Hypertufa Garden Art Objects
Terracotta was a popular material in the UK during the Victorian period chiefly because it enabled the use of decorative sculptured forms, but also because its dense and often glazed surface meant it was unaffected by atmospheric pollution. Terracotta was not only used for public buildings such as the Natural History Museum by Waterhouse but also as a decorative relief for brickwork in many domestic buildings. As styles changed, and in the Modern Movement architecture became more restrained in its surface treatment, terracotta fell out of favour (Yeomans, 1997). More recently an increasing requirement by Planning Authorities for buildings to fit into the local character and perhaps a stylistic rejection of smooth metal facades, has led to an increasing demand for brick facades and terracotta. Since the early use of terracotta tiles by Renzo Piano at the IRCAM building, next to the Pompidou Centre in Paris (Ellis, 1992) and the pioneering work ofThomas Herzog (see below) there are now...
There are several examples of the recent use of terracotta which have influenced architects to use this material. One of the early uses of terracotta as a cladding material in the palette of modern architecture was by Renzo Piano in 1988 at the extension of the IRCAM studio and the housing project at Rue de Meaux in Paris. At IRCAM, he wanted a cladding system which fitted into the traditional Parisian fabric, and thus invented a new system where the 300 mm x 21 0 mm terracotta tiles are threaded on to metal bars, like kebabs, and fixed to a prefabricated frame, to be used as a rainscreen. The frames are I 2 tiles wide.These hollow tiles are mounted on aluminium circular bars spanning across the frame.The whole assembly has a hierarchy of open joint sizes.The vertical joints are 20 mm. At the junction with floors the joints are 80 cm. Close up you are aware of this hierarchy, from a distance you see a massive terracotta-covered volume. Examples of the use of terracotta 37
The two gardens of Shisen-do in Kyoto and Jiko-m near Nara are closely related to academic Chinese bunjin painting. This bunjm tradition is similarly reflected in a secret garden text composed in 1680 by the print-maker and man of letters Hishikawa Morono-bu, entitled Yokei tsukuri niwa nozu, Garden Drawings for the Creation of Specific Views . In this single volume he suggests eighteen ways of creating gardens having particular atmospheres, in double-page illustrations employing the sophisticated drawing techniques of the day. At the top of each illustration he describes the scenic ingredients necessary to create the garden in question - whether famous sights in China or Japan, seasonal scenery or poetic lore and thereby falls fully in line with the secret oral traditions of Japanese garden art. The results were not altogether satisfactory. Such manuals destroyed the spirit of individual creativity and innovation in garden art and led to general artistic stagnation. By describing...
In order to produce intricately detailed terracotta building components, the clay has to be more finely divided than is necessary for bricks and roof tiles. The presence of iron oxide within the clay causes the buff, brown or red colouration of the fired product. During the latter part of the nineteenth century many civic buildings were constructed with highly decorative terracotta blocks. The material was used because it was cheaper than stone, durable and could be readily moulded. The blocks, which were usually partly hollowed out to facilitate drying and firing, were filled with concrete during construction. Modern terracotta blocks may still be supplied for new work or refurbishment as plain ashlar, profiled or with sculptural embellishments. Terracotta may be used as the outer skin of cavity wall construction or as 25-40-mm-thick cladding hung with stainless steel mechanical fixings. The production of terracotta blocks requires the manufacture of an oversize model (to allow for...
Changes In the scale of use of materials can create problems of their own. For example, the characteristics of manufacture and behaviour in use of terracotta tiles were well known in Europe at the turn of the century. Even so, failures occurred because of inadequate provision for thermal expansion and contraction processes when such tiles were applied to tall framed buildings in the USA. At such buildings as Atlanta City Hall and theWoolworth building, New York, the original terracotta has been replaced with another innovative material, precast concrete reinforced with Fibreglass, which itself has also to take account of thermal movement. When specifying new materials we are today able to take advantage of
Both IRCAM and Rue de Meaux use a rigid geometry and a relatively small element size. Later, Renzo Piano developed the use of terracotta in his design for the Cit Internationale in Lyon. Here larger and more curved components are used. He developed a system using twenty different models of cladding panels,
In general it can be seen that over the last twenty years there has been a gradual development and greater interest in the use of terracotta tiles, particularly used as a rainscreen. The challenge has been to offer systems with larger tiles that can be quickly fixed to, or dismantled from, a metal supporting structure, in a wider range of sizes as prefabricated elements within the restraints of the budget. Generally these terracotta systems are more expensive than the brick slip systems.
In curtain wall terminology, adhered veneer refers to thin surface materials, such as tile, thin-set brick, or stone, which rely on adhesive attachment to a backing or substrate for support. This includes tile, masonry, stone, terra cotta, and similar materials not over 1 inch in thickness. These materials are glued by using adhesive without mechanical attachments to a supporting substrate, which may be masonry, concrete, cement plaster, or a structural framework. Adhered veneers are inherently brittle, sensitive to deformation, and their seismic performance depends on the performance of the supporting substrate. Deformation of the substrate leads to cracking, which can result in the veneer separating from the substrate. The key to good seismic performance is to detail the substrate so as to isolate it from the effects of story drifts.
