Urban Design Procedural Types and Product Types

I stated earlier that there are four major procedural types of urban design. They were 1 total urban design where one team is in control of the whole project 2 all-of-a-piece urban design where one team creates a master, or conceptual, plan and writes guidelines for the development of individual sites within that plan by different entrepreneurs and their architects 3 piece-by-piece urban design where proposals to get specific activities into an area are controlled by zoning codes and incentives...

Rockefeller Center New York Ny Usa a collaborative design 192834 expanded 194773

Rockefeller Center has been included in this bought the lease to the site from the univer- collection of case studies because of its pre- sity. His desire was to create a development cedent setting character. Nowadays it might that would improve an area close to his even be regarded as a Neo-Traditional design family home on 54th Street. What was built in the way its buildings meet and form the was the first set of high-rise buildings any- street. Its designers would be aghast at hearing where...

The Capital Complex Chandigarh India a civic design 195362 still incomplete

Chandigarh, a new state capital, resulted from the partitioning of the state of Punjab partly into India and partly into Pakistan on independence in 1947. The Capital Complex stands outside the main body of the new city itself. Its site is approximately 400 metres north-south and 800 metres east-west in dimension. It was designed by Le Corbusier and superseded an earlier design by Mathew Nowicki who died in an aircraft accident in 1951. B. V. Doshi was the very young site architect. The...

Case Study

Paseo del Rio, San Antonio, Texas, USA a riverside walkway (1939-41, 1962 to the present and continuing) The San Antonio River has its source 3 miles north of the city. In the downtown area it has paved walks along its banks. The design and implementation of these walkways, known as Paseo del Rio, or Riverwalk, is a pioneering example of a consciously designed riverfront park integrated with the buildings around it. In 1984 it received a Distinguished Achievement Award in the American Institute...

The Products of Landscape Architecture Malls Squares Streets and Parks

The design of streets, squares, parks and other public spaces is often referred to as urban design by landscape architects. A number of the Bruner Awards for urban design, which have an intellectual basis in the broad thinking about the functions of built form represented in Figure 1.6, have gone to such designs. Many, if not most, of such spaces are actually designed by architects rather than landscape architects perhaps because of their 'hard' rather than their 'green' character. Sometimes...

Healthy Biogenic Environment and Sustainable Development

All urban design projects change the nature of the terrestrial environment in which they are located. In terms of the health of the planet many of these changes have been detrimental. Cities suffer from high levels of pollution, many rivers are filthy, and irreplaceable energy resources are being depleted. Designing for a healthy natural environment and a built world healthy for people are two sides of the same coin. Dealing with the polluting effects of human wastes, automobiles and industries...

The Impact of Vandalism Crime and Terrorism

Vandalism and crime in general have a major impact on city life especially for the vulnerable in society. The vandalism of playgrounds, street furniture and other elements of the public realm has long been a problem and has resulted in the impoverishment of the environment in many societies (Ward, 1973). Graffiti has many defenders but hardly raises the self-image of the citizens of a city except for those who create it. Fear of crime has resulted in children having fewer opportunities for...

Central Glendale California USA a traditional suburban downtown turned into an edge city 197590 1994 to the present

Glendale is a suburb of Los Angeles lying at the base of the Verduga Mountains. It has a population of about 200,000. Its central district is located on Brand Boulevard just off the Ventura Freeway that connects it to the region. The boulevard is a broad street that once had streetcars trams running down its centre. Developed by Leslie Carlton Brand in the 1920s it was lined by 2- and 3-storey mixed-use buildings that by the 1950s and 1960s had deteriorated due to the lack of entrepreneurial...

Total urban design

Total urban design occurs when an entire project is carried out under one auspice and under the direction of an individual designer or a group acting as an individual. It is completed as one piece of work from property development to design to implementation. The concern is from the broadest policy issues, to the architecture, to the landscaping and to the details of street furniture. Total urban designs include a wide variety of product types new towns, urban precincts of various descriptions...

