Site pi anning in its narrow sense involves the disposition of space for appropriate uses; the positioning of structures to provide effective relationships (well-proportioned mosses with attractive outlooks and good orientation); the provision of access to structures in an expeditious, attractive, and safe manner; the design of Ihe services, walks, streets, parking facilities, drainage, ond utilities; the preservation of the natural advantage of the site, and its enhancement by landscaping.
In its larger sense, site planning involves consideration of the site in relation to the physical pattern and economic growth trends of the larger areo of which it is a part. An analysis of the area should be mode based on population growth, family formations, family size, housing inventory, income levels, schools, taxes and assessments, transportation ond traffic patterns, and directions of growth. An analysis of site development costs should be made in terms of densities, housing types, construction types, topography and grading, and local requirements with regard to zoning, subdivision regulations, and utility services. This analysis may be made as a basis for site selection or as a basis for determining the most appropriate use of a particular site. For large sites Involving several types of housing, commercial or industrial uses, schools, and churches, more extensive analyses may be necessory. For small sites forming parts of neighborhoods already established, the analysts need not be as comprehensive.
A subdivision site plan can be made for a complete community, involving all types of land use found in a typical town or village, or for a neighborhood, usually considered to be a homogeneous area large enough to support an elementary school, or for a segment of o neighborhood. The
Fig, 1. Principles of neighborhood planning
1. Size. A residential unit development should provide housing for that population for which one elementary school is ordinarily required» its actual area depending upon its population density,
2. Boundaries. The unit should be bounded by arterial streets sufficiently wide to facilitate traffic by-passing the neighborhood instead of passing through it
3. Open Spaces. Small park and recreation space, planned to meet the needs of the particular neighborhood should be provided.
4. Ifisiitution Sites. Sites for the school and other institutions having service spheres coinciding with the limits of the unit should be suitably grouped about a central point or common, and combined with the neighborhood recreation area, usually,
5. Local Shopping Center If warranted by the population to be served the local convenience shupping facility should be located at the edge preferably at an arterial traffic junction and adjacent to similar commercial districts, if any, of adjoining neighborhoods.
6. Inten/al Street System. The unit should be provided with a special street system, each highway bt-ing proportioned to its probable traffic load, and the street net as a whole being designed to facilitate circulation within the unit with good access to main arteries, and to discourage its use by through traffic.
Sites are provided for parks, playing fields and recreational areas.
Church sites are provided in convenient locations. There is a central shopping area, with off-street parking. Two school sites are provided, reasonably accessible from all parts of the neighborhood. The Catholic school is off-centre because it also serves adjacent neighborhoods.
"Through" arterial highways, of adequate width, are separated from local service roads by limited access planted strips. Thus both "local" and "through" traffic are safeguarded. There are feeder roads for bus routes. Local residential streets are designed in such a way as to discourage "through" driving, yet remain adequate for local purposes.
At the corners of the area, there are intersections designed to keep "through" traffic moving. One-family housing is created in an aesthetic as well as a functional setting. Set-backs are arranged to allow for a "rhythmic variation". A buffer strip separates housing from an adjacent industrial zone.
There are also apartments and row housing in a variety of types. A neighborhood "focus" of larger buildings and open space is included as an essential ingredient of a well-designed residential area.
Fig. 2. Example of well planned neighborhood
Courtesy Urban Land Institute
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How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.