It's not very popular, but this large hospital building on the corner of Tottenham Court Road and Euston Road plays a significant role in the transformation of this area. It looks as if it belongs to some Asian city rather than London, but perhaps that's a good thing. In fact, I like the colour shame about the corner and entry features. And isn't it a lot more cheerful than the greyness of the Wellcome, next door (But also compare it with the Hopkins building at St. Thomas' Hospital.) We're told the 669 bed unit goes 80m above ground and 17m below it has 2000 rooms and 2400 PC's The new building sits adjacent to a grand, red brick and terra-cotta 1896 - 1903 building by Alfred and Paul Waterhouse.
Manager Graham Copson commented Roll-Fix provides a water-resistant and wind-tight ridge and hip ventilation system in a roll. The new universal seal and support trays will make installation easier, and provide greater assurance of a neat line along the hip . Available in Terracotta, Brown, Copper and Anthracite, Roll-Fix can be used with the deepest profile, large format tiles.
Below the Savoy Hotel. Savoy Court (on the east) was first offices, then residential suites and later a part of the hotel to the west we have the West Block offices. Between them and the original Embankment block of 1888 (probably by Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo no one is quite sure) were the entrance hall, lounge and foyer. (The stainless steel cladding to what was a terracotta arch was added in the 1930s, but still supports a gilded figure by Lynn-Jenkins of Count Peter Savoy.) T.E. Collcutt's splendid Palace Theatre, Cambridge Circus, 1888-91. The materials are red Elliston brick and Doulton pink terracotta. It was originally designed and built as an opera house for D'Oyly Carte with an interior to suit.
Body to move away from the centre of revolution. centrifuge a rotating apparatus which utilizes centrifugal force to separate mixtures of liquids of different densities etc. centripetal force the physical force acting on a revolving body, directed at the centre of rotation, which keeps it in circular motion. Cerambycidae see longhorn beetle. ceramic pertaining to products manufactured from fired or burnt clay such as pipes, tiles, bricks, terracotta and pottery. ceramic fibre an artificial fired clay thread used in bulk in fireproofing products.
While standard GRC has the appearance of cement, a wide diversity of colours, textures and simulated materials can be manufactured. A gloss finish should be avoided as it tends to craze and show any defects or variations. The use of specific aggregates followed by grinding can simulate marble, granite, terracotta, etc., while reconstructed stone with either a smooth or tooled effect can be produced by the action of acid etching. An exposed aggregate finish is achieved by the use of retardants within the mould, followed by washing and brushing. Applied finishes, which are usually water-based synthetic latex emulsions, can be applied to clean, dust-free surfaces.
MR Micro-Rib Architectural Wall Panel were all used during the building of twenty four units at the site. As the site is In a mainly residential area, aesthetic concerns were more pronounced than they may otherwise have been, and a solution to reconciling Issues of appearance and building envelope performance was needed. The use of Kingspan Thermatlle, with its overlaid terracotta tiles, and the smooth lines of Kingspan Optimo allowed Branksome Park House to blend in with the pre-existing residential development. These products have excellent air permeability performance.
Handmade Terra-Cotta Thickness and Web Dimensions 2.3 Architectural Terra-Cotta (Ceramic Veneer) Terra-cotta Is used as an exterior veneer, Modern ceramic veneer refers to a machine-made product shaped by extruding plastic clay through dies (Table 840-5). Handmade terra-cotta is molded or pressed Both are custom-made products, available in a wide variety of colors and manufactured to conform to job specifications, Table 840-5 shows both handmade and machine-made shapes and sizes of architectural terra-cotta.
The trend towards abstraction in Japanese garden art can be traced back to the earliest gardens of Nara and Heian times. Gardens were then composed of a few elements isolated from nature's infinite range of forms and surrounded by a man-made wall. The trend gained momentum in Kamakura and Muromachi times in the symbolic rock groups denoting Shumi-sen, the Buddhist mountain at the centre of the world, and turtle and crane islands, and in the white sand and pebbles indicating ponds and oceans. In the Momoyama and Edo eras, this trend took a new turn with the introduction of o-karikomi, the topiary art of dipping evergreen shrubs and bushes into shapes now only vaguely suggestive of such images as Mount Horai, treasure-laden ships and the storm-tossed sea. We owe the perfection of this art to just one man, Kobori Enshu (1579-1647). As Mirei Shigemorei respectfully acknowledges, o-karikomi reached its climax and its end with the life -and death - of this great garden artist.67
But the empty expanse of sand in front of a Buddhist temple or the blank piece of paper in Zen painting is not in itself sufficient to inspire such profound insights. It needs the sophisticated interplay of form with its non-form, of object with its space. It is here, perhaps, that we find the ultimate purpose of garden art - to provide the necessary forum for such insight The garden of Ryoan-ji symbolizes neither a natural nor a mythological landscape. Indeed, it symbolizes nothing, in the sense that it symbolizes not. I see in it an abstract composition of natural objects in space which is intended to induce meditation. It belongs to the art of the void.
