Harlow And The Quarter

The new town of Harlow, which has already been discussed earlier in the chapter, is divided into four quarters or districts. As mentioned earlier, landscape and topography are the key features in the location of the main town quarters, dividing one quarter from the next. Each quarter, which has a major centre, was designed to have a population of approximately 20 000 people. The quarter comprises a cluster of neighbourhoods which focus on a major centre of fifty shops, church, health centre,...

The Compact City

The 'compact city' has been suggested as one way of achieving sustainable urban forms. In this type of city - which has its origins in continental Europe - compact, high-density urban structures of mixed land use are thought to promote walking and cycling as the main modes of movement for short journeys of one mile or less, while reducing considerably the need for longer journeys, which would be made by public transport. High densities are also associated with terrace development and therefore...

Building Design

A number of factors other than the building materials from which it is made, determine the degree to which a building is green. The shade of the green label which can be assigned to a building reflects its sustainability over a long lifespan with low energy inputs. It is dependent upon the location of the building in relation to its accessibility, the geometry of the building envelope, the relation of the building to its site, and also on the ways in which the users and the builders themselves...

The Quarter Definition And Size

The quarter, district and neighbourhood are terms with different meanings for different authors. In some cases the terms have been used interchangeably. Jacobs classifies neighbourhoods into three broad types 'Looking at city neighbourhoods as organs of self-government, I can see evidence that only three kinds of neighbourhoods are useful (1) the city as a whole (2) Street Neighbourhoods and (3) districts of large, sub-city size, composed of one hundred thousand people and more in the case of...

Permaculture

Permaculture, a theory developed by Mollinson, like Gaia theory, has for its starting point life and the world of nature also like Gaia theory it, too, is a useful tool for an examination of the design of sustainable organic urban forms. Permaculture, which is short for permanent agriculture, is ' the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have diversity, stability and resilience of natural ecosystems. It is the harmonious integration of landscape and...

Sustainable Development

There seems to be widespread agreement that solving global problems means the adoption of policies and programmes that lead to sustainable development. Sustainable development, however, has many different meanings (Pearce, 1989). The shades of meaning given to sustainable development closely mirror - or perhaps match - the writer's intellectual or emotional position along the spectrum of green philosophy. There is also a great danger that the concept will become meaningless, or simply be used...

Building Materials

All building materials originate in the earth. Some materials such as clay and mud require only man's efforts to make a structure from them. Most people on this planet live in buildings made from earth (Moughtin, 1985). Earth building can achieve great heights of structural and aesthetic achievement, such as the engineering feats of the Hausa people of Nigeria (Figures 2.12-2.14). Earth can be used in a variety of ways which encompasses a wide range of architectural styles and aesthetic appeal...

The Street Block

The street block of between an acre and hectare in extent, surrounded by two- three-or four-storey perimeter development, appears to be the basic urban form being advocated for city infill by a growing consensus of designers. It is a particularly appropriate form of street block for the higher densities associated with the compact city. This form of urban insulae, when it comprises a mix of uses, has advantages for the purposes of sustainable development. City centres, where large street blocks...

Conclusion

Transport, in addition to bringing benefits to society, also involves large costs. Some of these costs, such as pollution and noise, are incurred directly or indirectly by the users or by those passively affected by developments. Other costs are the result of environmental damage. Many of these costs - particularly from road-building programmes and the resulting increase in traffic - have fallen on the community rather than the developers of the transport system or its users. The price signals,...

Food Production

Barring catastrophe, the global population over the next thirty years will grow from 6 billion to 8 billion people. Most of this growth will be in cities of the Developing World. Bongaarts (2002) believes that the demand for feeding this extra population, will be a great challenge 'The ability of agriculturists to meet this challenge remains uncertain'. He goes on to say that, ' the technological optimists are probably correct in claiming that the overall food production can be increased...

Lowdensity Sustainable Development

There is another school of thought which proposes low-density settlement as the best way to achieve a sustainable future for humankind. The 'eco-village' with its 'back to basics' philosophy has a long pedigree, its lifestyle representing a worthy aim. It is obviously a practical proposition for a small-dedicated group living in the countryside, but as a solution to the immediate problems of a highly urbanized country such as Britain it has strictly limited relevance. It is at an extreme end...

The Quarter And Its Form

Modern theories about the form of the quarter, district or neighbourhood can be traced to Howard and his architects Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker in this country, and to Henry Wright, Clarence Stein and Clarence Perry in the USA. Howard sited schools at the nucleus of wards. The wards were to be complete segments of the town. Here in this suggestion for structuring the city into segments is, in embryo, the idea of the city quarter which later developed into the neighbourhood concept (Howard,...

Sustainable Development Official Responses

Sustainable development was placed on the political agenda in 1987 with the publication of Our Common Future The Brundtland Report (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). In Britain, the Government commissioned a report by Pearce et al. (1989) called Blueprint for a Green Economy. Pearce suggested ways in which the constraints could be introduced into the economic system of the United Kingdom. Later, the Government published a White Paper called This Common Inheritance,...

Environmental Problems

The nature and extent of global environmental problems have been discussed fully in many texts, so they will be dealt with only in summary here, and only where they have some bearing on the development of sustainable urban form and structure. One major threat to the quality of life is pollution, which can, in part, be related to the ways in which cities are structured and used. Atmospheric pollution includes damage to the ozone layer, acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Depletion of the...