Plugin Urban Design

Plug-in urban design refers to the design and implementation of an infrastructure project in order to obtain some catalytic reaction. There are two types of plug-in urban design projects. The first type involves the provision of the infrastructure of, usually, a precinct of a city or suburb, and the selling of sites into which individual developers can plug buildings. The second type involves plugging the infrastructure into an existing urban fabric to enhance its amenity value. Sometimes the...

Commentary Is Planning just Urban Design Is Urban Design just Planning

The overlap between mainstream urban planning and urban design concerns is clearly substantial, particularly in precinct planning and design. It is easy, but misleading, to see the process of planning as a unidirectional one in which city-planning decisions are translated into urban design decisions that are then translated into building and landscape designs. The flow of decision-making should go the other way as well. Important decisions at the detailed level have ramifications for...

Paternoster Square London England UK a second go at an important urban precinct 19562003

Paternoster Square Analys

Paternoster Square is the only case study in this book where one new urban design project was demolished and replaced by another. The precinct's history highlights (1) the necessity to take market conditions into consideration in designing complexes of buildings, (2) the danger of embracing a currently fashionable design paradigm that is inappropriate for dealing with the task at hand and (3) the impact of changing clients on the urban designing process. In addition, designing a complex...

The traditional design

Professions, their products and urban design One of the reasons for there being so much confusion over the nature of urban design is that each of the traditional design professions regards the products of its own domain as urban design if they are located in cities. In addition, architects assume many urban problems can be treated as architecture, landscape architects as landscape architecture and city planners as city planning. They look at urban design through the norms of their professional...

George Street Sydney Australia a street upgrading project 19979

The responsibility for planning and managing change in the City of Sydney (as opposed to the metropolitan area) has been the responsibility of the Sydney City Council since its inception in 1855. The state government, however, has retained its veto power over planning and urban design decisions in the city. The redesign of George Street is an example of a landscape project often referred to as urban design. It was carried out under one auspice even though a number of eminent consultants were...

The products of landscape architecture and the nature of urban design

All, without exception, total and all-of-a-piece urban designs include elements of landscape architecture. Many plug-in urban designs are landscape design projects and vice versa. The historical trails, squares and parks described here are all plugged into existing city frameworks to act as catalysts for development or, at least, to halt decay. What then differentiates the products of landscape architecture from those of urban design The landscape quality of open spaces is crucial to the...

Case studies current and future issues in urban design

The urban designs, landscapes and buildings described in the case studies presented in this book have, with a few exceptions, been remarkably successful. The people who visit, use or live in them generally enjoy the results. They have been thoughtful responses to the concerns they address as their clients, property developers and designers have perceived the issues to be. None are whimsical, highly egotistical statements, although many have strongly opinionated designers behind them. A couple...

Carrots and Sticks in Urban Design

Both incentives and disincentives have been widely used to shape cities and often form part of piece-by-piece urban design packages to structure city precincts in specific directions (see Chapter 9). The incentives involve financial subsidies in some form or other. The sticks involve measures that are financially punitive, directly or indirectly. Many urban design control packages have both punitive and incentive components operating simultaneously in order to get schemes built in accordance...

England UK the urban design of 98598 but continuing

Olympia And York Detailed Plan Canary

Buildings) and landscaped open space. It is served by a light-rail system and, belatedly in 2000, by an underground railway station on the Jubilee Line (see Chapter 10). The site extends over 86 acres (34.4 hectares) of which about 20 is landscaped open space. To get to this state has been a harrowing experience. In the 1980s, the British government under Thatcher took over control of the Docklands area from the five local borough governments responsible for it and established the London...

Seaside Florida USA a seaside vacation town 1981 to the present

Form Based Code Seaside

Seaside is an example of a tightly controlled all-of-a-piece urban design. It is also an example of what was called Neo-Traditional urban design but now goes by the name of the New Urbanism. The developer was and is Robert Davis who inherited 80 acres (32 hectares) on the panhandle (Gulf of Mexico) coast ofFlorida from his grandfather in 1970. Davis wanted to create a vacation town based on his memory of those he knew and loved as a boy. He recalls The idea of Seaside started with the notion of...