Ing barbarians destroyed most tiled baths and terracotta aqueducts, leading to a decline in bathing and personal cleanliness during the Middle Ages. The Christian view at the time emphasized the mortification of the flesh, and whole-body bathing was linked to temptation and sin. Nobody bathed, but the rich used perfume to cover body odors. Outhouses, outdoor latrines and trenches, and chamber pots replaced indoor toilets. Christian prudery and medical superstitions about the evils of bathing led to an end to sanitation and the rise of disease and epidemics. In the 1500s, the Reformation's emphasis on avoiding sin and temptation led people to expose as little skin as possible to soap and water. There was almost no bathroom plumbing, even in grand European palaces. A 1589 English royal court public warning posted in the palace, and quoted in Charles Panati's Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things (Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1987, p. 202), read, Let no one, whoever, he may be,...
Landscape architecture in its current form is a relatively young discipline in Germany, despite the fact that when one looks at past garden art and garden architecture, its origins have very traditional roots. The planning and designs of landscape gardeners such as Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell (1750-1823) or Peter Joseph Lenn (1789-1866) still influence the appearance and the open space systems of important German cities today.
Envelope rough quarrystone masonry In granite, which Is usually chosen only for foundations. The stone comes from the local quarry, thus expressing the link with the locality. Cost comparisons between the usual rendered masonry and quarrystone showed that both come out about the same, so the long-lasting granite, which needs no maintenance, was chosen. The trained local workforce was well qualified to build with it. The rough character of the stone which could have been forbidding, is combined with warm wooden doors and windows and contrasted with the interior, which is rendered in light-coloured plaster throughout. The traditional front door with its striking craftsmanship gives a foretaste of the interior architecture, which impressively combines the clear lines and smooth surfaces required by modern taste with traditionally crafted wooden windows and metal door and window furnishings made on the basis of old processes. The floor materials, red terracotta alternating with black...
The juxtaposition of natural and geometrically-carved rocks within a single composition is a distinctive feature of Momoyama garden art. Hompo-ji, the Temple of Original Law in Kyoto, offers an even more startling example of such a combination. There is no written record of when or by whom the garden was created Shigemori dates it, on stylistic grounds, to the 1570s or 1580s. The garden has the L-shape typical of the dry gardens of the times, whereby the longer arm of the L runs along the eastern side of the present shoin and the shorter arm follows it round to the south
Aesthetic ideals of the Muromachi era and their influence on garden design monomane yugen yohaku no bi
Only acquired the label of Zen art in more recent times It is a label which has gained currenty in particular through the work of D. Suzuki, Kitaro Nishida of Kyoto University and Shinichi Hisamatsu mentioned above, all from the twentieth century For Kuitert, however, the Muronachi garden has other origins' its composition as well as aspects of its appreciation derived ultimately from Chinese landscape art. Further on he writes For the time being, the word Zen can only seriously be used with regard to medieval garden art when it indicates cultural inspiration by Sung or Yuan China. The question remains then whether it should be called Zen. -* In the kare-sansui of the Muromachi era I see the garden artist seeking to imitate nature at a newer, deeper level. The transition from the Heian to the Kama-kura Muromachi garden is one from feature-oriented landscape to quality-oriented landscape , as David Slawson terms it, whereby the two need not be mutually exclusive The Heian garden...
The garden walls are of prefabricated concrete dyed with terra cotta. The blocks, clad in cedar wood, stand in a dark gray, reinforced concrete plinth. As time goes by the cedar wood will gradually turn gray. One of the pavilions inside the garden hosts a nursery and there is an underground garage beneath the block facing the river. Some of the dwellings facing the street are accessed through a loggia on the first floor. This elevation emphasizes the complex's scale and character. The materials used give the project a forceful presence, with the terra cotta colored concrete garden walls and blocks clad in strips of cedar, which will acquire a grayish tint over time, in consonance with the dark gray, reinforced concrete plinth.
Unlike Emman-in, however, this garden is not attached to a shoin from whose veranda it would be viewed. This leads Shigemori to suggest it was designed from the very start with a different aim in mind, namely to be a water reservoir in the event of a fire in the main hall, which contained a precious statue of Amida Buddha. This practical necessity is then transformed into garden art. A large number of tall Japanese cedars and maple trees shade an immaculately-kept expanse of moss to the north of the pond.76
Teiji Itoh traces the origins of the term shakkei in his book Space and lllusior in the Japanese Garden' It first appeared in the seventeenth century in Chinese writings on garden art. and was adopted by the Japanese some time dunng the nineteenth century. By that point, however, the actual technique of shakkei hod long been employed in Japanese garden design. The earliest and best-known example is Tenryu-ji Temple Garden of Kamakura times, which draws Mount Arashiyama into its composition.
