The Design Dimension of Comprehensive Planning for Existing Cities

Comprehensive planning attempts to deal simultaneously with economic, social, and physical development and design policies. Sometimes the quality of the built environment is a concern but at other times, particularly in eras or localities of slow economic growth, it is peripheral. What becomes important then is development at any cost, provided it brings in jobs and or increases in the tax base of the cash-strapped municipality. In such circumstances even the most basic of environmental...

Urban Design as Part of Comprehensive Planning

Urban development is an endless process. Edmund Bacon portrayed it as in Figure 4.1 (Bacon, 1969). Urban design is very much part of the development Figure 4.1 Urban design (project planning and architectural imagery) as part of the development process. Figure 4.1 Urban design (project planning and architectural imagery) as part of the development process. process as he considered it. He thought of area plans and, particularly, project plans being urban design because they show the...

The State University of New York Purchase Ny Usa a university campus 1967 to the present

Purchase College is one of SUNY's 64 tertiary educational institutions. It is located 30 miles (50 kilometres) from New York City near White Plains and New Rochelle on what was a 500-acre (200-hectare) farm. The college has a general education programme but it is best known for its conservatory programmes in theatre arts, film-making and music, and the visual arts. The first students were admitted in 1968 into the Continuing Education Program juniors were admitted in 1971, and the first...

New Town Planning and Urban Design

In the design of new towns, the comprehensive planning objectives are presented in the form of a master plan. The master plan presents a vision of what the city hopes to be at some future date. Often this master plan is a statement allocating land uses to areas based on some image of a transportation network. At other, but less frequent, times it is a three-dimensional representation of the future state of a city as was the case for Runcorn, the case study included here. Runcorn has been chosen...

USA a central city

Of the investments of its members at stake. The Planning Council hired Dr David Wallace, later a principal in the Philadelphia urban design firm of Wallace, McHarg, Roberts and Todd, to develop a design for a sloping, 33-acre (13-hectare) area in the heart of Baltimore linking the retail, financial and government districts of the city. He, in turn, brought on board other consultants such as George Kostritsky and Dennis Durden. The GBC was aware of the work of Victor Gruen in Rochester, New York...

The World Trade Center site development New York Ny Usa an architectural product or an allofapiece urban design 2002

The political and design history of the innovative structural systems that collapsed World Trade Center as designed by Minoru under the impacts of the attack of 11 Yamasaki with Emory Roth and Sons as a September 2001. The proposal for the World consultant has been ably documented (e.g. Trade Center site after the devastation rep-Ruchelman, 1977). So too has its highly resents contemporary architectural spatial thought. It is, however, premature to present a case study of the redevelopment of...

Urban Objects

The placing of elements in the urban scene has an important impact on cities. They include a wide variety of types. Objects of sculpture (monuments, art works and curiosity objects), clock towers, fountains, and street furniture all add lustre to the cityscape (see Figure 6.17). They can make focal points, terminals to vistas, instantly recognizable places for people to meet, and generally provide an additional amenity to the environment. They can also add unnecessary clutter. As many urban...

Kresge College University of California at Santa Cruz California USA a livingstudying buildingcomplex 196674

Kresge College is interesting both for its design and the process through which it was conceived. It was initiated at a time when the members of Board of Trustees of the University of California system were worried about the student unrest at the University of California at Berkeley with its main square, Sproule Plaza, giving a focus, a heart, to the university. The master plan for the University of California at Santa Cruz was designed by William Turnbull (of Moore and Turnbull) in 1967 to...

The Case Studies

The case studies presented here include a variety of new towns and precincts of cities. The idea of a new town is widely understood although there are debates over how inclusive and independent a development a new town should be in terms of the activities it affords. They are supposed to include all the aspects of a city so that they can exist as semi-independent units within a regional context. They are seldom as self-contained as the accepted definition suggests. The way precincts are...

Changing Technologies and Urban Form

Major changes in the geography of cities have resulted from changes in transportation modes aided by other technological developments, such as refTiger-ation, that changed living patterns. Changes in manufacturing technology over the course of the twentieth century resulted in a major change in urban land use patterns. The elevator allowed tall buildings. Air conditioning made Singapore and Las Vegas as we know them possible. The set of case studies included in this book show that the increase...

Pruittigoe East St Louis Missouri project 1950 proposal to remodel

Pruitt-Igoe, a Modernist public housing complex was a total urban design. It was built on a 55-acre (22-hectare) site and consisted of 2740 units in 33 eleven-storey buildings (see Figure 7.20a). It was the first 'racially integrated' public housing development in the city of St Louis. Twenty buildings were for Afro-Americans and thirteen were racially integrated. It had the capacity to house about 11,000 people but the occupancy rate was often only about 60 . The population density was lower...

