Twentiethcentury Olympic stadia

In 1908 the games were held in London, where the White City stadium was built for the purpose, the architect being James Fulton. It was a functional building accommodating over 80 000 spectators, had a steel frame, and was the first purpose-designed modern Olympic stadium. The arena was gigantic by the standards of today (Figure 1.4), accommodating a multitude of individual sports and surrounded by a cycle track. It was subsequently decided to reduce the number of Olympic sports, partly to give...

Repair and maintenance

Bald patches must be sown with new seed or repaired by the laying of pre-grown grass to make good damage from play. Thatch needs to be removed by aeration, perforation or slotting and sanding and hard areas must be softened by the use of slots and holes to loosen the earth. Lawn aerators, perforators and sweepers should be used particularly where a spectator invasion of the pitch has occurred. The problem with this practice is that spectators' feet compact the earth and prevent good grass...

Design criteria

The most precise recommendations are those laid down for football stadia by FIFA and UEFA a minimum width of 2.5m and a minimum depth of 3.0m sufficiently high barriers on both sides to prevent people falling into the moat and the provision of safety escape routes across the moat in those stadia where the playing area is a means of escape in an emergency. Moats should not contain water but It may be important under emergency circumstances to allow access across the moat on to the playing area...

Catchment area and past history of the site

In addition to the theoretical numbers laid down by regulation, as in Table 11.1, it is essential to look at the reality of the site itself. While FIFA might Typical forms of structure, modes of access, etc. Access direct from front of seating tier or from short stairs ramps at rear. Support facilities beneath. Roof cantilever only about 10 m, using light steel or concrete sections. Up to 50 rows total, disposed in 2 tiers Over 50 rows total, in 3 or 4 tiers. 3rd or 4th tiers are usually...

Basic planning 2011 General

Every stadium, however small, must provide facilities for the participants in the events held at the venue, but the amount and type of accommodation that is needed varies enormously a football or rugby match may need facilities for only two teams (including reserves) plus officials, whereas a major international athletics event may attract up to a thousand participants. It will probably be impossible to provide accommodation on this scale on a permanent basis, and the decision may be to rely...

Stadium conversion costs

Although not often a consideration in the USA, the conversion of standing terraces to seating is a major factor in the UK and to a lesser extent in the rest of Europe. The interest in this change from standing to seating is due not only to a sudden desire to provide comfortable viewing but a result of the Taylor Report into the Sheffield Hillsborough disaster in the UK, published in 1990, which recommended that within a set period of time most football grounds should become all-seated (see...

Melbourne Cricket Ground

The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) is 153 years old and one of the largest capacity sporting venues of the world. It has great historic and spiritual significance as the home of Australian cricket and Australian Rules Football. It was the main venue for the 1956 Olympic Games and in March 2006 hosted the opening and closing ceremonies and the athletics for the Commonwealth Games. The MCG has undergone a number of transformations and the latest AUD 435 M remodelling, completed in March 2006,...

Changing rooms for sports

A changing room or locker room (Figure 20.3) should be provided for each home team and at least one visiting team. Two such rooms should be provided for visiting teams if a match is to be held between two visiting teams - unless of course the home team is prepared to allow use of its facilities (which Figure 20.1 Schematic relationship between players' and officials' facilities, the pitch, and media facilities. Figure 20.1 Schematic relationship between players' and officials' facilities, the...

Facilities for police and security officials

Police and related security systems are vital considerations in modern stadia but it is not possible to generalize about the number of police who will attend an event. On any typical winter weekend in the UK when football is being played around 5000 police will be on duty around the country. Individual events can have as few as 10 to 50 in attendance at the grounds while major football matches can have as many as 300 to 400 on site. This will be a decision taken by the police themselves in...

The Taylor Report

The Taylor Report (which arose from the Hillsborough Stadium disaster of 15 April 1989 in Sheffield, UK) recommended that in British stadia 'there should be at each designated sports ground one or more first aid rooms, which should be in addition to the club's own medical rooms for players'. Following this a Medical Working Party of England's Football League made a number of specific recommendations. These are in no sense obligatory but are quoted here as useful guidelines. They state that...