Neither brick vault floors nor plain segmental terracotta tile arches were tested in New York, as both were allowed without limitation. They were typically not tested elsewhere, as they were considered ordinary and familiar floors. Both generic and proprietary flat terra-cotta tile arches were tested in New York because neither met the geometric requirements for exemption. These systems consisted of precast terra-cotta blocks with thin webs, arranged as flat-arch voissoirs. There were two major types side construction, with terra-cotta voids perpendicular to the vault span, and the newer end construction, with voids parallel to the span. (Figs 1, 2) The tiles were typically set low, to cover the bottom of the steel beams, and fill was placed over the top to protect the tops of the beams and provide a base for wood flooring. (no author 1897) The Guastavino Timbrel Vault was an interesting variant on the standard terra-cotta tile-arch floor, using Catalan hard-burned tiles and...
Bricks encased in stainless steel frames could not be repeated here for budgetary reasons. In a much less expensive variation on the same theme, however, he opted for terracotta tiles, instead of bricks, and prefabricated panels of fibreglass-reinforced concrete, instead of steel, thus conferring on the project a character which Le Monde referred to as an economical version of IRCAM. Fibreglass-rein-forced concrete can be as finely sculpted as steel but it has the added advantage of being much cheaper, as Jean-Pierre M6nard has pointed out. This technique was still at an experimental stage when the building was conceived. The combination of glass and cement is normally ruled out because the former is attacked by the alkaline components of the latter. Working with the Betsinor company, two types of panels were developed one a 'shell' for the solid walls the other a 'lattice' for the transparent ones. These are attached by metal brackets sealed into the structural cement. The terracotta...
A good place to begin discussion of the early curtain wall is with the Reliance Building in Chicago, the first skyscraper to fully utilize terra cotta as a cladding. The terra cotta units of the curtain wall are connected to a gridwork of cast-iron mullions, lintels, and sills which span between levels. Unlike the Home Insurance and other similar buildings, the Reliance frame did not rely upon the masonry curtain wall for lateral support.
Occasionally, the building materials have a close and unique connection to the inhabitants. The Kumbhara are a caste of potters in the Indian state of Orissa, who construct their dwellings out of terracotta pots. The walls are fully built of stacked pots specially thrown for this purpose and arranged to form one huge thatched room. . . . Inside, this room is partitioned with more vessels into two or three living compartments. The terracotta walls provide remarkably effective insulation during the hot season and, when broken, double as niches (Huyler 1982, 87). These buildings remind us that construction techniques do not evolve or emerge in cultural isolation they reflect and are based upon specific social and economic conditions (Candee 1976, 55). Everywhere and at all times, earth materials used in traditional building tend to be employed either in a natural state, such as mud, sod or snow, or after minimal processing, such as brick (both adobe and fired), cut stone, or slate. In...
Waterhouse's finest design - the Manchester Town Hall - is not in London. But we do have a few others by this notable architect and fan of terra-cotta, particularly the Natural History Museum. Waterhouse belonged to a strongly Quaker Liverpool family and, in 1848, began his life in architecture articled to P.B. Alley and R. Lane, in Manchester. Upon the completion of his articles in 1853 he set off travelling in France, Italy and Germany after which he set up in practice with commissions coming from relatives and other Quakers. He was immediately successful and, by 1865, had a London office - which was equally successful. By the end of his career he had completed some 650 works and his son, Paul Waterhouse (18611924), had joined him in practice in 1891. National fame came with the Manchester assize courts, 1859, and with the remarkable Manchester Town Hall of 1868, and the iron-framed Natural History Museum (1866 and 1870-80) - the latter being completely clad in terracotta with...
The Samuel Hyde residence is a two-story, wood-frame structure with brick veneer. The front elevation is symmetrical, with a large two-story portico supported by paired colossal columns. The main entrance is flanked by sidelights, while a massive entablature supports a second-story balcony with balustrade. A double door, also flanked by sidelights, accesses the balcony. Windows are double hung those on the first story have elaborate terra-cotta surrounds, while second-story windows have less elaborate ornamentation. A porte-cochere is located on the left side of the structure.
Right arm and its tail around the son's arm. The statue was soon brought to the collection of the Vatican Belvedere, and Bramante organized a competition, inviting four artists to model it in wax. Raphael was one of the judges and he esteemed the young Jacopo Tatti Sansovino to have surpassed the others it was decided to cast his work in bronze. He also restored the original, reintegrating the missing parts in gypsum, and probably bending Laocoon's arm towards the head. Some years later Baccio Bandinelli repaired the arm that had broken off, stretching it much more upwards, claiming that he had surpassed the antiques with the replica, but Michelangelo commented 'Who follows others, will never pass in front of them, and who is not able to do well himself, cannot make good use of the works of others.'5 In 1532, Michelangelo recommended Fra Giovanni Angiolo Montor-soli to restore some broken statues in the Belvedere including the right arm of Laocoon. It was made in terracotta, and now...