Case Study

Expo '92 Seville, Spain a World's Fair (1976-92) consolidate Seville's position as capital of World's Fairs are temporary expositions where nations and organizations build pavilions whose architecture and contents celebrate themselves and their achievements. They draw large crowds and can act as catalysts for further development in the host city. The plan and infrastructure of the fair sites are important aspects of the overall design. They have to be easily plugged into by assorted pavilions...

The Elements of the Physical Public Realm

Any statement of what constitute the elements of the public realm of built forms is likely to evolve over time. It will depend on a political stance and help to define that stance. In the 1930s, Le Corbusier wrote that the basic elements of urban design are 'the sun, sky, trees, steel, cement, in that order of importance' (Le Corbusier, 1934). Certainly the sun and sky are of importance everywhere and have been commodities with which to bargain in recent urban design work. Nevertheless, Le...

The Public Realm of Decisionmaking

The obligations that members of a society have to each other establish the respective roles of governments and individuals in the conduct of their lives. The debate over what is private and what is public, and what the rights of individual are versus the rights of the community (however one defines the term) is central to urban design. The debate is over the rights of individual property owners to build what they want versus the rights of their neighbours and the broader society to impose...

Precincts Housing

Large-scale housing projects tend to be total urban designs. They are certainly the ones that have attracted the most attention from the architectural press. A few high profile, all-of-a-piece housing designs have been carried out. The housing areas of Seaside have already been mentioned. A few of the best-known examples were developed under the auspices of the Internationale Bauausstellung in Berlin during the 1980s (e.g. at Tegler Hafen and Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse). The case study...

Euralille Lille France a new city heart 1987 to the present

In 1994, Rem Koolhaas and his Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) prepared a master plan for the centre of Lille. Its aim was to create a new city in the heart of the old. The necessity of doing so had been the subject of considerable political negotiation. The growth of the European Union, the development of the Channel tunnel, and the desire to extend the North European line of France's TGV (Train a Gran Vitesse) had placed Lille, a city with a declining industrial base, at the centre...

The nature of urban

Today the term 'urban design' is used to describe almost any design that takes place in any city setting. 'It seems that every person and their dog is an urban designer it's sexy and it's chic' (Tennant, 2004). Legally any person can call himself or herself an urban designer. Many people in the design fields without experience or formal training or any observable interest in dealing with urban design concerns automatically tag the title on to their basic qualification in order to better market...

The Selection of the Case Studies

The case studies included here are typical examples of different approaches to, and concerns of, urban design. They could have been drawn from one major city that has been self-consciously interested in the quality of its built form over the past 50 years or even those whose citizens have been less interested in or have not known how to deal effectively with physical design issues. The projects instead are a selected sample of what has been happening around the world. With two exceptions,...

Commentary Are these Architectural Products Urban Design

The Chrysler Building in New York has shaped people's view of what good urban buildings are as objects and as space making elements. It is a well-fitting design for a city but it was not an urban design project It is the catalytic effect of the buildings in some of the cases covered here that might make them urban design. Others can be regarded as urban design because they incorporate mixed-uses that are part of the traditional city into a single unit. Most...

The Scope of Concern of Public Sector Decisionmaking

Perceptions of what should be public concerns and what private vary over time. The twentieth century saw the flow and ebb of the welfare state. The late 1980s saw the beginning of the second capitalist revolution and a greater emphasis being placed on the individual and individual rights than earlier in the twentieth century. The belief is that personal freedom of action benefits everybody. In many ways the translation of this ideology into action has been highly successful especially at the...

Allofapiece Urban Design

Many urban redevelopment projects and suburban developments are so large in size that single developers and their backers are incapable of financing them single-handedly. In other cases land holding patterns are so fragmented that having a single developer tackling all the sites in a coordinated manner is legally or administratively impossible. In these cases, a consulting team develops one illustrative three-dimensional design (or master plan or concept plan) of the whole development. The...

Precincts

Most urban designs do not deal with new towns but with precincts - smaller areas of cities and new, predominantly residential, areas on the edge of cities. They may Figure 3.1 New town design. (a) Central Las Colinas proposal, 1986 and (b) Sonshang Lake, Guangdong proposal, 2004. Figure 3.1 New town design. (a) Central Las Colinas proposal, 1986 and (b) Sonshang Lake, Guangdong proposal, 2004. be designed de novo or be the subject of renewal. The precincts in cities may be for commercial,...