Locations and scales of provision

The primary locations for concession kiosks are as close as possible to the access vomitories and concourses, planned so that queues do not obstruct circulation. A total allowance of 1.5 m of counter length per 300 spectators is a figure used in some football stadia, but it may need to be increased where intervals are shorter and the crush for service greater. The principal factors involved are match quality, weather and how easy it is to get service, all of which have an impact on spectator...

Cable net structures

As above the supporting structure is separated from the roof covering. The structure consists of a three-dimensional net of steel cables, and the covering probably of plastics (acrylic, PVC or polycarbonate). Glass reinforced plastic has been used but it tends to become brittle and less translucent with age. Suitable plastics for coverings are listed in Table 5.1, published by kind permission of the Football Stadia Advisory Design Council and the Sports Council. An excellent example of a cable...

Placement of speakers

Designing a system that will meet the performance criteria noted in Section 20.3.1 above is a matter for specialists and detailed advice would be out of place in this book. In the UK the Sports Council has published an excellent guide by the Football Stadia Advisory Design Council, which should be studied. But one aspect with which stadium designers will get directly involved is the pattern of sound distribution. There are three layouts centralized speakers, partial distribution of speakers,...

Surface finishes

Stadia likely to be patronized by well-behaved crowds who will not abuse the building can be finished in the same way as any other public building, and no special notes are needed here. This is the trend in recent UK and North American stadia, where the areas for patrons paying more money may have polished marble concourse floors, toilets finished to hotel standard, and luxuriously appointed social areas. In Britain a recent example of a stadium finished durably but elegantly is Richard...

Exploiting the corners

A decision must be made whether to place four rectangular stands on the four sides of the field with open corners (Figure 11.1c) or whether to surround the pitch with a continuous 'bowl' stadium (Figure 11.1d). Leaving the corners open is cheaper in construction costs and may in some cases benefit a natural grass pitch by promoting better circulation of air and quicker drying of the grass. But it also sacrifices Figure 11.2 Preferred viewing positions for some principal sports. (a) Football (b)...

Programme and types of events

Each event type generates its own particular pattern of demand for parking. Some spectators will come by public transport, some by private car and some by specially hired fleets of coaches the ratios between them will vary from one type of event to another (in the UK, for instance, national football club finals are likely to draw a higher proportion of coach travellers). The amount of parking space required will therefore be based upon The ratios between the various categories. The occupancy...

Comment

Can be used for conferences or stadium tours. Event days must be maximized while still maintaining the core function of the venue. This multi-use should be designed for at an early stage as every event requires different equipment and support services, some more than others. If these facilities are not designed into the fabric of the building from the start they can be an expensive addition later and may not justify the holding of the event. These specialist 'extras' include such things as the...

FIFA and UEFA requirements

In the case of football stadia FIFA and UEFA's recommendations for new stadia state that 'every stadium should be equipped with a first aid room or rooms to care for spectators in need of medical assistance. The number, size and location of these rooms should be agreed in consultation with the local health authority'. Where FIFA and UEFA rules apply, first-aid rooms should in general Be so positioned as to allow easy access to spectators and emergency vehicles from both inside and outside the...

Turf with mixed fills

One of the limiting factors in the use of sand-filled, or indeed non-filled surfaces, is the limitation on footwear on such a surface. Football and rugby studs are unsuitable both from the comfort of the player and the potential damage to the surface. This problem has led to the development of synthetic turf surfaces that are particularly suited to football and rugby. The technology features an extra long pile of 50 to 70 mm which is filled with a combination of silica sand and rubber granules....

Food and beverage

15.2 Automatic vending machines 15.5 Self-service cafeterias, food courts and restaurants Attractive and efficient catering facilities will increase customer satisfaction and can also make a vital contribution to stadium profitability and spectator safety. managements have gone to great lengths to please the customer by the scale, quality and attractiveness of the catering outlets. Other countries, including the UK, are beginning to follow the North American example. More people attending an...

Stadia and tourism

25.1 Introduction 25.3 The stadium as an attraction 25.2 Stadia and tourism 25.4 The wider potential Stadia have a role in helping to create a vibrant image for a town or city, and at their best can be used as part of the tourism infrastructure and appeal of a city. The actual events in the stadium attract tourists but also these landmark buildings themselves can act as magnets and draw visitors to them. In addition the emergence of the sports visitor attractions, museums and halls of fame in...