Facades specialist, Alumasc, has supplied a high performance render system for a revolutionary new housing development in Manchester. A key feature of the design is the extensive use of render to complement other contemporary eco-performing materials such as terracotta rainscreens, zinc and timber. The Alumasc ST Lightweight Silicone Render was applied over Kingspan TEK SIPS panel and has contributed to the striking modern appearance of the development. Alumasc's Lightweight Silicone Renders are colour fast, water repellent, highly weather resistant and offer an extensive range of colour options. The systems combine the longevity and weather features of render, with an aesthetic vibrancy that complies with modern design and performance requirements, including UV stability and protection against damaging solvents, acids and pollutants within the environment.
The exceptional strength of a corbelled rammed earth dome can easily be designed to carry the weight of a nine-inch (22.5 cm) thick living thatch roof (we've done it ) or a hefty layer of sculpted adobe. Traditional thatch, terra cotta tiles, lime plaster over adobe, mortared slab stone, slate, wood, and even asphalt shingles (a good, cured rammed earth will hold long roofing nails), are also suitable roofing materials.
A recent development in the repair of valuable antique furniture has been the use of Araldite epoxy resin adhesive (CIBA ARL Ltd) with suitable reactive diluents, fillers and colorants. This type of glue has excellent adhesion to wood, high moisture resistance and, most importantly, negligible shrinkage in curing, so that it can be built up into solid sections without the usual cracking, crazing and disruption of normal adhesives which will only permit thin lines of glue. In particular, worm-eaten timbers can be repaired, restored and strengthened by surface application or penetration, and 541 shows a French marquetry cabinet richly veneered with marquetry patterns of kingwood, ebony, tortoise-pewter and staghorn which was recently restored in the Department of Conservation of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. In this case parts of the stand seriously ravaged by woodworm were cleared away and then made good with a liquid Araldite formulation. Plastic wood formulations can also...
Wood shakes and shingles are a natural, breathable alternative to asphalt or fiberglass shingles, and can be applied directly over well-executed bag work without any base coat of plaster. In essence, any kind of roof tile from slate to terra cotta to slab stone can be easily supported by a properly constructed earthbag dome. Experiment, explore, heighten, and discover (Fig. 13.8).
A restful space welcoming to all religions but paying homage to the Catholic faith was created for the chapel. The warm, rich wheat color permeates the upholstered walls, a design feature used to aid in sound absorption. The layout is flexible to accommodate various activities. A terra cotta marble path assists with wayfinding, leading the visitor to the meditation garden. Local art is a signature element in this space, starting with the glass doors, stained glass and holy water fount divider wall, stained glass exterior window, wood cross, and alter. The handcrafted feeling of the art pieces helps the visitor feel welcomed and not alone in the room.
For those with more conventional premises, the huge industrial chimney stack was the nineteenth-century equivalent to a neon sign or flamboyant logo. In the freewheeling spirit of Victorian eclecticism, Robert Rawlinson's book, Boiler and Factory Chimneys (1877), discussed the architectural possibilities. However dour the mill or factory, it could still flaunt itself with a soaring columnar chimney, detailed according to an array of historical styles, the elaboration usually reaching a crescendo at the very top. Patterned or polychrome brick, terracotta or ceramic panels, battlements and lavish ornament brought much needed colour to the monochrome scenery of An appropriately modelled pottery tympanum in terracotta by George Tinworth for Doulton's Works, Lambeth, London, 1878, architect R. Stark Wilkinson. An appropriately modelled pottery tympanum in terracotta by George Tinworth for Doulton's Works, Lambeth, London, 1878, architect R. Stark Wilkinson.
The people of the Old World have never believed in the eggshell structures of the present day in America . . . the skyscraper is being sent across the ocean in the hope that Europeans may be convinced that their ideas about walls are wrong. They are to be shown that the wall, as newly constructed in America, is not a weight bearer at all that the weight of great buildings is now supported by the steel skeletons concealed behind their fronts of terra cotta, just as the bones within a man's body maintain him in an upright attitude. (American Exporter, 1900, 46(2), p. 22)
A very strong reason for accepting new materials to perform various structural tasks was that their inherent virtues could be exploited to make the structure more efficient and the building more commodious. For instance, in a scheme for a hypothetical market hall with masonry load-bearing walls he sought to demonstrate the improvements that would be made possible by substituting nontraditional for traditional materials (fig. 11-1). He proposed substituting diagonal cast-iron struts for stone piers in a vehicular pass-through, iron beams for wooden ones overhead, curved terra-cotta vaulting panels for planks between the beams, and glazed iron framing for heavy masonry in an awning over the sidewalk.