The Market

No project in capitalist societies proceeds without some image of it being marketable. It needs to be saleable. The market required to support a project and make it feasible in its developer's eyes is made up of the population seeking real estate and other services and its ability to pay for them. For all the types of urban design schemes that one is considering the question is 'Is the market large enough to support it ' - as all but two of the studies included in this book have been largely...

A final acknowledgement

It has been difficult to track down some of the sources of information included in this book. A number of the photographs that form part of my collection were given to me by students and colleagues over the past 20 years. I no longer have a record of their provenance. A number of the drawings prepared for this text are based on more than one source and who holds the original copyright is unclear. Every effort has, however, been made to contact and credit the copyright holders of all this...

Pare de la Villette Paris France a deconstructed park design 197997

The Pare de la Villette has a complex development history. In 1979, the Etablissement Public du Pare de la Villette (EPPV) initiated the development and design process that resulted in the park. The goal, along with that of a number of other contemporary projects, was to make Paris once more the art centre of the world. The specific objectives were 1 to create a product of international note, 2 to build a national museum of science and technology, 3 to create an urban 'cultural' park. The site...

Parks

Park design has been an aspect of the work of landscape architects that often merges with urban design. Frederick Law Olmsted's work during the late nineteenth century included the design of the Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago and a number of suburbs. He is, however, probably best known for the design of New York's Central Park. It is one of the most urban of parks in the world. Parks may form parts of urban design schemes but they themselves are products of landscape architecture....

Urban Design A Discipline

The hallmark of a discipline is a body of unique literature, journals and its own processes of socializing new members into its ranks - into its norms of behaviour. The question then arises 'How large does a unique body of knowledge and how exclusive do its norms of behaviour have to be for a sphere of activity to be regarded as an independent, if not exclusively so, discipline ' What evidence do we have Most of the items listed in the 'References and further reading' fall within the domain of...

Commentary

The knowledge of case studies is important. While every situation faced by an urban designer is unique, many generic problems are addressed. The typology presented here demonstrates commonalities both in product and process types. Architects and other design professionals rely heavily on precedents, much more heavily than they do on abstract theoretical constructs of how the world functions. Every now and then a new paradigm is unveiled. The most recent in urban design is that of the New...

Albany New York USA a university

Past decisions had been made for political rather than academic reasons. Rockefeller and his family had a long-held interest in the physical development of cities and their architecture. He put his interests in education and in architecture to work for the state. The first step in Rockefeller's plan was to establish a fund - the State University Construction Fund (SUCF) - to pay for new facilities that would attract more and higher-quality students to the...

Efficiency Are Efficient Environments Efficient

In urban design we seek efficient environments. How efficient should the layout of the public realm be In terms of what It is difficult to muster an argument for inefficiency on any dimension, but inefficiencies on one may result in benefits on another. In urban designing efficiency has often been seen in terms of ease of traffic movement, ease of access, ease of servicing and ease in phasing construction at a low cost. Such a view does not take into consideration the informal networks of...

Potsdamer Platz Berlin Germany a for a consumer society 1991

Before World War II Potsdamer Platz was the major node of Berlin and the termination of the railway line to Prussia. Like any node its quality was a function of its surroundings. They were diverse making an activity-rich area of hotels, caf s, art galleries and artists' workspaces. The war changed all that. The area was demolished by allied bombs and divided by the partitioning of Berlin that the end of the war brought. Only the Esplanade Hotel and the Weinhaus Huth survived the bombardment....

City Planning Public Realm Policies and Urban Design

It is the public realm policies within city planning that are often closely related to the urban design endeavour. Most such policies do not deal directly with the geometrical qualities of built form but they, nevertheless, have a direct impact on the form, liveliness or quietness, and general ambience of the places and links of a city. They deal with such matters as eliminating antisocial behaviour and providing a high-amenity level for the inhabitants and users of public spaces. These general...

Charles Center Baltimore Maryland redevelopment 195470

It is difficult to imagine how later developments such as Inner Harbor (1968 to the present see Figure 8.72) and the even later baseball stadium (1988) could have taken place without the earlier development of Charles Center. By 1994, Charles Center's success as a catalyst in spurring other developments meant that it was no longer the heart of Baltimore. Few urban redevelopments can claim that type of success. It is also an example of an urban renewal project that did not begin by totally...

