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STUDENT ROOMS ON DIFFERENT L£V£L FROM O&MMON SPA^B, separate ventilation of individual space» is required, especially In the more athletic men s halls. The odors in many residence halls were found by visitors to be "overpowering."

Although conventional air conditioning is more economical within a sealed space, it is important that students be able to open their windows to enjoy the soft, fresh morning and evening air, and in the lower-height buildings to enjoy communication <but not access) through an open window,

2. Lighting. The quality of lighting in student rooms is determined by the quantity and brightness of both the light sources and their general surroundings. High illumination levels are appropriate to study; lower levels to social functions. In the daytime, natural daylight may provide much of the necessary illumination if windows are well placed and the glare eliminated. However, high illumination levels are necessary in areas where concentrated study is to be done, but the brightness contrast between the work and its surroundings must be at a minimum.

Lighting sources in student rooms should be integrated with the movable furnishings. This tends to minimize maintenance and fi* the light's proper level. Light for reading in bed. in cluding a reading light for a bunk bed, is necessary. Because of the highly individualized nature nf activities performed in studenl rooms, light from a number of well-placed but relocatable point sources is far more useful than light from one central source.

3. Acoustics. Quiet is the most desired characteristic of any living arrangement in the opinion of students, so acoustical considerations are of great importance Fundamental to providing quiet environments are wallst floors, windows, and doors providing adequate reduction of sound from adjacent activities. Doors do not facilitate noise reduction Since standard doors are poor in acoustic performance and high-performance doors are too expensive for student housing use, a solution isolating noise at low cost will have to be developed. The best inhibitor of noise is good planning of the relationships between rooms Wherever possible, social areas should be isolated from student rooms by at least two doors,

4, Co/or, texture, materials Materials presently used are hard, unyielding, and chosen for their durability and ease of maintenance. However, those used invariably lead to a depressing, sterile, institutional appearance.

The student's need for expression and the university's need for ease of maintenance need not conflict. Walls can be covered with safe, removable wall-covering panels that provide the student with unrestricted freedom of color and decoration. At the same time, these wall coverings can still protect the underlying materials to the university's satisfaction. It should be possible for the student to roll up his wall coverings at the conclusion of use and use them nq»in elsewhere if desired.

Such panels would allow women students to compensate for the universal institutional aspect of student housing by softening the environment through the use of feminine colors, textures, and materials.

It was observed that in rooms with hard walls, pinup materials are often fastened to the softer acoustical tile ceilings. Re sown wood wall panels, however, would permit unrestricted tacking up of decorations.

It was noted that carpeted residence halls are far more quiet and that the behavior of the student was more adult, Since many study and social activities are performed on the floor, the comfort and quiet provided by carpeting are quite desirable.

S. Appliances, A revolution in the design, production, and marketing of economical personal appliances has been occurring in recent years. As a result, the number of electrical appliances brought by the student to college invariably exceeds the number anticipated by the designers of present-day residence halls. Consequently, this has precipitated problems of general safety, fire hazards, intolerable odor, noise levels, and frequent interruption of electrical services-

Another significant new trend is in the personalization of entertainment and cultural media; tape recorders, radios« phonographs, and miniature TV sets are within the economic reach of most students. The transistor radio permits the student to listen to the world beyond the campus even as he walks from one class to another. Similarly, the personal, transistorized TV is making the TV room out of date, just when most residence halls are specifically providing such space.

Hot plates, coffee pots, and popcorn poppers are sources of potential fire hazards and odors. At the minimal level of food service, there is need for facilities enabling students to make their own coffee. This requires but an appropriate surface and an outlet, with the student providing the appliance. At the next level is a desire for cold drink storage facilities. Students will sometimes buy old refrigerators—often hazardous and awkward in size and arrangement. The idea nf partitioned refrigerators, as in English residence halls where students may keep track of their own belongings, would seem to bo a good solution. The minimal cooking done on a hot plate introduces the need for clean-up facilities. The sink becomes necessary; the problem becomes one of the minimal kitchen facility—a project expensive enough to require careful consideration of how many students it is going to serve. Where such kitchens are provided in addition to full food service facilities, they must inevitably be few and far between, Women are far more interested than men in such a facility.

