Illustration credits

Angle Ring: 4.16

Michael Barclay Partnership: 6.32

Barnshaws: 4.14

Benthem & Crouwel: 6.1

David Bower: 7.1

The British Architectural Library, RIBA: 3.4

Richard Bryant/ARCAID: 2.17, 9.16, 11.10

Canadian Institute of Steel

Construction: 4.20 Martin Charles/VIEW: 2.6, 3.14 Classen: 7.9 Ian Clook: 2.5 Peter Cook/VIEW: 10.4 Corus: 4.25

John Critchley: 3.12

Frank Dale Ltd: 3.11

Brian Davenport: 2.15

Richard Davies/Foster and Partners:

2.11, 7.15, 7.41 Richard Davis/VIEW: 7.5 M. Denance: 4.27 Jeremy Dixon.Edward Jones: 4.28 Peter Durant/ 1.6 Fabsec Ltd: 13.3 Norman Foster: 2.3 Foster and Partners: 2.2a, 2.2b, 2.16, 8.8 K. Frahm: 3.5 Berengo Gardin: 13.8b Greg Germany: 3.19 Dennis Gilbert: 7.6 Dennis Gilbert/VIEW: 4.17, 4.40, 7.3, 7.36, 8.4

Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners: 2.13

Goodwin Steel: 11.9

Martine Hamilton Knight: 1.7, 9.4, 9.14,

Bill Hastings/Arc Photo: 2.4

Alastair Hunter: 1.2, 6.30

Keith Hunter: 1.5

David Jewell: 4.38

A. Keller/artur: 9.10

Serge Kreis/Camerzindgrafen Steiner: 2.1

D. Leistner/artur: 7.6 Lindapter International: 5.9 J. Linden: 7.8

J. Linden/ARCAID: 2.8, 7.8 McCalls Special Projects: 9.8 Raf Madka/VIEW: 1.14 T. J. S. Marr: 12.1 Hugh Martin: 4.26 David Moore: 6.11 Brian Pickell: 4.20

4.34, 7.7, 9.3, 10.5, 12.2 Norlaki Okabe: 13.8a Price & Myers: 4.37, 6.16, 7.35 L. R. Shipsides: 1.9 Timothy Soar: 1.4, 4.19 Tim Street-Porter: 3.7 Kees Stuip: 4.22 Rupert Truman: 1.10, 2.10 Jocelyne van den Bossche: 4.21 Morley von Sternberg: 4.36 Usinor: 11.7 Westok: 4.15

Colour Section David Bower: 25 Peter Cook/FaulknerBrowns: 20 Peter Cook/VIEW: 18, 24 Graham Gaunt/Arup: 5 W. D. Gericke: 9 Dennis Gilbert/VIEW: 7, 21 Richard Glover: 10 Andrew Holt/VIEW: 23 Nicholas Kane/BPR: 19 Serge Kreis/Camerzindgrafen Steiner: 27 Lenscape: 8 Duccio Malgamba: 26 Peter McInven/VIEW: 14,16 Morley von Sternberg/WilkinsonEyre: 22 National Maritime Museum: 4 Jo Reid and John Peck: 13 Katsuhisa Kida: 15 Timothy Soar: 12 Jocelyne van den Bossche: 6 Nigel Young/Foster and Partners: 1, 2a, 2b, 3

Hodder Associates: 17 Axel Weiss: 11

Cover illustration Jocelyne van den Bossche

All photographs not specifically credited are courtesy of the authors and line drawings are courtesy of The Steel Construction Institute.

The authors and publishers would like to thank the above individuals and organizations for permission to reproduce material. We have made every effort to contact and acknowledge copyright holders, but if any errors or omissions have been made we would be happy to correct them at a later printing.

A number of illustrations have been adapted from the publication by Alan Ogg, Architecture in Steel: The Australian Context, The Royal Australian Institute of Architects, 1987.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Pier Luigi Nervi said:

'A technically perfect work can be aesthetically inexpressive but there does not exist, either in the past or the present, a work of architecture which is accepted and recognised as excellent from the aesthetic point of view which is not also excellent from the technical point of view. Good engineering seems to be a necessary though not sufficient condition for good architecture.'

Good detailing is a function of the spatial arrangement of the elements, their slenderness and lightness, and the connections between them. Figures 1.1-1.11 illustrate good examples of steel detailing in a variety of structural applications.

The need for guidance on detailing

Steelwork offers the opportunity for architectural expression, as well as being a structurally versatile and adaptable material. Good quality detailing is vital because it affects structural performance, cost, buildability and, perhaps most importantly, appearance.

Whilst the choice of the structural form is often the province of the structural engineer, architects should have a broad appreciation of the factors leading to the selection of the structure and its details. Traditionally, most detailing of connections is the responsibility of the steelwork fabricator but, for exposed steelwork, detailing is of much more interest to the architect, as it impacts on the aesthetics of the structure.

In this respect it is important that designers appreciate the common fabrication and erection techniques which may exert a strong influence on the method and approach to the detailing of modern steelwork in buildings.

Connections to other materials

The attachments of other elements, such as cladding and stairs to the steel structure, are described in another series of publications. These 'interfaces' are crucial to the efficiency and buildability of steel-framed buildings. Reference is made to good practice details in the Steel Construction Institute's (SCI's) publications on curtain walling, connections to concrete, and lift-shaft details.

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