## Timed exit analysis

This is a step-by-step computation of the time it takes spectators to move from their nearest vomitory (the journey from seat to vomitory being ignored for the purposes of this calculation) to a place of permanent safety. It proceeds as follows:

1 Take the 'worst case' in each subdivision of the stadium. This will be the vomitory furthest from the exit in the section under review, or the one serving the greatest number of spectators.

2 Calculate the distance in metres from that vomitory to the 'temporary' safety zone (see Section 14.2.2), and thence to the 'permanent' safety zone. Level areas and ramps must be measured separately from staircases.

3 Assume that spectators move along the level floors and ramps at 150 m per minute, and down stairways at 30m per minute. Further assume that 40 people per minute can pass through one 'exit width' (600mm for corridors and also for doorways, gates, etc.).

4 Add up the walking times for the 'worst case' spectator selected above, all the way from his vomitory to Zone 4.

5 Subtract this time from the 'escape period' required by regulation, or in case of doubt from eight minutes.

6 Calculate widths of all passages and doorways or gateways along these routes in units of 600mm (i.e. a passage that is 600 mm wide is 'one unit exit width', one that is 1200mm wide is 'two exit unit widths'). Now check that the total number of spectators seated or standing in a particular section can actually exit in the time calculated above, and if they cannot then widths must be increased.

7 Repeat the above 'distance' and 'width' calculations for each subdivision of the stadium, so that no spectator seating or standing area has been missed out, and revise the stadium layout if necessary until the entire stadium complies with safety requirements.

An example is given in Figure 14.4.

Average unobstructed walking velocity is 150 m per minute. A person exits every second or every 2.5 metres. (9km/h)

One line exit width allows 60 people to pass through it in 1 minute nntH>iHi->>nnnt}n>

Level or up to 6.8 degree incline

Average unobstructed walking on staircase 30 m per minute (1.8 km/h). Spacing between people is 0.75 m.

Timed exit analysis

Safe exit time is regulation period minus exit time to place of safety

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