Sense of Place

It is not always that desired by critics lay-people often grieve for the lost identity of places with which they are familiar Figure 11.6 An illustrative diagram of the vertical segregation of movement systems. Figure 11.6 An illustrative diagram of the vertical segregation of movement systems. after changes have been made. It is not simply the result of a 'shock of the new'. It is a deep-seated feeling that what is being built is out of place. It affords no...

Battery Park City New York Ny Usa a new town intown 1962 to 2002 but continuing

Battery Park Design

Whether or not one cares for the design of Battery Park City, it is arguably the exemplar of an all-of-a-piece urban precinct design in the United States. Chronologically, it predates Canary Wharf, Euralille and Lujiazui but it is very different. It was not seen as a new business district but as an adjunct to an existing one. Now almost completed (and repaired after the events of11 September 2001 when it was much damaged see page 379 for a 2004 view) Battery Park City's development history is...

References and further reading

Architecture and Identity Responses to Cultural and Technological Change (second edition). Oxford Architectural Press. Adjmi, Morris, ed. (1991). Aldo Rossi Architecture, 1981-1991. New York Princeton University Press. A great place to live (2001). The Guardian. Friday, 7 September. http www.guardian.co.uk g2.story 0,3604,548152,00.html Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (circa 2000). The Heritage Walk in Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad Danapith. Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa and...

Raleigh Park Sydney Australia a marketoriented suburban design 19822000

Australia Urban Parks Designs

The creation of total urban designs is not straightforward in democratic countries even when there is considerable financial and or political clout behind their design and development. Raleigh Park is a 30-acre (12.34-hectare) development on a triangular site in south-central Sydney. It is a total urban design - a suburban precinct based on Garden City principles at a neighbourhood scale. It was a brown-field site. The W.D. & H.O. Wills' cigarette factory and workers' recreational facilities...

An inner city development

Complex designed by Chamberlain, Powell and Bon in 1959 that is the example of a total urban design project described here. The design for the site, however, went through several iterations before that design became the one implemented. During the 1950s, traffic congestion resulting from the increasing employment in the City was a major problem requiring attention. While the number ofjobs located there was soaring, the residential population of the City had plummeted from 125,000 in 1851 to...

Contents

A preliminary note on urban design xxi Case studies successes and failures xxiii The selection of the case studies xxiv Part 1 The Nature of Urban Design and Urban Designing 3 1 The public realm of cities and urban design 6 The elements of the physical public realm 7 The functions of the physical public realm 10 The public realm of decision-making 17 The scope of concern of public sector decision-making 17 The quasi-public role of property developers 19 The objectives of urban design 20 The...

Ghirardelli Square San Francisco USA recycling a building complex 19627 19824

Paternoster Square Analys

In 1893, the Ghirardelli family bought a sloping block of land bounded by North Point Street, Larkin Street, Beach Street and Polk Street in San Francisco, and constructed a red brick factory complex to carry on the chocolate making company founded by their ancestor, Domingo Ghirardelli in 1849. The factory complex was built between 1900 and 1916. The family enterprise was bought by the Golden Grain Macaroni Company in the early 1960s and moved to San Leandro, California. The factory buildings...

The Functions of the Physical Public Realm

Hornimon Circle Plan

Conceptually, the functions afforded by the built environment have not changed over the millennia. What has changed is what its users, policy-makers and designers consider important. Designers seldom consciously include more than a limited set of the potential functions that the built environment can serve in their analyses and designs. The world is too complex for every function of built form to be considered simultaneously. The same patterns of the physical public realm, either as...

USA an illfated public housing 1956 demolished 1972

Pruitt Igoe Apartment Pictures

These galleries were designed to be playgrounds for children and gathering places for adults. In 1951, the scheme received high praise in an Architectural Forum editorial for saving 'not only people but also money'. The editors of the journal saw the complex as being a worthwhile design paradigm for the future. The reality proved to be different. The household mix was not what was expected. Single-mother, welfare-dependent households overwhelmingly inhabited the...