Shading from the sun

For afternoon matches, which are the majority, the main stand should face east with a minimum of spectators having to look into the sun from a west-facing stand. In all cases the efficacy of a roof in shading its occupants from the sun, and the extent of shadow it casts upon the pitch at different times of the day and year, must be studied by careful computer modelling. Such modelling should proceed in parallel with wind tunnel testing, especially if the playing surface is to be natural grass,...

Shared parking with other facilities

A stadium may share parking space with adjacent offices or industrial buildings as at Utrecht, or even (as is the case with Aston Villa Football Club in Birmingham, UK) with superstores or shopping complexes. But problems will arise if both facilities need the parking space at the same time. This is quite likely in the case of shops and supermarkets which stay open in the evenings and at weekends. In the case of Aston Villa there is a condition in the agreement that the store cannot open during...

Arizona Cardinals Stadium

The Arizona Cardinals Stadium is a 65 000-seat stadium located in the Phoenix suburb of Glendale, Arizona. The project sports an openable roof to shelter spectators from the desert sun. Additionally, as a first for North America, the stadium contains a moveable playing field. The field will reside outdoors most of the time, rolling into the stadium on rails for use during football games and other sporting events. This provides the grass with the sunshine it needs to grow, and also allows the...

Football and rugby

Football and rugby in Europe are played during the autumn and winter months, in the early afternoon. This means that the sun is low in the sky and moving from south-south-west to west. An ideal orientation for the playing area is to have its longitudinal axis running north-south, or perhaps northwest-southeast. With these orientations the sun will be at the side of the stadium during play, and the early morning sun will fall on the greatest area of the pitch, thus helping any frost in the...

Braga Municipal Stadium

Braga Municipal Stadium is situated within the Dume Sports Park on the northern slope of Monte Castro in Portugal. The stadium, built for the European Football Championship 2004, has two unusual features. The first is that it has been integrated into its rocky surroundings and the second is that there are only two stands, located along the sides of the pitch. The location was chosen to avoid making a dam along the water's edge in the Valley. The two stands, each accommodating 15 000 spectators,...

Activity area

7.2 Pitch dimensions, layout and boundaries Informal sport has been played on grass fields, city squares or open ground for hundreds of years but it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that sports became organized and conditions were defined under which the sport could be played fairly. These early, rather loose, conditions later became rules and eventually the laws of sport were born. A notable exception is tennis which had its origins as an indoor sport and only later took to...

Stadium shape and materials

Acoustic design begins not with the audio system, but with the shape and materials of the stadium itself. In completely open stadia the influence of shape and materials will be small, but in fully or extensively roofed stadia, to which the following notes are principally addressed, the effects of sound reflection and of noise build-up could be severe. As an obvious example, hard surfaces that are parallel to each other (such as an acoustically reflective roof over a hard floor or two parallel...

The playing area surround

The detailed design of the zone surrounding the playing area must be verified with the governing bodies and safety authorities. Such requirements cannot safely be given here they vary from sport to sport and from country to country, and are subject to change. Purely as an example of the provisions that might be required, the following criteria are laid down by FIFA and UEFA for football pitches There should be two units of seating, accommodating ten people each, on the two sides of the centre...

Salzburg Stadium

The Salzburg Stadium, in Austria, opened in 2003. The 16 500-seat stadium, designed mainly for football, has been integrated into its surroundings in the immediate vicinity of Klessheim Castle designed by Fischer von Erlach in 1694. This has had a significant impact on the design of the stadium. The heights of the surrounding buildings and the fact that the stadium is so close to the Castle has resulted in a design concept in which the building height of the stadium has been kept to a minimum....

Pitch lighting for television Requirements

Because the camera lens cannot adapt as quickly as the human eye to the variations in lighting on a playing surface, lighting for professional television coverage must satisfy more stringent requirements than even the best spectator standards. If the stadium is to allow for television coverage its lighting design must therefore be based on television standards rather than visual ones. Such standards must take into account the distance at which the action is being filmed, the type of lens being...

Football

Football stadia predominate in Europe and much of South America, owing to the popularity of the game in these countries. But different traditions in these different regions have led to a variety of architectural types. In the UK the typical pattern is for each stadium to be owned by a particular football club and to be used only by that club. This dedication to a single sport, combined with very limited income, has helped create a tradition of spectator 'closeness' which takes two forms First,...