Plaques, motifs, murals and sophisticated sculptures (Fig. 1.16) can be manufactured to individual designs both for new buildings and for the renovation or refurbishment of Victorian terracotta. The designs are carved as a bas-relief in soft solid through-colour brickwork or moulded in the unfired clay in relatively small units and joined on site with a matching mortar.
At Rue de Meaux, Renzo Piano used a different type of terracotta, resembling tiles, which was individually mounted on site on prefabricated glass fibre reinforced cement (GRC) elements. The use of these special storey-height prefabricated elements was possible due to the large scale of the project, which consisted of 220 houses and 3 shops.
Another family of cladding using terracotta originated from Germany, where it was developed by the architect Thomas Herzog and known as the Argeton system. Terracotta systems 39 2.4 Argeton terracotta at Churchill Centre Rotterdam (architects Brookes Stacey Randall). Photo Christian Richters and Nik Randall. 2.4 Argeton terracotta at Churchill Centre Rotterdam (architects Brookes Stacey Randall). Photo Christian Richters and Nik Randall.
The first UK project completed using GIMA tiles wasThe Shambles, Deansgate, Manchester in 200I .The architect was BDP London, the structural engineer was ARUP and the fixing subcontractor for the terracotta was Tellings Ltd. This project used a very simple and cost-effective form of substructure for the terracotta.This involved T-section aluminium vertical rails fixed back at approximately 870 mm centres.The tiles were secured to the rails using an aluminium lip at all four corners. The second UK project was the Liverpool Biosciences Building for Liverpool University, completed in 2002. The architect was David Morley and the subcontractor for the terracotta was Dane Architectural.
Chimneys in homes are usually constructed of a terracotta flue lining surrounded by 8 in. of brick, with a 2-in. space between the brick and any wood. This space is filled with incombustible mineral wool. Prefabricated chimneys are replacing heavier, bulkier field-built masonry. High-efficiency boilers and furnaces remove so much heat from exhaust gases that the flues used can be smaller, and can be vented through a wall to the exterior, eliminating a chimney.
Figure 4.15 The temple of Athena Nike in 1910, showing the terracotta casts of the Elgin Marbles provided by the British Museum. (Institut f r Denkmalpflege, Berlin) Figure 4.15 The temple of Athena Nike in 1910, showing the terracotta casts of the Elgin Marbles provided by the British Museum. (Institut f r Denkmalpflege, Berlin) During 1843-44, the Archaeological Society of Athens decided to finance a second phase in the reconstruction of the Nike temple in order to complete the south-west corner. The cella wall was built to the full height including the architrave, the coffered ceiling was reconstructed, a new capital with a rough outline was made for the south-west column. The British Museum sent terracotta copies of the bas-reliefs removed by Lord Elgin, and these were placed on the north and west sides of the temple. A floor of limestone and bricks was built inside the temple in order to avoid damage from the penetration of rainwater into the foundations. The entrance of the...
Hard tiles including ceramic, terracotta, and quarry tiles are generally machine-made, which gives them a precise size, and are particularly suited to areas where water is often present, like kitchens and bathrooms. Tiles of baked clay, such as the popular quarry tile, are similar to masonry materials and require a sturdy subfloor. The small scale of mosaic tiles gives them an almost soft appearance. They consist of small cubes of terracotta, marble, ceramic, or stone and are bedded in mortar. Mosaic is best restricted to small areas like bathrooms.
Roof coverings for earthbag buildings can be thatch, terracotta tile, cedar shingles or shakes, license plates, smashed cans, discarded metal roofing, or whatever you can imagine or scrounge. New products are being made from tires and wood chips to create Eco-shingles. Your own ideas are infinitely better than anything we might tell you.
Ball clays are secondary clays containing some organic matter which is burnt off during the firing process they tend to have a fine grain size which makes them plastic. When fired alone they have a high shrinkage and produce a light grey or buff ceramic, but they are usually blended into other clays such as kaolin to make a workable clay. Terracotta clays contain significant proportions of iron oxide which gives rise to the characteristic red colour on firing. While the major clay materials used in the manufacture of ceramics are kaolin, illite, feldspar and ball clay, other minor constituents as well as chalk and quartz are frequently incorporated to produce required ceramic properties on firing.
Concerning the lacunae, i.e., the losses, Orlandos preferred to complete them in old rather than new marble, because 'its appearance harmonized with the antique sculptures' (Orlandos, 1947-1948 26). Similarly, broken columns were reintegrated in marble, repeating the fluting (as opposed to the unfluted blocks preferred by Ross), and the block with simple geometrical forms earlier used to mark a lost capital was replaced with an exact replica. The blocks were fixed together using cramps of an H-form (308 mm long). The terracotta casts of the first reconstruction were so blackened by this time that they were replaced with new casts in white cement, offered by the British Museum. Here again, much more attention was paid to the final aesthetic result, even though the lacunae were filled in with blatantly diverse materials. G. Ph. Stevens, who made a study of the Erechtheum, had discovered fragments that belonged to the cornice of the temple of Nike (Stevens, 1908 398). Accordingly, these...