Opposition To Road Building

The physical impossibility of meeting the demand for the unrestricted use of the motor car was being strongly argued by a number of scholars and activists in the 1960s and 1970s. The simple thesis being propounded was that the act of building new roads, far from solving the problem, actually generated additional traffic and also diverted the congestion to other parts of the road network, thus exacerbating conditions. Despite the influential book by Jane Jacobs (1965), The Death and Life of...

Kyoto And The 10 Year Plan

Transport 2010 The 10 Year Plan (DETR, 2000) identified the key challenges for transport planning until 2010. Amongst these challenges are road traffic growth and congestion overcrowding and congestion in London and inadequate public transport across England. The Plan forecast that traffic, measured in vehicles kilometre would grow by 22 per cent between 2000 and 2010. Congestion was forecast to grow by 15 per cent across the network, and by 28 per cent on the inter-urban trunk roads. Some 75...

The Way To Go

The 10 Year transport plan is under review. A campaign has been launched that aims to put the plan on a greener footing. The 'Way to Go' campaign is a coalition of ten or more environmental and social justice groups its members include Transport 2000, Age Concern, Friends of the Earth and the National federation of Women's Institutes. The campaign has twelve demands, ranging from a 'cycle-friendly' road network and safe routes to school for children, to lower speed limits, improved public...

The City Quarter And Neighbourhood In Practice

AMSTERDAM SOUTH BERLAGE Amsterdam has a continuous tradition of town planning unbroken since 1900. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Amsterdam was growing rapidly. For example, the city grew by 50 per cent in the first two decades of this century. To accommodate this growth there has been almost uninterrupted building activity for most of this century. Town building in Amsterdam dating from the early decades of the twentieth century is particularly interesting at that...

The Quarter In History

The Roman city was divided into four quarters by its two main streets, the cardo and decumanus, which crossed at right-angles. Evidence of this quartering of the city is to be seen in many cities of Roman foundation, such as Lucca, which are still important urban centres today (see Figure 6.33). Alberti refers to many ancient authorities, including Plutarch and Solon, to whom he attributes the notion of dividing the city into areas for different groups. For example, according to Alberti...

Climate Change

Most weeks we read in the press, that climate change is upon us and that matters can only get worse. There is even a 'suspicion abroad' that conditions are worse than we think. Recently, official pronouncements reported in the press added to the concern they have led to headlines such as 'End of the World is nigh - it's official' 'Human race is killing the planet says Meacher' and 'Risk to the environment poses the same dangers as terror, warns Blair' (The Guardian, March 2003). Scientists are,...

Amongst The Buildings

Typically open spaces take up about one-third of urban areas. Whether there by design or default, they may contribute to, or detract from, sustainability. The resources needed to manage them, such as energy, chemicals and finance may - or may not - be compensated for by the economic and social values they provide. The resources will be offset to a greater or lesser extent by the free ecosystem functions provided, especially by informal, semi-natural and natural greenspace. The matrix of open...

Case Studies

HARMONY FLORIDA One disadvantage encountered by those trying to change established practices, or 'retro-fitting' new ideas and principles to existing towns, is that they may have to work with centuries of infrastructure. In a typical city, up to 90 per cent of the buildings that will be there in thirty years' time already exist. Their vices and virtues have to be accommodated within any new planning and management regimes. The luxury of designing and building completely new settlements is given...

Preface To The First Edition

The subject matter of this book is sustainable city development. Any discussion of urban design which does not address environmental issues has little meaning at a time of declining natural resources, ozone layer destruction, increasing pollution and fears of the greenhouse effect. The long-term survival of the planet as a hostess for sustained human occupation in anything other than a degraded lifestyle is in some doubt. In these circumstances any discussion of aesthetics in a pure or abstract...

Politics And Sustainable Development

The meaning of 'sustainable development' is largely determined by an individual's ideological viewpoint. The present Labour Government in this country - and its Conservative predecessor, along with many major parties in Europe, on discovering the environment as a political issue - would consider itself steward rather than master. This view of man's relationship to the environment and the difficulties the world community faces is shared by the United Nations, the European Union and most of the...

Road Traffic And Pollution

There is a strong case for limiting accessibility of traffic in urban areas, on the grounds that the problem of mobility and movement within the city cannot be solved by building more roads at great cost, their non-acceptability in social terms, and because such a procedure will not in the end solve the problem. The case for a change in attitude to the problem of the movement of people and goods within and between urban areas has been strengthened by studies of pollution caused by, amongst...

Info

Figure 9.29 Richmond, Riverside Development Figure 9.30 Richmond, Riverside Development Figure 9.31 Alban Gate, London Figure 9.29 Richmond, Riverside Development Figure 9.30 Richmond, Riverside Development Figure 9.31 Alban Gate, London and sheltered public spaces within the boundary of the surrounding development (Figures 9.33 and 9.34). In contrast, Alban Gate is a large building standing alone and depending for effect on its three-dimensional qualities it creates no public space of...

Sustainable Quarters

From the argument developed so far, it would seem that there are two possible structures for city sub-division into sustainable quarters. The first is a city quarter of 20000 to 100000 people with a major centre and sub-centres, around which are organized neighbourhoods of 5000 to 10 000 people. The second arrangement is a quarter of about 20 000 people with one centre but sub-divided into small neighbourhoods of 500 people. These model structures may be applicable for the planning of a new...

The Neighbourhood And Its Critics

A high point of British new town planning in the twentieth century was the report on the plan for Hook (Bennett et al., 1961). The study for a further new town for London, which was never implemented, returned to first principles in an attempt to discover the critical parameters in the design of an urban centre for 100 000 people. The concept of the neighbourhood was not supported by the study group and was not used to structure the new town. The neighbourhood was faulted for a number of...