City of Manchester Stadium

The City of Manchester Stadium was designed to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games and became the home for Manchester City Football Club in August 2003. Manchester City Council held three ambitions for the project. The stadium should be central to the urban regeneration of east Manchester. It was to be a highprofile venue that would reflect Manchester's aspiration to become a regional sporting centre. It also had to have a sustainable future. The first of these ambitions was embodied in the...

Stadium control room

This is the nerve centre from which the entire venue is controlled, both in normal times and in emergencies, and its correct location, design, and fitting-out are of great importance. Comprehensive advice for football stadia is given in Control Rooms (see Bibliography), and the following brief notes are no substitute for the full data given in this essential reference. According to para 2.5 of Control Rooms, any police officers who may need to be present during a match will work within the...

Assimilating circulation ramps

Ramps are overtaking stairs as the preferred means of escape for the valid reasons given in Section 14.7.3, but their enormous scale (a circular ramp will probably have an internal diameter of around 12 m) makes them difficult to handle with elegance. Figure 5.5 Sydney Football Stadium in Australia is a well-resolved overall design. The stands are deepest and highest where most people want to sit, and the roof sweeps gracefully round the field. Architects Philip Cox Richardson Taylor &...

Nanjing Sports Park

The Nanjing Sports Park, one of the largest athletic venue projects ever completed in Asia, was designed and built for the 10th China National Games, held in the ancient Chinese capital in October 2005. HOK Sport was the architect for the master plan and all buildings, designing all stages from beginning to completion of the project. The US 285 M sports park includes a 60 000-seat stadium, 11 000-seat arena, Natatorium, Tennis Centre, Media Centre and outdoor facilities for Baseball, Softball,...

Stadia briefing guide

Feasibility study Outline design Full design Working drawings Supervision Previous studies Board requirements Local authority needs Financial constraints Maximum costs Revenue potential Planning timetable Building start date Target completion date Close season consideration Determine phasing Determine financing Provide good visibility Minimum viewing distances Running track included Additional sports Participants Spectators Family provision Private boxes Hospitality suites Club facilities...

The stadium as an attraction

The commercial and cultural potential of a successful stadium has been likened to a sleeping giant, capable of making a powerful contribution to its neighbourhood, city or region through development as an all-year-round visitor attraction. As an example, Cardiff's 72000 capacity Millennium Stadium (Figure 25.2 and Case study 10) has, since its opening in 1999 to host the Rugby World Cup, become a recognized driver of tourism to the cap ital of Wales. The stadium hosts international team sports,...

Aveiro Municipal Stadium

The colourful and elegant Aveiro Municipal stadium is located on the outskirts of Aveiro in Portugal. It is one part of the sports park planned for the site, and other facilities include a golf course, Leisure Park and several hotels. The 31 500-seat stadium was designed, initially, for the 2004 European Football Championships, and comprises the football pitch, two tiers of spectator seating, back-up spaces underneath and one level of underground parking. All seating is covered, but the roof is...

Standing accommodation versus seats

This question of seating versus standing accommodation has been so hotly debated, particularly for football matches in the UK as pointed out in Section 1.3.4, that a few paragraphs of comment are merited. In theory it is possible to accommodate almost twice as many standing spectators per unit area than seated - about two spectators per square metre seated, versus about four standing. Or, if the minimum dimensions for seating given in the Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds (see Bibliography) be...

Ascot Racecourse

Top class thoroughbreds and world-class jockeys compete for some of the highest accolades in horse racing against the stunning new backdrop of this grandstand, completed in 2006. As elegant as the fashions on the field and as exciting as the action on the track, the new Ascot Racecourse embodies the essential requisites for a satisfying racegoer experience - attractive, stylish, tasteful, cleverly simple and clear. The new 30 000-seat grandstand is perched on the brow of a hill with panoramic...

Reliant Stadium

Houston is an epicentre of technology, industry and space exploration. Reliant Stadium is designed to embody the city's visionary spirit and the uniquely Texan sense of pioneering and adventure. The 70 000-seat stadium features a retractable fabric roof, which combines with expansive areas of glazing to provide a sense of transparency. The stadium's sliding roof panels are made of steel hinged frames wrapped in translucent Ultralox fabric, which allows in natural daylight. The bright, open-air...