Faience is glazed terracotta, used either as structural units or in the form of decorative slabs applied as cladding. It was popular in the nineteenth century and was frequently used in conjunction with polychrome brickwork on the facades of buildings such as public houses. Either terracotta may be glazed Fig. 8.7 Terracotta ridge tiles and finials Fig. 8.7 Terracotta ridge tiles and finials Fig. 8.8 Terracotta rainscreen cladding. Drawing Courtesy of CGL Comtec Fig. 8.8 Terracotta rainscreen cladding. Drawing Courtesy of CGL Comtec
Around the same time period, Columbia University in New York was also performing tests on the structural strengths of terracotta tiles. For a semi-porous clay tile placed perpendicular to the force, Columbia obtained an average crushing strength of 2168 psi (14948 kPa) (Kidder 1921), interestingly within 5 of Guastavino's value.
Shelving is required for all small objects, such as glassware, pottery, silver, etc. Sizes range from 8 to 12 and even 20 in. in width below counter height, shelf or stock space is often enclosed to protect objects which might be damaged by dust. Sales counters are usually eliminated although, again, for small, perishable articles, glass show cases may be advisable. Closed displays with concealed soffit lighting have been found valuable for such objects of special value or fragility, articles which deteriorate if left in the open (leather, silver, plaster, unglazed terra cotta). Sale of gift merchandise implies the writing of cards and notes for enclosure, and of checks One or more desks should bo provided for customers for these purposes. It has been suggested that space should bo provided for telephone books for addresses.
Van Egeraat's starting point for the 16 000sqm housing complex was the contextual Danish tradition of simple, pitch-roofed buildings. Yet in his provocative way, he gives tradition a sharp and timely twist. New and exaggeratedly angular forms are created by stretching, morphing and distorting in three dimensions. To maximise views towards the sea and the harbour, towers are rotated and apartments fully glazed, but the glazing is wrapped in a protective cladding system of louvres and grilles that provides both sun protection and visual privacy. Materials and colours allude to the earth copper red, terracotta and natural slate are set against more lightweight stainless steel and glass. With a random pattern of open and closed surfaces, the ensemble of blocks creates an intriguing contrast between the infinite expanse of the water and the more closed, hermetic and intimate volumes of the housing complex.
Durable, weather- and acid-resistant synthetic rubber used for flexible seals and gaskets, cable insulation, hoses and roofing membranes. Etruscan architecture the architecture of pre-Roman central Italy from c.700 BC to around the beginning of the first century. Etruscan hall see tuscanicum. Etruscan order see Tuscan order. 79, ii4 Etruscan temple a temple reminiscent of a Greek Doric temple, often of timber and clay, with terracotta embellishment emphasis on the front elevation, which often included a deep porch and three separate cellae or cult rooms. 84 eucalyptus Eucalyptus spp. a wide-ranging genus of Australian evergreen hardwood trees, some species of which are used in the construction and timber industries often tough and resistant to termites and insect attack, used in framing, as building timber, in joinery and as wood fibres. Eucalyptus diversicolor, see karri. Eucalyptus marginata, see jarrah.
Mario Ridolfi regards the roof as a masterpiece of craftsmanship with an ancient origin, a traditional form that again and again is made more complex and adapted to suit the demands of the plan. A thick body of terracotta tiles, a powerful motif whose principal components are the r idge and all the elements of a cultivated, hand-crafted tradition. (There is something Baroque in all this, as if Borromini had been reborn in small architectural constructions.)
The Romans developed the first centralized heating systems in the first century AD. Charles Panati, in his Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things (New York Harper & Row Publishers, 1987, page 131), says that, according to the Stoic philosopher and statesman Seneca, several patrician homes had tubes embedded in the walls for directing and spreading, equally throughout the house, a soft and regular heat. The hot exhaust from wood or coal fires in the basement was collected under the floor in an area called a hypocaust and distributed through terracotta tubes. The remains of these systems have been discovered in parts of Europe where Roman culture flourished. Unfortunately, central heating disappeared with the fall of the Roman Empire.
Ishing Shibam, called the Manhattan in the desert), the grey limestone of the Cotswold towns, the red bricks of industrial Lowell, USA, or the sand-coloured buildings in Fez. Then the material speaks to you in its full glory. Wood ages well it fades, but does not crumble it feels animate, a reminder that it was once a tree. Cement, by contrast, has a deadening patina it absorbs light back into itself, and its deceptive evenness gives a place a musty feel the dust is in the air. Think, for instance, of the once grand Shkodra in Albania. It was given the cement makeover in the Enver Hoxha era. The red bricks in older towns have blemishes they felt already weathered when new. Colour variations seep through the bricks and there seems to be a story in each one. New brick buildings are too smooth and mechanical the up-to-date chemical processes of brick-making have evened out the surface and given them a lifeless, impenetrable shine. And they come in non-brick colours every hue of yellow,...
