21.1 Lighting systems

21.2 Closed-circuit television systems

21.3 Sound systems

21.4 Heating and cooling systems

21.5 Fire detection and fighting systems

21.6 Water supply and drainage services

21.1 Lighting systems 21.1.1 Introduction

If a stadium is to achieve its full potential use and be operated at night or late afternoon a comprehensive lighting system is essential. Two main types of illumination are needed:

• Lighting of passageways and escape routes so that spectators can enter and leave the stadium safely.

• Lighting the play area so that players and spectators can see the action clearly and without strain. It may be necessary also to illuminate the venue for television cameras, in which case the requirements become more stringent.

Both safety and pitch lighting are required together, since one without the other would be redundant; the only exceptions being:

• Night-time concerts using their own stage lighting systems fed from a power supply on the grounds (which is common practice); or

• Sporting events which finish while there is daylight, but darkness falls before all the spectators have left the grounds (this is most unlikely for major stadia).

In these cases the stadium would need only to supply emergency lighting for spectators.

21.1.2 Emergency lighting for spectators Requirements

Emergency lighting must fulfil several functions, primarily to:

• Illuminate escape routes and exits clearly, so that spectators are in no doubt about the correct direction of movement in an emergency, and can move along safely without risk of stumbling and falling even when hurrying and in a panic.

• Illuminate alarm call points and fire-fighting equipment so that they may be easily located.

Luminaires should be provided along each passageway and escape route so that there are no dark areas, especially on stairs and landings and at emergency doors. In the UK, an illumination level of at least 1 Lux should be provided along the centre line of general-use escape routes. In open areas larger than 60 m2, an illumination level of 0.5 Lux anywhere in the core area is the minimum; and for permanently unobstructed routes, 0.2 Lux minimum on the centre line.

All such emergency lighting must continue to operate even if the main power system fails, coming on within five seconds of mains failure.

American Football 101

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