Alan Ogg Royal Australian Institute Architects

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Advantages of steel construction 2

1.2 Opportunity for architectural expression 2

1.3 Holistic approach 4

1.4 Scale and ornament 4

1.6 Tubular steelwork 10

2 Introduction to expressed structural form 17

2.1 Expression of bracing 19

2.2 Arched and curved structures 20

2.3 Tension structures 21

2.4 Fabricated members 23

2.5 Structure/envelope relationship 25

3 Frame design 27

3.1 The frame as the basic unit of construction 27

3.2 Exposing the frame 28

3.3 Braced versus rigid frames 29

3.4 Portal-frame structures 31

3.5 Expressing the connections 34

3.6 Alternative forms of bracing 35

4 Types of beams, columns and trusses 39

4.1 Beams 39

4.2 Long-span beams 47

4.3 Curved beams 51

4.4 Columns 56

4.5 Trusses and lattice girders 62

5 Connections between I-sections 71

5.1 Introduction to connections 71

5.2 Benefits of standardisation 72

5.3 Industry-standard connections 72

5.4 Beam to column connections 73

5.5 Beam to beam connections 77

5.6 Column splices 80

5.7 Column bases 81

5.8 Connections in trusses 82

5.9 Bracing and tie-members 85

6 Connections between tubular sections 87

6.1 Preparation of members 87

6.2 Bolted and pinned connections 88

6.3 Welded flange or end-plates and bolted connections 90

6.4 In-line connections 92

6.5 Welded nodes to columns and masts 94

6.6 Pinned connections to tubular sections 94

6.7 Welded tube to tube connections 97

6.8 Connections in trusses and lattice construction 98

6.9 Beam to column connections in tubular construction 104

6.10 Special bolted connections to SHS and RHS 108

7 Tension structures 111

7.1 Design opportunities for tension structures 112

7.2 Different forms of tension attachments 114

7.3 Fabric supported structures 117

7.4 Adjustments 117

7.5 Tie rod or cable connections 117

7.6 Tension structures using tubular members 125

8 Space frames 129

8.1 Advantages and disadvantages of space grids 129

8.2 Common forms of space grids 130

8.3 Support locations 132

8.4 Span:depth ratios 133

8.5 Commercially available systems 133

9 Glazing interface details 139

9.1 Architecture 139

9.2 Interfaces 141

9.3 Tolerances 142

9.4 Support structures 143

9.5 Use of tubular members in glazing systems 147

Steelwork penetrations of the external envelope 153

10.1 Waterproofing 153

10.2 Cold bridging 153

11 Technical characteristics of steel 159

12 Corrosion protection 173

12.1 Internal steelwork 173

12.2 Protective treatment specification 174

12.3 Surface preparation 174

12.4 Type of protection to be used 175

12.5 Method and location of application 184

12.6 Protection of connections 184

12.7 Detailing of exposed steelwork to reduce corrosion 186

12.8 Contact with other materials 187

13 Fire protection 189

13.1 Forms of fire protection 189

13.2 Sprayed and board protection 190

13.3 Intumescent coatings 191

13.4 Partial encasement by concrete 192

13.5 Concrete filling of tubular sections 193

13.6 Water filling of tubular sections 194

13.7 Fire protection by enclosure 195

13.8 Fire engineering 195

13.9 External steelwork 197

14 Site installation 199

14.1 Bolting 199

14.2 Welding 200

14.3 Welding tubular sections 202

14.4 Tolerances 204

14.5 Deflections 206

15 Other design considerations 207

15.1 Pre-contract involvement of the fabricator 207

15.2 Drawing examination and approval 207

15.3 Key decisions/checklists 207

15.4 Fabricator's responsibilities during erection 208

15.5 Mock-ups and prototypes 209

15.6 Transportation of steelwork 209

16 References and sources of information 211 Index 221

11.1 Specification for structural steels 159

11.2 Design standards 160

11.3 Manufacturing methods for hot-rolled steel sections 160

11.4 Stainless steel 164

11.5 Weathering steels 165

11.6 Use of cast steel 167

Preface

Architectural Design in Steel presents general design principles and examples of good practice in steel design, fabrication and architectural detailing. The book covers three areas:

• general principles of steel design

• opportunities for architectural expression

• examples of details used in recent projects.

The book includes all aspects of the architectural uses of steel in internal and external applications. The different types of structural members, frames and their connections are identified, and common details are discussed. Examples of the expressive use of steel are presented, including arches, tension structures, masts and glazing support systems. Connections between members, especially tubular connectors and cast steel nodes, are covered in detail.

Technical information is provided on fire and corrosion protection, and on penetrations through the building envelope. Reference is also made to other publications for more detailed guidance. Chapter 10 was drafted prior to the introduction of revised UK building regulations dealing with cold bridging. Designers are advised to seek specialist advice, where necessary, should steelwork penetration of the envelope be necessary.

The book was prepared by Peter Trebilcock, Consultant Architect to the Steel Construction Institute (SCI) and Head of Architecture at Amec Group Ltd, and by Mark Lawson, SCI Professor of Construction Systems at the University of Surrey (formerly Research Manager at the SCI). The work was funded by Corus (formerly British Steel (Sections, Plates and Commercial Steels)) and Corus Tubes and Pipes, and the former Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions under the Partners in Technology initiative.

The assistance of the following individuals and organisations is acknowledged: Paul Salter, Consultant Structural Engineer; Christopher Nash, Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners; Rod McAllister, formerly Liverpool University School of Architecture; Paul Craddock, Arup; Eric Taylor, Arup; Craig Gibbons, Arup; Rob Watson, Foster and Partners; Geoff Hume, William Cook Steel Castings Limited; Alan Jones, Anthony Hunt Associates Ltd; John Pringle, Pringle Richards Sharratt; David Cash, Building Design Partnership; Michael Powell, Amec Group Ltd; Alan Ogg, The Royal Australian Institute of Architects. Information on tension cables was provided by Guy Linking Ltd.

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