Fig. 15 Spatial disposition for informal hearings, basad an document transfer judge
attorney attorney reporter
Fig. 16 Spatial disposition for informal hearings, bated on a total communication system shape, but where witnesses and a reporter do not attend,, a flexible furniture arrangement permits parties and their representatives to be moved closer to the judge.
To emphosize his role, the judge's bench should be raised, but not so high as to prevent informality in ihe proceeding. Since all participants remain seated when speaking, it is sufficient for the judge la be one step above the eye level of the other participants, The nonencroachment distance between attorneys and the judge and between the witness and attorney during examination should be maintained at a minimum of 5-6 feet.
Ideally, there should be three separate points of access into the informal hearing room, as shown in Fig. 17. The judge and the court stoff, offices of cou<~t staff chambers ont) c onfler ence roo m judge
erlwute and security oreos
attorney ^ ot+ofn parties end attorneys' conference and space
Fig. 17 Access to the informal hearing room from related spaces
Isolation attorneys lounge jury sequestering facilities attorneys lounge jury sequestering facilities
Fig. 18 Interspatial movement pattern for ancillary functions
|U ry sequester, ng facilities including the clerk and the court reporter, should have separate private entrances into the raom. The attorneys and the parties can enter either from their waiting spaces or from the public watting space. Witnesses involved In informal hearings do not normally require isolation, so seating space could be provided for them within the room.
Several ancillary functions primarily identified with trials and hearings may also have some relation to other court functions. Conferences between attorneys and parlies call for conference room*. Attorneys should be able to relax and work in the privacy of an attorneys" lounge, while the public and news media should have separate facilities. When witnesses are isolated, they are the responsibility of the bailiff and must remain in witness isolation spaces until called to testify. Temporary detention of the accused or defendant in detention facilities is the responsibility of the law enforcement officers, but the security and safety of jurors during jury deliberation and sequestering are the responsibility of the bailiff.
Analysis of movement among these activities shows their relative importance to be in the following descending order: trial and hearing, waiting, working and relaxing, public waiting, conference, news reporting, jury deliberation, detention, witness isolation, and jury sequestering.
Figure 18 shows the interspatial movement pattern for ancillary functions. Witness isolation and jury deliberation and sequestering spaces should be located in close proximity to the witness stand and lo the jury box, respectively. The other ancillary activities are related to each other and should be grouped together near the courtroom. The attorneys' lounge should preferabty have a separate access into the courtroom and be readily accessible to the detention space. In addition, the detention space should be close to the defendant's station in the courtroom, with direct access. Press facilities should be located near the courtroom and reasonably near the conference and waiting spaces. The public waiting space should provide access to the conference and waiting spaces, press facilities and the attorney!' lounge, as well as to the public observation space In the court room. If audiovisual devices are used, however, the public observation space does not have to be located in the courtroom. Tabfe 2 shows unit space requirements for each ancillary activity both on a per person basis and as modules for minimum requirements.
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