Design Review

To some observers, the truly creative activity in the design process lies neither in the design of the programme nor that of the building or complex but rather in the evaluation of possible schemes. Recognizing and selecting good designs, especially departures from the norm is a highly risky business and there are many examples of award-winning schemes that have turned out to be failures in terms of people's lives. The evaluation of designs involves 1 predicting the future context in which the...

The Quasipublic Role of Property Developers

The entrepreneurs creating large-scale property developments often play a quasi-public role in the development of cities. This observation is particularly true of the 1980s and even more so of the 1990s. Public institutions now rely heavily on private sector investments in developing the public realm. Simultaneously there is demand for regulation on what these private sectors entrepreneurs seek to achieve and how they seek to achieve it. It is the private sector that sees opportunities for...

New Towns

There is no census of the new towns built in the world during the second half of the twentieth century. We know that the number is vast. The proportion designed totally by one hand for one public authority or for one private developer is relatively small, but the number is still substantial. Some developments that started out as total urban designs became piece-by-piece urban designs all have evolved since they were nominally completed. Chandigarh in India, for instance, is seen by many as the...

Designing the Infrastructure to be Plugged Into

Designing the basic infrastructure - streets, a reticulated water supply system, sewers, electricity and communication systems - is very much the basis for urban development. It can lead development. La D fense in Paris could be included here as an example of a precinct with a multi-layered infrastructure layout into which new commercial buildings have been plugged. The same principle applies to most World's Fairs although in their case everything is done in a great hurry. The infrastructure is...

Developing the Argument

The first part, 'The nature of urban design and urban designing', is concerned with defining the nature of urban design as a professional activity. The argument is that urban design deals with enhancing the qualities of the public realm of cities and other urban places. In so doing, it deals with what actually constitutes the public realm and with the role of conflicting public and private interests in shaping it. It is more important to think of differences...

The core of urban design work Part

Specifying what falls within and without the core of urban design work will raise the ire of a number of city planners, landscape architects and architects. Each profession has a broader view of its own work than the view of its work held by people outside it. In order to understand what urban design is in comparison to those activities and products described in Part 2 it is necessary to identify a particular set of processes and products as being the heart of urban design. The position taken...

Infrastructure Design

The nature of the infrastructure is what visually distinguishes one city from another as much as the nature of its architecture. There are various ways of considering the infrastructure of cities but the most inclusive manner covers everything that is part of the public domain whether privately or publicly owned. In this view the streets and other transport facilities, the schools and public institutions, such as libraries and museums, can all be part of the infrastructure of cities. Many of...

Introduction the argument

Of all the design fields, urban design has the greatest impact on the nature of cities and city life. However logical the land-use pattern prescribed by city planners, the beauty and utility of its buildings and the nature of the landscape, it is the overall three-dimensional combination of forms and spaces as seen in time and over time that gives a city its character. Cities evolve at the hands of a myriad designers consciously or subconsciously seeking to fulfil their own interests. Urban...

Commentary Are these Landscape Architectural Products Urban Design

The quality of urban spaces depends on how they are enclosed as much as on their own attributes. Impressive though individual buildings and a city's skyline may be when seen as a panorama, it is the quality of the city's open spaces - the public realm - that defines their nature and their image in people's eyes. The open spaces of a city - their landscape architecture - have been designed by a wide variety of people and during the second half of the twentieth century they went through several...

The Segregation and Integration of Activities and People

Many of the generic ideas of the Modernists, when applied, have had disappointing results. Logical on paper, particularly at the beginning of the twentieth century in dealing with the industrial city, the segregation of uses tends to create dull environments. The dullness also arises from the simplicity of layouts and architectural forms heralded as part of the 'new machine age'. Pruitt-Igoe and Holford's Paternoster Square were reputedly dull physical environments. The response has been to...

Squares

Squares, or plazas, take on an extraordinary range of configurations with a variety of enclosing elements (Krier, 1990 Cerver, 1997). The character of a square depends on the enclosing buildings, their heights and what happens on their ground floors as much as the design of the square itself. The urbane character of Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia today (see Figure 5.9) is largely as Jane Jacobs described it years ago (Jacobs, 1961). Its liveliness depends on the variety of the building uses...

Some Notes on Detailing the Environment

Much of the detailing of the design of the public realm of cities is a problem of landscape architecture. The quality of the detailing, as displays and as behaviour settings, makes a major contribution to our feelings about places and about the cities of which they are a part. By detailing is meant the small-scale patterns - the kerbs and kerb cuts for making an environment barrier free, the grates and manhole covers, the paving, the steps and staircases, and the seating designs. The architect...