Installation

Planting and maintaining a grass pitch is a task for specialists. All the advice given below is for general background understanding only a specialist consultant should be retained from the outset to give advice, draw up a detailed specification, invite tenders and supervise the work. Figure 7.1 shows the elements of a typical grass-turfed surface, and should be studied in conjunction with the following notes. For bowling greens and croquet the upper grass surface must be smooth, true and...

Ergonomics and the environment

Technology is being used to improve spectators' comfort levels when they are at the stadium, controlling aspects of the environment including temperature, humidity, and air movement more accurately. The increasing use of retractable roofs (see Section 5.8) forms part of this trend. The design of the seats themselves is also more focused on the ergonomics of the spectators rather than simply the cheapness of producing a plastic bucket. Padded seats are becoming more common, and armrests to...

Economics

But despite their huge public profile stadia are not without their problems. Owners and operators are very aware of the shortcomings of past generations Figure 2.1 Global events have helped to make stadia some of the most recognised buildings in the modern world. The Telstra Stadium Sydney (see also Appendix 3) was built for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and has become one of the iconic images of that city. Figure 2.1 Global events have helped to make stadia some of the most recognised...

The nineteenth century

The stadium as a building type saw a revival after the industrial revolution. There was a growing demand for mass spectator events from the public, there were entrepreneurs who wished to cater for this demand and there were new structural technologies to facilitate the construction of stadia or enclosed halls. A particularly important impetus came from the revival of the Olympic tradition at the end of the nineteenth century. At the instigation of Baron Pierre de Coubertin a congress met in...

Comments

Fields are of similar size and shape. The soccer pitch fits inside a standard 400m running track, but the track separates the spectators from the edge of the soccer field which is unpopular with fans in some countries. Fields are of similar size and shape. The spectators for rugby are further away from the touch line than is desirable. For certain other sports the playing areas are so different that they cannot easily be accommodated in the same building. Examples include American football and...

Current requirements 131 The spectator

For all of these sports, stand design begins and ends with the spectator, and it is at this much-maligned figure that the planning team must look before anything else. At the outset of a project the first questions to be asked, and answered, must be who are the spectators, what are they looking for in the facility, and how can their numbers be maximized Only when these questions are answered will it be possible to examine the technical solutions which will satisfy those users and to do the...

American football and baseball

After the First World War the USA broke new ground with a series of pioneering stadia built particularly for two burgeoning national sports - American football and baseball. To cater for the growing popularity of American football there evolved a new type of single-tier elliptical bowl of vast capacity surrounding a rectangular football pitch. The first was the Yale Bowl at New Haven (1914, capacity 64 000). It was followed by Photograph Cox Architects & Planners Photograph Cox Architects...

Saving energy

To many people electricity appears to be a 'clean' fuel in use but it has a significant environmental impact at its point of production. It is interesting to note that electricity generated in coal-fired power stations, which emit high levels of CO2, allows only 35 per cent of the energy generated in many cases to be distributed to the actual socket as usable power. The remaining 65 per cent of energy is lost through the heat from the cooling towers or through the transmission in the grid....

Oita Stadium

The Oita Stadium, in South West Japan, was built for the 2002 Football World Cup. It was designed by Kisho Kurokawa and the Takenaka Corporation and is affectionately known as the 'Big Eye' because the stadium is shaped like a big eye looking upwards that can open and close its eyelid. The stadium is extremely versatile. As well as providing a home for soccer and rugby, it can host international athletics and a range of entertainment events such as rock concerts, because of the closing roof and...

The wider potential

The potential of a facility is generally determined by the interaction of market and socio-economic variables. In the USA the 'real' potential is usually great. Assisted by the fact that the USA population has a narrower range of sporting interest than the UK and Europe and with a wide cross-section following and participating in fewer sports, the economic rewards inherent in major sporting activities have stimulated considerable development of new facilities over the past 20 years. The public...

