should be installed and should be located so as to permit maximum use of the facilities during repairs.

Laboratory benches are usually placed at right angles to and adjoining outside walls to effectively utilize space. This location of the benches simplifies, to some extent, the arrange* merit of the piping systems by installing vertical lines in the outside wall and mounting the horizontal piping on this wall This arrangement is particularly advantageous for the waste vent stacks which must be carried vertically lo the roof, Removable panels between the bench islands on the outside wall provide easy access to the main piping systems and sec-

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