Planning Districts and Urban Design

Kevin Lynch identified districts as one key factor in the cognitive map people have of cities (Lynch, 1960). A district, well bounded or not, is a precinct that is characterized by a similar texture of buildings in terms of their massing. It is frequently an area that houses a particular set of activities. Most cities have a clear central business district many have clear shopping and entertainment districts. Some have areas dominated by ethnic minorities. Consider all the cities around the...

Precincts Waterfront Festival Markets

There are many kinds of waterfront developments. Battery Park City, on the Hudson River, with its central commercial area and residential background buildings, is one kind. The Singapore River, which was once a major transshipment location, has new pedestrian walkways on both sides of it. Kuching's docks are now a waterfront park. The preservation and redevelopment of finger-wharfs into mixed-use developments is yet another product type. Such developments tend to be total urban designs (e.g....

Urban Design Procedural Types and Product Types

I stated earlier that there are four major procedural types of urban design. They were 1 total urban design where one team is in control of the whole project 2 all-of-a-piece urban design where one team creates a master, or conceptual, plan and writes guidelines for the development of individual sites within that plan by different entrepreneurs and their architects 3 piece-by-piece urban design where proposals to get specific activities into an area are controlled by zoning codes and incentives...

Rockefeller Center New York Ny Usa a collaborative design 192834 expanded 194773

Rockefeller Center has been included in this bought the lease to the site from the univer- collection of case studies because of its pre- sity. His desire was to create a development cedent setting character. Nowadays it might that would improve an area close to his even be regarded as a Neo-Traditional design family home on 54th Street. What was built in the way its buildings meet and form the was the first set of high-rise buildings any- street. Its designers would be aghast at hearing where...

The Products of Landscape Architecture Malls Squares Streets and Parks

The design of streets, squares, parks and other public spaces is often referred to as urban design by landscape architects. A number of the Bruner Awards for urban design, which have an intellectual basis in the broad thinking about the functions of built form represented in Figure 1.6, have gone to such designs. Many, if not most, of such spaces are actually designed by architects rather than landscape architects perhaps because of their 'hard' rather than their 'green' character. Sometimes...

Healthy Biogenic Environment and Sustainable Development

All urban design projects change the nature of the terrestrial environment in which they are located. In terms of the health of the planet many of these changes have been detrimental. Cities suffer from high levels of pollution, many rivers are filthy, and irreplaceable energy resources are being depleted. Designing for a healthy natural environment and a built world healthy for people are two sides of the same coin. Dealing with the polluting effects of human wastes, automobiles and industries...

The Impact of Vandalism Crime and Terrorism

Vandalism and crime in general have a major impact on city life especially for the vulnerable in society. The vandalism of playgrounds, street furniture and other elements of the public realm has long been a problem and has resulted in the impoverishment of the environment in many societies (Ward, 1973). Graffiti has many defenders but hardly raises the self-image of the citizens of a city except for those who create it. Fear of crime has resulted in children having fewer opportunities for...

Central Glendale California USA a traditional suburban downtown turned into an edge city 197590 1994 to the present

Glendale is a suburb of Los Angeles lying at the base of the Verduga Mountains. It has a population of about 200,000. Its central district is located on Brand Boulevard just off the Ventura Freeway that connects it to the region. The boulevard is a broad street that once had streetcars trams running down its centre. Developed by Leslie Carlton Brand in the 1920s it was lined by 2- and 3-storey mixed-use buildings that by the 1950s and 1960s had deteriorated due to the lack of entrepreneurial...

Total urban design

Total urban design occurs when an entire project is carried out under one auspice and under the direction of an individual designer or a group acting as an individual. It is completed as one piece of work from property development to design to implementation. The concern is from the broadest policy issues, to the architecture, to the landscaping and to the details of street furniture. Total urban designs include a wide variety of product types new towns, urban precincts of various descriptions...

Plugin Urban Design

Plug-in urban design refers to the design and implementation of an infrastructure project in order to obtain some catalytic reaction. There are two types of plug-in urban design projects. The first type involves the provision of the infrastructure of, usually, a precinct of a city or suburb, and the selling of sites into which individual developers can plug buildings. The second type involves plugging the infrastructure into an existing urban fabric to enhance its amenity value. Sometimes the...

Commentary Is Planning just Urban Design Is Urban Design just Planning

The overlap between mainstream urban planning and urban design concerns is clearly substantial, particularly in precinct planning and design. It is easy, but misleading, to see the process of planning as a unidirectional one in which city-planning decisions are translated into urban design decisions that are then translated into building and landscape designs. The flow of decision-making should go the other way as well. Important decisions at the detailed level have ramifications for...

