an the basis of districts which are generally shown on maps and explained in an accom panying text (Fig 2),
Usbs may be designated or, for example, residential, commercial, manufacturing, and, in some cases, park or recreational. Mixed uses are frequently allowed, and for large housing projects it is considered advantageous to incorporate retail shopping, entertainment, and dining facilities into a program.
Location of buildings is controlled in order to prevent oppressive proximity of building masses. Formulas or diagrams which relate to variables such as building height and density are applied to locate buildings with respect to property lines and/or one another - (See Figs 3 and 4.)
Don sit y regulations limit the number of people per site-area unit. The basis fur density determination will vary from regulation to regulation. Density may range from a low of ten or fewer people per acre in tow-density districts to a high of up to 1,500 or more per acre in the highest-density districts.
Physical characteristics of a site may impose limitations on a huilding program; therefore an early analysis of site data and conditions should be undertaken by the architect in order to ascertain and evaluate such limitations.
Borings and samples taken at the site will provide information regarding location and extent of rock, bearing capacity of the subsurface strata at various levels, and the level of a water table.
A survey indicating boundaries, contours, or spot elevations is necessary and, in the case of difficult sites, such a survey may indicate terrain and other conditions which will strongly influence design decisions. Limita* lions imposed by difficult terrain —in addition to those imposed by local laws or ordinances — may limit such items as location of driveways and parking entrances.
Availability, adequacy, and location of site utilities enter into basic decision making. A
Figure 5 diagrams possible relationships among site layout elements which normally occur in apartment development. As suggested by the diagram, it is desirable to limit cross traffic among circulation elements such as vehicular access and pedestrian access and to maintain proximity or easy access among activity elements such as the dwelling unit, recreation, and parking.
The relationships may be horizontally or vertically arranged, depending on density or tightness of a site. Emphasis on the importance of certain relationships may vary with the program; however, the basic elements and relationships remain. Figure 6 shows examples of different arrangements of the site elements arrangements which reflect program density relative to site area.
Figure 7 diagrams various means of building access and internal circulation, each with different advantages and degrees of suitability to specific design solutions.
Bufk is frequently controlled by floor-area ratio, which limits total buildable floor area as a multiple of the site area- In contemporary zoning regulations, floor-area ratio for apartment buildings will range from a low of 1 or less to a high in the range of 14 to 18 in dense metropolitan areas.
Building codes are less regional and vary less than zoning regulations. Many localities adopt national or stale building codes as their standard. Such codes are concerned with health and safety requirements such as light and air, access, egress, construction standards, minimum dimensional standards, fire detection and protection, and fire equipment access. '
Similar to zoning and codes and equally important in many cases are governmental agency standards, which apply when public or semi-public funding sources are involved or mortgage standards if private funding is involved
The need for a thorough initial investigation and continuing review for conformance with controls imposed by toning, codes and agencies cannot be overemphasized-
Natt> Local fire departments end tire insurance groups may exert more restrictivo controls than the abuve-mentionnd codes
building or buildings may be located so as to minimixe expensive service runs Inadequacy or unavailability of certain services may require on-site generation or disposal facilities.
Large-scale residential developments involve special problems and opportunities. Closing or rerouting of streets wholly wilhin a project is frequently undertaken and can free up area, eliminate restrictions of a street grid pattern, and generally change the scale and feeling of a project When through streets within a project are closed or otherwise restricted* compensatory widening and improvement of peripheral roads is usually in order not only to oflset the effect of the closings but also to accommodate the increased traffic ffow generated by the project itself. Similarly, shutting down a utility line and adding to demand generally requires compensatory improvement.
Building orientation may be influenced by a number of factors such as site, view (desir* able or undesirable), sun, and prevailing winds. Closely interrelated to building orientation is the question of internal circulation and floor layout of the building. Figure ft indicates how different layouts lend themselves to solutions of site problems.
BUILDING CONFIGURATION floor Shape and Size
The shape and size of an apartment buildup can hove significant Influence on tha cost anil consequently the feasibility of a project.
The shape of the repetitive lyfiic:il floors influences the cost of constructing and enclosing the floors. For purpose* of economy and efficiency, building shape should bo eucli that axpen*ive anterior walls are minimized in
Fig. 4 Building spacing and locution diagram.
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