Television, radios, tape recorders, stereos, movie projectors, and phonographs create disturbing noises for others- These require, in most buildings, extensive and expensive noise abatement policing. The belter solution to the problem of appliance noise, previously mentioned, is good planning for adequate isolation between rooms.

Most of all, new buildings must recognize the evolution of electrical use by providing ini*

rial high capacity with provision for easily adding to that capacity with minimum disruption.

Facilities

1. Bathing. The gang bath is one of the most persistent features of residence halls. It has been defended on the basis of economy and its contribution to socialization-

Certainty, the initial construction cost of one central gang bath is less than that of smaller installations in several locations. It is also evident that when a bathroom serves more than a few students, maintenance becomes nobody's business but the university's: the student does not realize that he is paying extra for the university's maintenance of the gang bathroom. The initial extra expense for smaller baths will actually result In long-term cost savings if the students themselves maintain the smaller bathroom, because il eliminates the need for maid service throughout the life of the building.

Another economic factor against the gang bath is its inflexibility. Residence hafls with gang baths are far less appropriate for participants in conventions, reunions, and institutes where families or both sexes are involved than are areas with smaller baths serving a few persona.

2. Dining. There is universal agreement that lite single, large rooms for hundreds of students is not the satisfactory solution to the problem of student dining facilities Although the large kitchen with its extensive equipment, service line arrangements, arid building area is the most economical and efficient method of food preparation, the one large dining room for all students negates a congenial atmosphere for social interaction during mealtime.

Dining facilities that combine the best advantage ol the large kitchen — efficiency, economy, and flexibility— while at the same time providing a pleasant and social dining environment can be built. Proper planning permits large central areas to be divided by movable walls into smaller or intimate dining rooms. The walls can be moved when a large scale is needed for social events such as dances, etc.

Food preparation in student rooms presents a safety and sanitary problem, but the need for between-meat snacks can be solved independently of the central dining room Students can be accommodated by automatic vending machines located at strategic points in the residence hall or by provision of facilities in which they can prepare snacks themselves Student food preparation problems cannot be solved by unenforceable prohibitions but only by construction of appropriate areas with automatic cooking devices and controlled food storage facilities.

3. Recreation and social activity Assimilation into the student society is the foremost concern ol most new students Recreational spaces and facilities are important in providing environmental support to the personal interaction of students, both new and old, since academic assimilation and involvement are not restricted to the classroom or student room. However, care must be taken in the areas programmed for recreation so that they truly accommodate the intended activities. Otherwise, the spaces will fail to accomplish the intended purposes. Evaluation of the success of social spaces in meeting their intended needs indicates that a variety of smaller spaces are likely to be the most popular and useful.

Student complaints are universal concerning the typical residence hall's main lounge. It has been relatively unpopular with students because of its large size and lack of individualized space. The tendency is for this space to become monopolized by one small group, or even one couple, making oilier individuals or groups hesitant to intrude. A recent study shows that 32 percent of student residents use the lounges less than once a week and that 36 percent ol them use the lounge only one to three times a week The lounge fails because it cannot simultaneously accommodate incompatible activities. The piano, TV set, and sofa are not appropriate companions. The main lounge, furnished with expensive, hoiel-like furnishings, is usually designed, and is mainly suited, tor large, quiet groups. It is seldom used by the studenis for entertaining friends.

The suite living room can accommodate both quiet and active uses, although conflict occurs when the space attempts to serve socializing and study.

Smalt "date rooms, as observed on some campuses, are popular when not overly supervised. However, date rooms seem to bean artificial solution to a problem better solved by a wider range of social rooms.

Television rooms are losing their effectiveness as social centers because the diminishing cost of television sets makes it possible for studenis to have individual sets in floor tounges or in their rooms.

Spuces allowing vigorous activity are important to all students, especially men. At present, such activities (if provided for) are usually located in drab, ill-equipped basements. In those residence halls where suitable spaces are accessible to food sources and open occasionally to both sexes, they are very popular and used continuously.

The comparison of expenses for furnishings between main lounges and recreation spaces shows the latter to be less expensive. Since main lounges are infrequently used, money spent on them is largely wasted- To provide more useful variety than is now available, the question of area allocation to main lounge-recreational spaces should bo carefully considered.

One way to provide close at hand recreational space is to equip the rooftops of residence halls for recreational activities. Problems arise in regard to construction, cost, controlling vents, and flues; nevertheless, rooftops are a desirable location for many activities.