Paternoster Square London England UK a second go at an important urban precinct 19562003

Paternoster Square Analys

Paternoster Square is the only case study in this book where one new urban design project was demolished and replaced by another. The precinct's history highlights (1) the necessity to take market conditions into consideration in designing complexes of buildings, (2) the danger of embracing a currently fashionable design paradigm that is inappropriate for dealing with the task at hand and (3) the impact of changing clients on the urban designing process. In addition, designing a complex...

The traditional design

Professions, their products and urban design One of the reasons for there being so much confusion over the nature of urban design is that each of the traditional design professions regards the products of its own domain as urban design if they are located in cities. In addition, architects assume many urban problems can be treated as architecture, landscape architects as landscape architecture and city planners as city planning. They look at urban design through the norms of their professional...

George Street Sydney Australia a street upgrading project 19979

The responsibility for planning and managing change in the City of Sydney (as opposed to the metropolitan area) has been the responsibility of the Sydney City Council since its inception in 1855. The state government, however, has retained its veto power over planning and urban design decisions in the city. The redesign of George Street is an example of a landscape project often referred to as urban design. It was carried out under one auspice even though a number of eminent consultants were...

The products of landscape architecture and the nature of urban design

All, without exception, total and all-of-a-piece urban designs include elements of landscape architecture. Many plug-in urban designs are landscape design projects and vice versa. The historical trails, squares and parks described here are all plugged into existing city frameworks to act as catalysts for development or, at least, to halt decay. What then differentiates the products of landscape architecture from those of urban design The landscape quality of open spaces is crucial to the...

Case studies current and future issues in urban design

The urban designs, landscapes and buildings described in the case studies presented in this book have, with a few exceptions, been remarkably successful. The people who visit, use or live in them generally enjoy the results. They have been thoughtful responses to the concerns they address as their clients, property developers and designers have perceived the issues to be. None are whimsical, highly egotistical statements, although many have strongly opinionated designers behind them. A couple...

Carrots and Sticks in Urban Design

Both incentives and disincentives have been widely used to shape cities and often form part of piece-by-piece urban design packages to structure city precincts in specific directions (see Chapter 9). The incentives involve financial subsidies in some form or other. The sticks involve measures that are financially punitive, directly or indirectly. Many urban design control packages have both punitive and incentive components operating simultaneously in order to get schemes built in accordance...

England UK the urban design of 98598 but continuing

Olympia And York Detailed Plan Canary

Buildings) and landscaped open space. It is served by a light-rail system and, belatedly in 2000, by an underground railway station on the Jubilee Line (see Chapter 10). The site extends over 86 acres (34.4 hectares) of which about 20 is landscaped open space. To get to this state has been a harrowing experience. In the 1980s, the British government under Thatcher took over control of the Docklands area from the five local borough governments responsible for it and established the London...

Seaside Florida USA a seaside vacation town 1981 to the present

Form Based Code Seaside

Seaside is an example of a tightly controlled all-of-a-piece urban design. It is also an example of what was called Neo-Traditional urban design but now goes by the name of the New Urbanism. The developer was and is Robert Davis who inherited 80 acres (32 hectares) on the panhandle (Gulf of Mexico) coast ofFlorida from his grandfather in 1970. Davis wanted to create a vacation town based on his memory of those he knew and loved as a boy. He recalls The idea of Seaside started with the notion of...

Sense of Place

It is not always that desired by critics lay-people often grieve for the lost identity of places with which they are familiar Figure 11.6 An illustrative diagram of the vertical segregation of movement systems. Figure 11.6 An illustrative diagram of the vertical segregation of movement systems. after changes have been made. It is not simply the result of a 'shock of the new'. It is a deep-seated feeling that what is being built is out of place. It affords no...

Battery Park City New York Ny Usa a new town intown 1962 to 2002 but continuing

Battery Park Design

Whether or not one cares for the design of Battery Park City, it is arguably the exemplar of an all-of-a-piece urban precinct design in the United States. Chronologically, it predates Canary Wharf, Euralille and Lujiazui but it is very different. It was not seen as a new business district but as an adjunct to an existing one. Now almost completed (and repaired after the events of11 September 2001 when it was much damaged see page 379 for a 2004 view) Battery Park City's development history is...

References and further reading

Architecture and Identity Responses to Cultural and Technological Change (second edition). Oxford Architectural Press. Adjmi, Morris, ed. (1991). Aldo Rossi Architecture, 1981-1991. New York Princeton University Press. A great place to live (2001). The Guardian. Friday, 7 September. http www.guardian.co.uk g2.story 0,3604,548152,00.html Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (circa 2000). The Heritage Walk in Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad Danapith. Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa and...

