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Fit. 4 Déferont ways of dividing up Bitiihrlion spate

Fig. 5 In 1942. M-Oi van dm Roho devoted a amu' dual of attention in the theoielical jesnjn ol ■ museum lor a small tin tn provide h letting tm Picasso's painting Guernica The building it designed to tie as fteiible as possible, consisting simply ol a Hoot slab, columns, roof plate, freestanding partitions and anterior walls of glass.

I ho relative"nbsenct) ol etchitectuie" intensifies the individuality nl each wotk pi an and at the sama time inept (lotatps it info the ontiie design.

One of the muteum'i original features ii the auditoiium which consists of I tae-«ending p anil ions and an acoustical dropped coiling.

"Two openings in the raof plate {3 and 7j admit light into an innat court (J| and into an open passage (3). Outer waiis 14] end those ol the innat court ate of glass On the eitetior. free standing walls at stone would define outer courts {1} end terraces [191. Office« (2) and wardrobes would be free standing. A shallow lecaued atea 15) is provided, around the edge of which small groups could sit lot informal discussions. The auditorium [■} it defined by Ireenanding walls providing facilities lot lectures, concern and intimate loimel discuisiom. The form of these walls and the shell hung above the stage would be dictated by the acoustics The Meat of the auditorium is tecassad in steas of seat height, using each stap as a continuous bench Number [61 is the print department and a space for special eihibKs. Number 19) is e pool." IFttsm P. C Johnson, "Mies vari rtef Rotis," Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1947.1

Monotony also results when a number of rooms follow one another in a straight line. Evan where this cannot be entirely avoided, tho rooms should be so constructed that the doors are riot opposite one another, providing a "telescopic" view through the building. An uninterrupted prospect of the long route ahead is usually found to have a depressing effect on visitors.

There are, however, undoubted advantages in being able to see into several rooms at the same time; it is a help, for instance, in directing visitors, and for security purposes,

On the other hand, by varying tho positions of the doors wo are also able to place the visitor, from the moment of his entrance, at the point chosen by the organizer of the display as the best for conveying an immediate and striking impression of its general contents, or for giving a view of the most important piece in that particular room, In principle, the door should be placed in such a way that a visitor coming through it will see the full length of the opposite wall. It is therefore not advisable for it to face a window, since the visitor will then be dazzled just as he comes in.

With regard to the shape and size of (he rooms. I have already pointed out that dimensions should be varied so as to stimulate the attention of the public and should also be adapted to the size of the exhibits.

I ought perhaps to repeat here, for the sake ol clarity, that the form and size of the rooms will also depend to some extent on the lighting system chosen, Overhead lighting allows greater diversity of shape (rectangular, polygonal, circular, etc.) because the lighting can always be arranged on a scale to suit the room, ObJong rooms, divided by partitions to a certain haight, but with one ceiling and skylight, should however be avoided; this system has proved unsatisfactory both from the aesthetic and from the functional points of view,

The prectice of rounding off the corners of rectangular rooms is also going out of fashion, as it has been found that the advantage of unbroken walls and the impression of better use of light in a more compact space ore offset by the resultant monotony, and that the general effect is not pleasing to the eye, Lateral lighting requires shallow rooms, their walls set at an oblique angle to the source of light. But the larger the windows, the more difficult it becomes to prevent light from being reflected in the works pieced against the opposite wall. It is undeniably difficult to give a pleasing appearance to these osymmetrical rooms; the taste of a fine architect is needed to give them character and harmony, either by careful attention to spatial proportion or by the use of different colors for the wells and ceiling.

Theoretically, (he door between two laterally tit rooms should be pieced near the waif next to the windows, because otherwise the two walls meet in a dark corner where nothing can be exhibited. But if the daylight is admitted not through a vertical or comparatively narrow window, but through a "ribbon" of glass running the whole length of the well, the problem is not the soma. In this case the two end walls, meeting the outside wall from the normal direction, or at a slight angle, will be well lit throughout their length; the doorways can therefore be placed at the furthest extremities, thus adding to the effective depth of the room.

One important fact should be remembered when the shape of the rooms is being decided. A square room, when it exceeds a certain size (about 23 sq ft), has no advantage over an oblong one, either from the point of view of cost (roof span) or from that of the use of space in the satisfactory display of the exhibits, expecially if they are paintings.

It is sometimes found advisable to place a work of art of outstanding interest and exceptional value in a room by itself, to attract and concentrate the greatest possible attention. Such o room need be only large enough to accommodate a single work; but there must always be enough space for the public to circulate freely. Galleries intended for permanent exhibitions may, on the contrary, be of considerable size, though it is never advisable for them to be more than about 22 ft wide, 12 to 18 ft high, and 65 to 60 ft long.

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