The Green City of Tomorrow Malmo Sweden

City of Malmo, 2001

Vastra Hamnen is a harbour industrial area consisting of open ground with sparse vegetation. It is being redeveloped as a city district with dwellings, shops and offices in a process that involves major reclamation. The aim is for the district to be an international flagship of environmentally sound dense urban development.

The first phase, Bo01, was completed in late 2001. It includes 100% renewable energy supply, quality targets on building performance, a site-wide waste management strategy and clean transport. A special focus was placed on the ecological value of the site and this has generated many attractive landscape designs.

* Quality programme. Good and varied buildings provided by a diverse range of architects with provision for social interaction and functionality as the underpinning element. All the houses are built to pre-agreed standards for building performance, including materials that exclude dangerous substances and good energy efficiency.

* 100% renewable energy. From sun, wind, water and biogas from local refuge. A minor part is played by photovoltaics. Much of the heating is supplied from aquifers and solar collectors. The network exchanges energy with the city grid and is in net balance.

* Waste treatment. Collecting stations for recyclable goods are placed throughout. Organic waste, including sewage, goes to the biogas plant, where it generates fuel for cars or is put into the gas grid. The remaining waste is burned for heat.

* Rainwater management. Run-off is that element of the rain that does not evaporate or seep into the ground and so has to be managed. The intention at Bo01 was to have minimum ground compaction to facilitate ground seepage alongside landscaping - sedum roofs and a network of ponds in courtyards and squares slow down the run-off and reduce the flow into drains. The remainder flows to open canals and thence to the existing open water. Biodiversity. The aim is to create a diverse range of natural life with parks and green spaces. The area, which is a breeding ground for avocets, little terns and common terns, has an ecologist working with the builders, landscape architects and other contractors. The aim is for the ecologist to have a long-term educational role in the community.

Green space. A green space factor is used to integrate the design of the buildings with the natural environment. The building contractors are required to compensate the developed areas by providing green spaces such as plant beds, foliage on walls, green roofs, ponds, trees and bushes. Surfaces are quantified (0) for hard surfaces on roofs and courtyards, 0.8 green roofs. A total factor of no less then 0.5 was required. This use of green factors is increasingly common practice in Germany.

Green points are given to elements that benefit biodiversity - bird nesting boxes, bat boxes, natural areas. The contractors are allowed to choose from a range of items to achieve a minimum of 10 points. Traffic. The area is planned around high quality cycleways and footpaths to make these attractive for short journeys, with an integrated public bus service planned. A mobility office provides information on transport. Sweden's public transport runs on green fuels, car pools have electric- and gas-powered vehicles, and maintenance vehicles are planned to be electrically powered.

IT and environment. The area is supplied with cable connections, a local web-TV is planned and there is the facility to monitor resource use in the houses.

Case Study 14.10 (Continued):

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