Raleigh Park Sydney Australia a marketoriented suburban design 19822000

Australia Urban Parks Designs

The creation of total urban designs is not straightforward in democratic countries even when there is considerable financial and or political clout behind their design and development. Raleigh Park is a 30-acre (12.34-hectare) development on a triangular site in south-central Sydney. It is a total urban design - a suburban precinct based on Garden City principles at a neighbourhood scale. It was a brown-field site. The W.D. & H.O. Wills' cigarette factory and workers' recreational facilities...

An inner city development

Complex designed by Chamberlain, Powell and Bon in 1959 that is the example of a total urban design project described here. The design for the site, however, went through several iterations before that design became the one implemented. During the 1950s, traffic congestion resulting from the increasing employment in the City was a major problem requiring attention. While the number ofjobs located there was soaring, the residential population of the City had plummeted from 125,000 in 1851 to...

Contents

A preliminary note on urban design xxi Case studies successes and failures xxiii The selection of the case studies xxiv Part 1 The Nature of Urban Design and Urban Designing 3 1 The public realm of cities and urban design 6 The elements of the physical public realm 7 The functions of the physical public realm 10 The public realm of decision-making 17 The scope of concern of public sector decision-making 17 The quasi-public role of property developers 19 The objectives of urban design 20 The...

Pioneer Place Portland Oregon USA building in context 197990

Central Portland has a number of characteristics that make it unusual amongst American cities. The first difference is that its blocks are small (200 feet square 61 metres square) and the streets are narrow (60 to 80 feet 18 to 24 metres) thus providing a pedestrian friendly, easily walkable environment. Secondly, the downtown area has block-sized parks. (There is also a linear park along the western edge of the Willamette River). Thirdly, the city has many older buildings that give it both a...

Ghirardelli Square San Francisco USA recycling a building complex 19627 19824

Paternoster Square Analys

In 1893, the Ghirardelli family bought a sloping block of land bounded by North Point Street, Larkin Street, Beach Street and Polk Street in San Francisco, and constructed a red brick factory complex to carry on the chocolate making company founded by their ancestor, Domingo Ghirardelli in 1849. The factory complex was built between 1900 and 1916. The family enterprise was bought by the Golden Grain Macaroni Company in the early 1960s and moved to San Leandro, California. The factory buildings...

The Functions of the Physical Public Realm

Hornimon Circle Plan

Conceptually, the functions afforded by the built environment have not changed over the millennia. What has changed is what its users, policy-makers and designers consider important. Designers seldom consciously include more than a limited set of the potential functions that the built environment can serve in their analyses and designs. The world is too complex for every function of built form to be considered simultaneously. The same patterns of the physical public realm, either as...

USA an illfated public housing 1956 demolished 1972

Louis Public Housing Projects Images

These galleries were designed to be playgrounds for children and gathering places for adults. In 1951, the scheme received high praise in an Architectural Forum editorial for saving 'not only people but also money'. The editors of the journal saw the complex as being a worthwhile design paradigm for the future. The reality proved to be different. The household mix was not what was expected. Single-mother, welfare-dependent households overwhelmingly inhabited the...

Clarke Quay Singapore an abandoned warehouse area 198993 2003

Singapore is a city-state with a democratically elected government that is very much involved in planning and development matters. Responsibility for planning and design lies with the country's cabinet. It delegates authority to the Urban Redevelopment Authority URA which is the de facto planning department. It has the degree of cooperation between various agencies charged with urban development that many other cities envy. There is thus a high degree of consensus about what schemes should be...

Aranya Township Indore

Aranya Township, Indore, India a sites-and-services scheme 1983-96 Aranya meaning forest Township is a 7000-plot predominantly sites-and-services project located on an 86-hectare 212-acre site on the fringe of Indore. The scheme was created for a projected population of about nine people per household making a total of 63,000 people. The developer was the Indore Development Authority IDA and the architect was Balkrishna V. Doshi and his Vastu Shilpa Foundation of Ahmedabad. The target...

Kuching Waterfront Sarawak Malaysia a waterfront park as a catalyst for urban redevelopment 198993

Srawa Waterfront Park

Kuching lies on the Sungai Sarawak 20 kilometres in from the sea. The city's riverfront used to be the regional shipping and distribution point of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It intervened or acted as a seam, depending on one's point of view, between the commercial area on Main Bazaar and the river. The commercial area contained Chinese shop-houses, a high-rise hotel and office buildings. The development of a road network and air transportation during the 1960s and 1970s, and the change in...