Form of a guide to fire ratings on historic structures compiled by the US National Institute of Building Sciences and published by the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development. (no author 2000) This guide is a compilation of historic and modern tests on various types of building elements, including floor systems. Gypsum slabs, terra-cotta tile arches, and tile and concrete rib systems are all included and assigned fire ratings of up to four hours. While the guide does not comprehensively address all of the floor systems of interest, it does provide an official opinion on some and it does show that the reuse of historic test data can be an officially-accepted method of research. Arch analysis is one of the oldest problems in structural design. In ordinary masonry practice, symmetrical and uniformly loaded arches are rarely dependent on the compressive strength of the material, but the terra cotta tile used in the floors was often weaker than stone or ordinary brick, and was...
'Fhe type of indication lor brickwork will depend upon the scale of the drawing. At small scale (V6 inch or less Figure 13.5, sketch a), a wash of the brick color is first applied to the area, and the joints are ruled over it in pencil at 4 courses of 1 1 inches. Brick, of course, varies in color, but for this exercise make a pale terracotta mixture using white, yellow ochre, vermilion, and cobalt blue. The joint color will beapalegray mixed with whiteandasmall amount of the same colors.
However, it is beyond the city centre and into the Sydney's sprawling suburbs that fjmt's work confronts the most difficult challenges with contexts dominated by shopping centres, consumerism and infrastructure. The firm's Max Webber Library in Blacktown (2005) -deep in Sydney's western corridor - carves out a critically needed civic space from the emergent city's overwhelmingly commercial hub. As Francis-Jones explains, fjmt's approach to the project was motivated by the 'equal challenge to resist the domination of private interest and consumerism in our cites and the consequential dilution of the public domain'. The design consists of two strong formal elements a solid terracotta-clad box that houses the functional part of the brief and acts as a firm buffer to the adjacent context, while a louvred glass box - elevated above the street by a brick base - contains the reading room and the public spaces of the building. The clarity and distinction of the overall composition projects a...
Indoor bathrooms were not common in homes until around 1875, but their history goes back thousands of years. Archeologists in Scotland's Orkney Islands discovered a latrine-like plumbing system dating to 8000 bc that carried wastes from stone huts to streams in a series of crude drains. Hygiene has been a religious imperative for Hindus since 3000 bc, when many homes in India had private bathroom facilities. In the Indus Valley of Pakistan, archeologists have found ancient private and public baths fitted with terracotta pipes encased in brickwork, with taps controlling the flow of water.
Wright's later essays take up rather different matters, discussing the use of steel, concrete, stone, wood, glass, and kiln-fired materials such as brick and terra-cotta tile. For the most part they are poetic musings about the materials and the ways, satisfactory or otherwise, in which the traditional ones have been used in the past. But their importance lies in having raised the visionary issue of how materials, through the use of machines to produce or refine them, can be wrought in a fun-
They are manufactured in a selection of colours including terracotta red, buff and blue and in a range of unit sizes giving scope for architectural scaling effects. Where used as infill, rather than load-bearing, alternative bonding is possible including stack bond. Typical work sizes are 440 X 215, 390 X 240 and 390 X 190 mm with a width of 90 mm. A standard 10 mm mortar joint is appropriate, which may match or contrast to the block colour.
The Lockclad system, supplied In the UK by Red Bank, uses terracotta tiles made from English clay fixed to an aluminium lock rail. Each tile is securely and independently retained on the supporting rail by fixing clips, allowing individual tiles to be removed and replaced. Rainwater penetrating the rainscreen is collected by the tray that forms the top of the sigma rail. It is then efficiently drained to the front face of the facade at every horizontal joint. Openings should be suitably baffled to minimize the ingress of water and be protected with mesh against birds and vermin. They can be expensive to detail. 2.6 Typical detail of terracotta panel used as a rainscreen. 2.6 Typical detail of terracotta panel used as a rainscreen.
As large steel-framed buildings were constructed in the 1890s, designers and builders became aware of an acute need for inexpensive, lightweight and fireproof structural floors. This need was not new the Chicago fire of 1871 and the Boston fire of 1872 - large-scale conflagrations that had between them destroyed 18,000 buildings including much of both commercial downtown areas - had emphasized the need for buildings better able to resist fire. By the 1880s, various proprietary forms of terra-cotta tile arch floors had been patented and were in use, although all were functionally similar. The first clause allows for traditional brick and stone vaulting, which was rarely used because of the weight of the materials and the intensive labor required for construction. The second clause allows some segmental terra-cotta tile arches. The third clause, centered on the vague phrase some equally good fire-proof material, and led to a proliferation of proprietary systems from manufacturers...
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