evaluation, training, and placement: the sheltered workshop (or rehabilitation workshop) is part ot this area, and in some cases, certain aspects of special education will be included-The vocational program is determined by the needs of the patients and the needs and opportunities of business and industry in the community served by the center. This program is a most important part of the patient's total rehabilitation process, (See Fig. 16.)
This area has the responsibility of acquainting the patient with situations in industry or in business and ol preparing him for Job competition Realistically designed workshops and offices will be required to create a job situation atmosphere for the palient.
This area should present to the patient a very w»de range of job possibilities Few centers wilt contain an extensive number of job .situations; some may have none if this need has been satisfied through the cooperation of a trade school or some other agency Patients should not be trained for jobs which they cannot obtain later-
Changing typos and techniques in industry make it essential that this area have maximum flexibility, especially in heating, ventilating, plumbing, lighting, electrical installations, and equipment placement. The vocational area must offer trammg in small segments of ■ job operation and present advanced types of vocational opportunities.
Vocation*! counseling provides an opportunity for the patient to obtain an understanding of his vocational abilities and potential, and to learn the scope of their possible application. The center may choose to work with cooperating counselors already established in the community. H it does not provide this service within the center. Sometimes counselors are loaned to centers by the State Vocational Rehabilitation Agency and conduct their work at the center.
Vocational evaluation is the process of collecting and appraising data on the patient s interests, aptitudes, and ability in work situations. This section needs to be quite broad in scope in order to find the vocation best suited and most satisfying to the disabled person. This section of the center's program is frequently referred to as a prevocational unit.
Vocational training provides the discipline necessary tor the pntient to attain his job potential established in vocational evaluation. Vocational training requires carefully supervised instruction in vocations best serving the patient's needs with full regard to employment possibilities.
Sheltered workshop provides employment for disabled persons within the center. This is productive work for which wages are paid, the work is usually obtained on contract or subcontract basis. In this nrea, further vocational evaluation and training are possible
Special education will be found in this area when enough patients have difficulties with certain areas of academic or vocational achievement If children need this service, ft may be located in their area. Frequently, this is provided through cooperation with the public schools.
Placement service is to be offered when the number of job placements and contacts warrants it; otherwise this service is performed by other agencies. In smaller centers placements may be handled by the vocational counselor. Placement may mean the patient s return to his former job, full employment by selective placement or partial or special employment either at home or in the sheltered workshop.
Supervisors will be in charge of the separate units of this area and will be responsible for integrating their unit with the total vocational effort.
The director will be in charge of the total vocational area and responsible for integrating this area with the rest of the rehabilitation center program.
Vocational training is prescribed after evaluation of the patient's abilities, interests, and job training has begun.
The vocational training unit provides opportunity for growth in ability and assurance in actual job situations or experiences as close to reality as possible. Ouring this period of training, the patient may continue to receive services from the medical unit, the social adjustment unit, or any other part of the rehabilitation center- (See Fig. 17.)
Differences in disabilities and the nature of the community will dictate differences in the kind of training program to be employed. In addition to working with local industry, the local training resources will supplement the center s training programs whenever practicable and suitable- Trade schools may accept only the more capable candidates who do not have emotional or modicat problems, and in some cases, they may not bo able to give the personal attention needed. The rehabilitation center deals with complex problems end disabilities; therefore, its vocational training unit will need to give greater emphasis to limited training objectives which are often more suitable to the restricted educational and cultural backgrounds of many of its patients
Training in n range of vocations should be offered to accommodate several levels of abilities, skills, and interests. In addition« the changing personnel needs of industry make a representative range important.
There follows a sampling of some of the vocational training fields that the architect may be called upon to plan for'
4. Watch repair
5. Shoe repair
6. Furniture repair and upholstering
7. Machine shop operation
B. Radio, television, and appliance repair (See Fig. 1 H.)
The sheltered workshop provides additional opportunities for further evaluation, training, and eventual employment of the handicapped individual. The sheltered workshop was once thought of as a place for terminal employment of those who could not benefit from further training Today this concept has changed, and it is established as one of the steps in the rehabilitation process. There will, perhaps, always be some patients who, because of extensive or complicated disabilities, require the environment of the sheltered workshop as the only means of permanent employment.
The sheltered workshop is never an isolated unit in terms of program, but is part of the total vocational area which in turn is on integral part of the center, For selected patients, it is the best means of developing work tolerance, work habits, confidence, and skill. It also provides a means tor the development of industrial quantity slandards. The added incentive of pay for work done is often the motivation needed to help the disabled person carry through his rehabilitation program. This work is most frequently secured from industry or other sources on subcontract basis.
This work must be done within the most businesslike atmosphere and framework, yet without undue pressures of time; however, it must meet the standards of quality and guarantee delivery of the required quantities on time schedules. If must provide payment for services rendered and rewards in terms of individual growth and development.
Location Within Building The sheltered workshop should be conveniently related to the other areas of vocational services It may be a detached or semidetached unit with a separate patient entrance, as patients engaged in the shop usually work an eight-hour-day program and no longer require the intensive services of the medical department.
Depending upon its closeness to the medical department of the center, the shop may require a first-aid room. In the larger workshop a full* time nurse may be requirod.
As work within the shop may be noisy, separation from quiet areas in the center is recommended.
For delivery and shipment of goods, it is essential that the unit be adjacent to a loading area.
Organization of Space This area will closely resemble industrial space and will house industrial operations. The heating, ventilating, and dust collection systems will need to be planned accordingly, with floors designed for adequate loads and an electrical system to meet many different kinds of demands.
The type of work carried out in the shop will be subject to frequent change. Flexibility in organizing the space is, therefore, essential: the area should have a high ceiling and be free of columns. Floors should be designed lo lake heavy loads of equipment and stacked materials. Much of the work under contract in the shop will be of an assembly line nature. However, the products may merely require work surfaces for their assembly or they may require special equipment (frequently supplied to the center by the contracting firm if it is for a particular job). In laying out equipment in the shop, it is advisable to obtain expert industrial advice in order to assure efficient flow patterns and simplified handling and storage of materials and products
Some work surfoces should be adjustable in height and all should be designed for the use of wheelchair patients.
Electrical power outlets should be frequently spotted along bench walls and/or the ceiling grid. Floor outlets for power tool use in the central area of the shop are recommended. Wiring should be sized to take a varying power demand.
Adequate general illumination should be provided with increased intensity at work stations as dictated by the task,
A time clock for the patients use is sometimes provided in the workshop to encourage punctuality and to determine the patients production rate.
All necessary safety precautions should be taken to protect the patient from power tool hazards, fire hazards, falls, and other mishaps. A potential hazard exists when there is insufficient space for the storage of materials and products, Ample storage space should be provided for the orderly, sate arrangement of bulky items. A sprinkler system installed in the shop will reduce fire risk.
Storage is a major problem and is related to the volume of ilems handled. The space for storage will vary from 15 percent to 50 percent of the work area.
Receiving, shipping, and handling of bulk items require additional space This space
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