The Avenue of the Victory of Socialism Bucharest Romania a government precinct 197789 but continuing

After World War II a communist dictatorship was established in Romania under President Nicolae Ceausescu. Ceausescu initiated a number of large-scale urban design projects as part of his programme to turn Romania into a modern country. These efforts focused on Bucharest, a city that was badly damaged by a major earthquake in early 1977. In rebuilding the city Ceausescu announced that new buildings would have to be designed along modern lines. He also seized the opportunity to demolish many...

The Guggenheim Museum completed 1997 and the Abandoibarra master plan Bilbao Spain a building as a catalyst for

During the 1990s, the city of Bilbao turned a corner. It was a declining port city in the Basque region of northern Spain largely unknown to the world. Today it is very different. A number of major projects developed by the Basque government have regenerated and modernized the city the Metro, the Euskalduna Congress Hall, the Tramway, the Port of Abra, the Airport and the most important of all in bringing Bilbao to the eyes of the world, the Guggenheim Museum see Figure 6.4 . These projects...

Pariser Platz Berlin Germany an historic square revived 1992 to the present

Pariser Platz Stimmann

After the reunification of Berlin in 1989, and the dismantling of the wall that ran through it dividing East and West Berlin, Pariser Platz became available for reconstruction. It had been lying empty since being destroyed in World War II. During this period it lay in the East Berlin, or Russian sector, of the city that served as the capital of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik GDR . The square is bounded on one side by the Brandenberg Gate which terminates the vista down Unten den Linden the...

Tiergarten Robert Krier Plan 1987

Rob Krier Berlin Housing

Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse, Berlin, Germany a demonstration project 1980-6 The Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse, Mietwohnungsbau financing the project. located in the southern Tiergarten neigh- The overall urban design plan was developed bourhood of Berlin, was carried out as part by Rob Krier who also wrote the design of the Internationale Bauausstellung. The guidelines for each of the buildings located developer was Land Berlin with Sozialer on the site. In many ways the project is a...

The Shanghai Waterfront Park Shanghai Peoples Republic of China a proposed integrated park and building urban design

Shanghai Waterfront Proposal

Battery Park City, Canary Wharf and Darling Harbour described in Chapter 8 , the port facilities developed in Shanghai during the first half of the twentieth century have become redundant. With the development of mega-projects in the city - the Pudong in particular - the heavily polluted Huangpu River, wide though it is, instead of being the eastern edge of the city's core, has become a seam for development. The recent abandonment of many waterfront industries...

Pedestrian Malls Walkways and Experiential Trails

Famous Urban Designers

Links, as part of urban design projects, can take many forms depending on the mode of transport being used. At one level of speed of movement it involves the use of vehicles. At another, walkways, stairways and arcades have been designed to enhance the experience of pedestrians. Sometimes the purpose is simply to provide shelter and comfort, but at other times it is to enhance the sequential experiencing of cities as one walks their streets. One of the prejudices of many design professionals is...

The cemetery of San Cataldo Modena Italy a necropolis in a set of buildings 19716

Jewish Cemetery Modena

A cemetery in much of the world is a horizontal necropolis, sometimes consuming acres and acres of land. Cemeteries can also be buildings. Either way they are cities of the dead. They have an ambiguous position when it comes to urban design and architecture. The cemetery in Porto Alegre, Brazil see Figure 6.13 is clearly a building, but that cannot be said for the cemetery at Modena, although its architect said that it was 'considered as a building'. Aldo Rossi, the Italian neo-Rationalist...

Lujiazui Pudong Shanghai Peoples Republic of China a global business precinct 1990

Lujiazui Masterplan 1992

The Lujiazui also sometimes spelt Lu Jia Zui Finance and Trade Zone in Pudong, Shanghai is not only a good example of an all-of-a-piece urban design with highly laissez-faire overtones, but also a good example of the urban design and architectural values being displayed in China and many other Asian countries today. In China similar efforts can be seen the Fu-tian new district in Shenzhen and the River North area of Chongqing. Lujiazui is the largest single-construction site in the world....

So What Then is Urban Design

The case studies included in this volume show the breadth of urban design work. The field is concerned with specific design products varying in type from new towns, to precincts of cities, to elements of city infrastructure. The size of urban design endeavours has varied considerably over the past 50 years. Brasilia is a national capital, Pariser Platz is a square, and Trudeslund consists of a group of houses. It is always concerned with the three- and preferably the four-dimensional world....