The multiple core of stair lift andor elevator

This selection has been culled from two pairs of buildings, each having a particular approach to the movement of people. The individual worlds have a distinguished pedigree, each representing a culminating point in design development with lifts and/or escalators by Foster and Partners4 and Richard Rogers Partnership.5

The Willis Faber and Dumas Building has a superb elemental plan with the twin escalators serving the central bay of the layout. The mandatory cores with lifts and stairs are distributed four square within the remaining areas. The ascending escalators through the central bay open the departments to view floor by floor to reach the naturally-lit penthouse (Figure 11.6a).

Figure 115d View of glass and steel framing within the context of gallery space, Sainsbury Arts Centre
Figure 11.5e Beaux-Arts elegance: the bronze cages and decoration at Selfridges' store (1916) now in the London Museum. Architect: Daniel Burnham and others
Figure 11.5f The lifts that grace Le Grand Arche, Paris, 1990, Architect: Johann Otto von Sprekelsen
Figure 11.5g Detail view of lift construction, Le Grand Arche

The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank stretches the ascending spaces of Willis Faber into a vertical stack of floors that rise 40 storeys (refer to Figures 2.19a—c). The subdivision of a banking headquarters, unlike insurance, falls into three zones: the public domain of street and trading floors, the working areas and the zones where privacy and security are most important. The public domain is served by a pair of escalators from the plaza to the main public floor (Level 3). A further pair climb to the secondary banking level (Level 5). Inter-floor escalators cope with office traffic from Level 10

Figure 11.6a Willis Faber & Dumas office building, Lpswich, 1975, Architects: Foster and Partners. Lnterior view of escalators within central bay of plan

through to 35. The lifts have access to all floors and are distributed to both sides of the floor spaces served. Four double-height zones exist within the tower connected by high-speed lifts to form secondary entrances. These also provide the refuge areas required by the Fire Regulations in Hong Kong. A further advantage is the division of the façade. The integration of movement spaces with the structure is helped by logical disposal of stairs and lifts to the edges of the spaces served.

The Centre Pompidou in Paris arose from an international competition in 1971, when the design by Piano and Rogers was selected as the prize winner. The main entrance to the Centre Pompidou is on the west side towards

Place Beaubourg from the sunken level of the square. The entry to the Centre follows an anticlockwise pattern with internal escalators taking visitors to the upper mezzanine level where there are galleries and circulation space. These in turn lead round to the most popular feature, the external escalator promenade to the prin cipal gallery and museum space at third, fourth and fifth floors (Figure 11.6b). For many visitors the sheer delight of the building is the method of circulation through the transparent escalator 'tubes' (Figure 11.6c). The very popularity of the exhibitions has raised the issue of increasing the number of 'tubes'. Crowd

Interesting Lift And Staircase Cores
Figure 11.6b Centre Pompidou, Paris, 1977, Architects: Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers. Plans at street level and sixth floor gallery level.
Centre Pompidou Paris1977

Figure 11.6c View of escalators externally, Centre Pompidou (courtesy of Martin Charles)

control today means queues. The spacious entries have had to absorb the paraphernalia of barriers and security checks. Re-ordering the entry arrangements and an external canopy to protect the waiting crowds would solve the present bottleneck when popular events occur. However, once entered upon 'Le grand escalier mouvant' all is forgiven: the movement, the excitement of the structure sliding past and the vision of Paris is spectacular. It is little wonder that Centre Pompidou has more visitors that Gustaf Eiffel's famous tower.

Some years ago a pair of 1:50 models stood side by side in the lobby of Rogers'

office: the Centre Pompidou next to the Lloyd's Building. The two designs are ten years apart but represent a great similarity in the separation of building roles. Both have servant spaces clustered to the edges of the main activity areas; those master spaces enjoy clear volumes to provide total freedom in use. The Lloyd's Building has a range of sophisticated options, a trading space that can envelop the whole central volume, commercial offices that might diminish or grow again according to market forces and finally the headquarters' back-up in the basement and penthouse suites. The servicing of Pompidou is handled like an industrial plant, or airport or railway station. It is sturdy and robust like street furniture. Lloyd's could be described as a 'machine for working in'. The wall-climber lifts and stair pods although external in form are part of the interior experience (Figure 11.7a) and finished to Savile Row standard. The detailing of the lifts with stainless steel and glass are for 'external' wall climbers. The increased specification matches the exterior climate. The critical zone between car and landing gate received special attention. A new form of retractable weatherproof seal was developed by the Express Lift Company. The floors of the cars were also placed in isolation to the chassis to overcome wind turbulence. The actual enclosure was a simple toughened glass box made with silicone bonding. The concept, though extravagent, provides exciting views that equal those from the prominent 'escalier mouvant' at Pompidou. The stair pods are clad in stainless steel to conform to the dog-leg profile; internally the landings and stair waists are concrete with raised landings and tread/riser components in extruded aluminium (Figure 11.7b for constructional detail). The real triumph of Lloyd's is the flexible interior volume bridged by crossover escalators that enable the users to trade throughout the core of the Lloyd's vertical room. The spatial arrangement is not obvious at first impact since the escalator bridges run the shortest direction, unlike the public entry to the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank.

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