Amsterdam ArenA

Amsterdam ArenA, completed in 1996, was the first European stadium to be built with a retractable roof. It opens and closes within 25 minutes. The state-of-the-art 52 000-seat stadium, which can be increased to 68000 seats for concerts, is the home of the Ajax Football Club, as well as host to a range of very successful entertainment events. The stadium hosts more than seventy major events each year, and more than half are concerts, dance parties, religious meetings, product presentations and...

Designing for wind uplift

When considering alternative forms of roof structure it must be remembered that holding the roof up is not the only structural problem. Wind pressure under the roof may at times create a much more serious problem of holding the roof down - and it is worth noting that more grandstand roofs have failed from destructive uplift than from collapse. This uplift condition is often transitory and may introduce a further complication by setting up an oscillation in the roof beams which must be dampened...

Vertical transportation

For the larger capacity stadium an increasingly greater proportion of the accommodation is located on upper levels. This not only means that the accommodation itself will cost more to build, but will have a negative impact on the cost of vertical transportation. The design of a 40 000-seater capacity stadium can make it possible for at least 75 per cent of the spectators to reach their concourse without climbing a single step. This percentage is dramatically reduced in a typical 80 000 seater...

Glare control requirements

One of the major factors to be considered in designing the lighting system is glare not only does it affect the players and the spectators but it is often perceived as environmental pollution. Some glare may be impossible to eliminate, but the control of the levels of brightness of the light source and the adjacent background will help to reduce its effect. In small sports grounds glare and direct upward light causing 'sky glow' may also be reduced by using floodlights with installed 'flat...

Preferred viewing locations

It is not always self-evident where viewers like to sit for particular sports. In the case of football, conventional wisdom holds that the best seats are on the long sides of the field, which give a good view of the ebb and flow of the game between the two opposing goal posts. But there is also a tradition for highly motivated team supporters to view the game from the short ends, behind the goal posts, where they get a good view of the side movements and line openings which present themselves...

Past and current trends

Traditionally the sports stadium was a modest facility with a capacity of perhaps a few hundred, serving a small local community and forming part of the social fabric along with the church, town hall and drinking house. As communities grew larger and more mobile, with ordinary people able and willing to travel great distances to follow their favourite sports, stadia became larger and much of the new capacity was needed specifically for visiting spectators. The presence of multitudes of 'away'...

Opening roofs

Increasing numbers of stadia are being designed with roofs that can open and close, the latter giving protection from the weather and thus enabling indoor events of all kind to take place and encouraging multi-use - see Chapter 8. The geometry and mechanism of a moving roof can take many forms. An early ambitious example was the design for the Montreal Olympic Stadium of 1976, which proposed a gigantic fabric roof over the central area, supported by cables from a high reinforced concrete tower....

Life cycle cost analysis 2491 Longterm costs

Some technologies will not only reduce running costs but are likely to reduce capital costs as well. Others may be initially more expensive in terms of capital cost but because they reduce the running costs of a stadium, they will prove to be cheaper in the long term. Natural ventilation and daylighting options may well lead to cheaper stadia than conventional equivalents so it is important to analyse the energy usage of any stadium, not just in terms of its initial capital cost but also its...

Heinz Field

The design for Heinz Field is inspired by elements integral to Pittsburgh and its people. The Steelers football team takes their name from Pittsburgh's history in the steel industry. Reflecting that legacy, steel is a primary building material in Heinz Field. While respecting the heritage of the city, the stadium's design conveys a contemporary image that looks to the future. Two towers create a frame, or doorway, to the stadium, and the stadium's stonelike masonry is inspired by the stone and...

Allianz Arena

The Allianz Arena, in Munich, Germany, completed in 2005, was designed by Herzog & De Meuron to host the Opening Game of the FIFA World Cup 2006. It is home to two local football clubs, FC Bayern and TSV 1860. The architecture of the 60 000-seat stadium is distinguished, above all, by its unique skin. This is a translucent luminous body consisting of large shimmering white, diamond-shaped ETFE cushions, each of which can be illuminated separately in white, red or light blue, the colours of...

Optimum viewing distance

Calculation of maximum viewing distance is based on the fact that the human eye finds it difficult to perceive anything clearly that subtends an angle of less than about 0.4 degrees - particularly if the object is moving rapidly. In the case of a rugby ball, which is approximately 250 mm in diameter, or a football, the calculation sets the preferred viewing distance at no more than 150 m between the extreme corner of the field and spectator's eye, with an absolute maximum of 190 m. In the case...

Auf Schalke Arena

The 58 000-seat Auf Schalke arena, in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, was completed in 2001, and is designed primarily for football, but its key is its multifunction-ality. The arena hosts a wide variety of non-sporting events including concerts, opera, festivals, trade fairs and conferences, which can all be held irrespective of the weather. The arena is in the shape of a rectangle, with steeply banked stands that are very close to the pitch on all four sides, a sliding roof and an adjustable playing...

Stade de France

The cities of antiquity have demonstrated that stadiums were, and still are, magnificent urban objects. The Stade de France, built in the heart of Saint Denis, a district close to Paris, provides public open spaces for the local inhabitants with a roof that seems to offer shelter to the neighbouring districts. From the very top it offers panoramic views over the town, with, in the distance, the monuments of the Sacre Coeur and the Saint Denis Basilica. The imposing Stade de France, is...

Viewing angles and sightlines

We have now evolved a schematic diagram of the proposed viewing areas which hopefully satisfies three criteria The spectator areas are large enough to accommodate the required number of viewers. All spectators are as close to the action as possible, and maximum viewing distances have been kept within defined limits. Most spectators including those who are disabled are located in their preferred viewing positions in relation to the playing field. The next step is to convert these diagrammatic...