Segregation of fans

It is necessary here to say more about the second factor mentioned above - whether to allow for the enforced segregation of certain groups of spectators before they enter the stadium. Where the anticipated spectators are known to be 'game-orientated' rather that 'team-orientated', and to behave peacefully, there is no need for special provisions. Spectators at tennis, rugby or athletic events tend to fall into this class. So, perhaps for different reasons, do American football and baseball...

Large outoftown stadia

A major trend of the 1960s and 1970s was the building of large stadia on out-of-town locations where crowds, whether well or badly behaved, would create less disturbance to the everyday lives of people not attending events. Such locations would also reduce land costs and increase ease of access by private car. The largest developments of this kind are to be seen in Germany, where advantage was taken of post-war reconstruction opportunities, and in the USA, where high personal mobility and the...

Retail sales and exhibitions

17.1 Introduction 17.4 Gift and souvenir shops 17.2 Advance ticket sales 17.5 Museums, visitor centres and 17.3 Programme sales stadium tours People attending a sporting or other event are a natural captive market they have come to enjoy themselves, are in a leisurely (possibly euphoric) state of mind, and may well want to take away some memento of the occasion. are impressive, with retail sales at its pop concerts measured in hundreds of thousands of pounds per annum. Or, to take a very...

Energy efficiency

Approximately half of the annual carbon dioxide emission of most industrialized nations, including the UK, is generated from buildings. More energy-efficient buildings could substantially reduce this harmful effect. Building designers should deal with the matter in two parts - the amount of energy used in the construction of the building and the amount of energy that is required for its use. Both should of course be minimized, and in view of the scope and complexity of the subject it is dealt...

PETCO Park

PETCO Park embraces California's climate and beauty and serves as metaphor for the area's natural splendour. Labelled by the Press Enterprise as the hub of the city's renewal, the facility also joins a distinguished list of ballparks that have positively impacted the urban core. In fact, PETCO Park advanced the movement by including neighbourhood master planning from the onset. Photographs on this page Timothy Hursley The ballpark brings to life San Diego's canyons, coasts and cliffs. The...

Technology

Television and the Internet have been with us for some time, but combined with the access that convenient global travel provides us with, their real impact is only now starting to be seen. There is a growing sense of 'the world' as a single entity, and sport is becoming the common social currency that, everyone, everywhere, can trade in and understand. Technology is helping to revolutionize our societies and is also having a dramatic influence on the sporting world. We expect races to be timed...

Design aims

There are three main aims for the use of energy in stadia firstly to minimize the demand for energy secondly to supply as much of the reduced demand for energy as possible from energy resources which are renewable and thirdly to meet the remaining energy demand with efficient use of the cleanest possible non-renewable fuel. In order to achieve the aim of minimizing the amount of energy used, energy efficient appliances are needed in the stadium, including good control and information systems as...

Stattegg Sports and Leisure Facility

Stattegg sports facility on the outskirts of the town centre, at Graz Styria, Austria, is a model complex, built on the basis of a study on multi-functional leisure and sports facilities with an integrated energy strategy. The project is the combination of a wooden module system with versatile rooms that can be used in a number of different ways. Because of the difficult topography, poor access to, and orientation of, the existing sports ground and the incorrect position of the clubhouse, the...

Financial viability 831 Types of sharing

Multi-purpose use of a stadium does not necessarily have to be based on two sports, as clubs are sometimes able to find a compatible partner within the same sport. There are many examples around the world of sports clubs sharing facilities while in Australia ground-sharing is supported by the administrators of Australian Rules football. More commercial developments of the leisure industry can also be compatible. The undercroft of a stand in Bristol, in the UK, successfully houses an indoor...

Movable and retractable seats

This idea evolved in the 1960s from the attempt to house American football, played on a rectangular pitch, and baseball, played on a diamond shaped pitch, in the same building. It was only partially successful - many believe it was an unacceptable compromise for both sports and did not fully satisfy the requirements of either, even though a high standard of venue could be achieved and problems of access could be solved. A reaction against this compromise came in 1972 when the dual stadia...

Amsterdam ArenA

Amsterdam ArenA, completed in 1996, was the first European stadium to be built with a retractable roof. It opens and closes within 25 minutes. The state-of-the-art 52 000-seat stadium, which can be increased to 68000 seats for concerts, is the home of the Ajax Football Club, as well as host to a range of very successful entertainment events. The stadium hosts more than seventy major events each year, and more than half are concerts, dance parties, religious meetings, product presentations and...