Another important form of recreation, but seldom provided for. is student hobbies. The mess and equipment involved in many hobbies suggest that perhaps older utility buildings on campus could provide spaces for these activities. It is more difficult to foresee the needs of hobbyists and expensive to introduce into residence hails the sufficient acoustically isolated spaces tor them.

4. Cultural Residence hells can participate in the overall academic environment of the university with the inclusion of facilities for library, music, and discussion. It is part of the

job of bousing to smooth the transition from green freshmen to sophisticated seniors At Harvard University, house libraries relieve some pressure on central facilities, creating a sense of academic community as well as making books more readily available. Inexpensive paperback libraries are quite adequate for providing both stimulating and enjoyable reading materials within a residential atmosphere. Eventually these libraries will include random-access listening stations: it is therefore advisable to initially provide adequate distribution access into the structure.

Music rooms can also serve as tape and record libraries, although the centrally located equipment will be used less frequently as more students can afford their own equipment. All music involves a noise factor which must be considered.

Formal academic classes in residence halls present difficulties in mechanical services and density beyond the capability of most residence hall structures, but informal classes and seminars can be successfully held in the social spaces in the holl-

5. Serv/ce and storatfa. The university must provide facilities for (1) maintenance of buildings, (2) the mechanical and electrical equipment, and {3} overflow storage from student rooms.

Increasing affluence of sludents and the growth of disposable articles have increased space requirements for efficient trash collection and removal. Trash chutes, central collection facilities, and dumping trucks are required to handle present volumes of trash. Too often this involves the ugly exposure ol the trash while awaiting collection, as well as the considerable fire hazard.

Efficient maintenance of electrical and mechanical systems requires easy access without the invasion of student privacy. Equipment should be so located.

Out-of-season and seldom-used student property is usually stored in inexpensive areas of a building, but these are often the least accessible. This situation could be relieved by more adequate storage provisions in the student room. Student and service storage should be in separate areas and away from heavy traffic areas such as laundry and recreation rooms. Bike shelters, surfboards, skis, and scuba gear present spatial storage problems that require careful consideration. All student storage areas must ba lockable-

6, Circulation unci interrelation ol spaces The residence hall is a social organism. The relationship of student rooms one to anolher and to the public and service rooms make up a total environment most conveniently studied as a hierarchy of spaces. The hierarchy is determined by the student activities and the physical Characteristics of the building. Following is a hierarchy of typical unit sizes in university housing:

Student unit Students

Group 16-24

House or floor. , . . 48-72 Hall, building or college 120-800

Campus. 12,000-27,500

Unit size is defined by building spaces, activ* ities related to space, and by agents of regulation and control. For example, a number of rooms served by a bathroom constitutes a suite, group, or floor, A number of rooms under the direction of a resident assistant will estab lish a unit. All the rooms on one floor having common access and services may also be considered as a unit.

The predominant traditional pattern is the familiar double-loaded corridor arrangement wherein the unit is one floor of a residence hall. This plan offers easy control opportunities. With a group of 48 to 72 students, it facilitates the organization of intramural and academrc activities, Another source of group size derivation is the optimum number sharing bathroom facilities-

Efficient space utilization requires that the circulation area comprise the smallest possible percentage of ihe total area- Studies of existing student housing show the efficiency percentage varying from 7 percent to 25 percent. Although it is advantageous to reduce circulation areas, building safely codes prescribe minimum areas and arrangements. Corridors which are mean, cramped, and possibly dangerous in an emergency are not acceptable

Economy is the obvious leature of double-loaded corridors because core plans require more circulation area. When each student has a single room, economy of circulation space is difficult since each room must have a window on the periphery of the building. This arrangement. in its simplest configuration, requires extremely long frontages. Irregular building configurations to reduce corridor space must be considered in a cost context also.

Elevators for freighl and disabled students are useful in all buildings. In high-rise buildings, passenger elevators are essential, although they tend to make insular entities of each floor. This problem can be reduced by skip-stop elevators stopping at unit lounges linking two floors. The initial expense of good elevators is not offset by cheap ones requiring much maintenance. Competent servicing con be provided by including maintenance contracts in purchase agreements The better service an elevator gives, (he less likely it is to be

[\] STUPY BEDROOM

NO. Of STUDENTS

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