Glare control requirements

One of the major factors to be considered in designing the lighting system is glare not only does it affect the players and the spectators but it is often perceived as environmental pollution. Some glare may be impossible to eliminate, but the control of the levels of brightness of the light source and the adjacent background will help to reduce its effect. In small sports grounds glare and direct upward light causing 'sky glow' may also be reduced by using floodlights with installed 'flat...

Preferred viewing locations

It is not always self-evident where viewers like to sit for particular sports. In the case of football, conventional wisdom holds that the best seats are on the long sides of the field, which give a good view of the ebb and flow of the game between the two opposing goal posts. But there is also a tradition for highly motivated team supporters to view the game from the short ends, behind the goal posts, where they get a good view of the side movements and line openings which present themselves...

Past and current trends

Truman Sports Complex

Traditionally the sports stadium was a modest facility with a capacity of perhaps a few hundred, serving a small local community and forming part of the social fabric along with the church, town hall and drinking house. As communities grew larger and more mobile, with ordinary people able and willing to travel great distances to follow their favourite sports, stadia became larger and much of the new capacity was needed specifically for visiting spectators. The presence of multitudes of 'away'...

Opening roofs

Increasing numbers of stadia are being designed with roofs that can open and close, the latter giving protection from the weather and thus enabling indoor events of all kind to take place and encouraging multi-use - see Chapter 8. The geometry and mechanism of a moving roof can take many forms. An early ambitious example was the design for the Montreal Olympic Stadium of 1976, which proposed a gigantic fabric roof over the central area, supported by cables from a high reinforced concrete tower....

Life cycle cost analysis 2491 Longterm costs

Some technologies will not only reduce running costs but are likely to reduce capital costs as well. Others may be initially more expensive in terms of capital cost but because they reduce the running costs of a stadium, they will prove to be cheaper in the long term. Natural ventilation and daylighting options may well lead to cheaper stadia than conventional equivalents so it is important to analyse the energy usage of any stadium, not just in terms of its initial capital cost but also its...

Allianz Arena

The Allianz Arena, in Munich, Germany, completed in 2005, was designed by Herzog & De Meuron to host the Opening Game of the FIFA World Cup 2006. It is home to two local football clubs, FC Bayern and TSV 1860. The architecture of the 60 000-seat stadium is distinguished, above all, by its unique skin. This is a translucent luminous body consisting of large shimmering white, diamond-shaped ETFE cushions, each of which can be illuminated separately in white, red or light blue, the colours of...

Optimum viewing distance

Calculation of maximum viewing distance is based on the fact that the human eye finds it difficult to perceive anything clearly that subtends an angle of less than about 0.4 degrees - particularly if the object is moving rapidly. In the case of a rugby ball, which is approximately 250 mm in diameter, or a football, the calculation sets the preferred viewing distance at no more than 150 m between the extreme corner of the field and spectator's eye, with an absolute maximum of 190 m. In the case...

Auf Schalke Arena

The 58 000-seat Auf Schalke arena, in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, was completed in 2001, and is designed primarily for football, but its key is its multifunction-ality. The arena hosts a wide variety of non-sporting events including concerts, opera, festivals, trade fairs and conferences, which can all be held irrespective of the weather. The arena is in the shape of a rectangle, with steeply banked stands that are very close to the pitch on all four sides, a sliding roof and an adjustable playing...

Stade de France

Architecture Sportive Stade

The cities of antiquity have demonstrated that stadiums were, and still are, magnificent urban objects. The Stade de France, built in the heart of Saint Denis, a district close to Paris, provides public open spaces for the local inhabitants with a roof that seems to offer shelter to the neighbouring districts. From the very top it offers panoramic views over the town, with, in the distance, the monuments of the Sacre Coeur and the Saint Denis Basilica. The imposing Stade de France, is...

Viewing angles and sightlines

We have now evolved a schematic diagram of the proposed viewing areas which hopefully satisfies three criteria The spectator areas are large enough to accommodate the required number of viewers. All spectators are as close to the action as possible, and maximum viewing distances have been kept within defined limits. Most spectators including those who are disabled are located in their preferred viewing positions in relation to the playing field. The next step is to convert these diagrammatic...