Clarke Quay Singapore an abandoned warehouse area 198993 2003

Singapore is a city-state with a democratically elected government that is very much involved in planning and development matters. Responsibility for planning and design lies with the country's cabinet. It delegates authority to the Urban Redevelopment Authority URA which is the de facto planning department. It has the degree of cooperation between various agencies charged with urban development that many other cities envy. There is thus a high degree of consensus about what schemes should be...

The GSFC Township Vadodara India

The Indian government has a policy of decentralizing industries. To attract workers to locations outside their home states, townships have to be built to house them at subsidized rates in attractive surroundings. There are many such towns in India providing for a wide variety of industry types. State governments have followed suit. The GSFC is one such organization. Its township on the outskirts of Vadodara formerly Baroda is one such company town. It is an example of an urban design where the...

Kuching Waterfront Sarawak Malaysia a waterfront park as a catalyst for urban redevelopment 198993

Srawa Waterfront Park

Kuching lies on the Sungai Sarawak 20 kilometres in from the sea. The city's riverfront used to be the regional shipping and distribution point of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It intervened or acted as a seam, depending on one's point of view, between the commercial area on Main Bazaar and the river. The commercial area contained Chinese shop-houses, a high-rise hotel and office buildings. The development of a road network and air transportation during the 1960s and 1970s, and the change in...

The Avenue of the Victory of Socialism Bucharest Romania a government precinct 197789 but continuing

After World War II a communist dictatorship was established in Romania under President Nicolae Ceausescu. Ceausescu initiated a number of large-scale urban design projects as part of his programme to turn Romania into a modern country. These efforts focused on Bucharest, a city that was badly damaged by a major earthquake in early 1977. In rebuilding the city Ceausescu announced that new buildings would have to be designed along modern lines. He also seized the opportunity to demolish many...

The Guggenheim Museum completed 1997 and the Abandoibarra master plan Bilbao Spain a building as a catalyst for

During the 1990s, the city of Bilbao turned a corner. It was a declining port city in the Basque region of northern Spain largely unknown to the world. Today it is very different. A number of major projects developed by the Basque government have regenerated and modernized the city the Metro, the Euskalduna Congress Hall, the Tramway, the Port of Abra, the Airport and the most important of all in bringing Bilbao to the eyes of the world, the Guggenheim Museum see Figure 6.4 . These projects...

Pariser Platz Berlin Germany an historic square revived 1992 to the present

Pariser Platz Stimmann

After the reunification of Berlin in 1989, and the dismantling of the wall that ran through it dividing East and West Berlin, Pariser Platz became available for reconstruction. It had been lying empty since being destroyed in World War II. During this period it lay in the East Berlin, or Russian sector, of the city that served as the capital of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik GDR . The square is bounded on one side by the Brandenberg Gate which terminates the vista down Unten den Linden the...

Tiergarten Robert Krier Plan 1987

Rauchstrasse Block Krier And Others

Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse, Berlin, Germany a demonstration project 1980-6 The Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse, Mietwohnungsbau financing the project. located in the southern Tiergarten neigh- The overall urban design plan was developed bourhood of Berlin, was carried out as part by Rob Krier who also wrote the design of the Internationale Bauausstellung. The guidelines for each of the buildings located developer was Land Berlin with Sozialer on the site. In many ways the project is a...

The Shanghai Waterfront Park Shanghai Peoples Republic of China a proposed integrated park and building urban design

Shanghai Waterfront Proposal

Battery Park City, Canary Wharf and Darling Harbour described in Chapter 8 , the port facilities developed in Shanghai during the first half of the twentieth century have become redundant. With the development of mega-projects in the city - the Pudong in particular - the heavily polluted Huangpu River, wide though it is, instead of being the eastern edge of the city's core, has become a seam for development. The recent abandonment of many waterfront industries...

Pedestrian Malls Walkways and Experiential Trails

Famous Urban Designers

Links, as part of urban design projects, can take many forms depending on the mode of transport being used. At one level of speed of movement it involves the use of vehicles. At another, walkways, stairways and arcades have been designed to enhance the experience of pedestrians. Sometimes the purpose is simply to provide shelter and comfort, but at other times it is to enhance the sequential experiencing of cities as one walks their streets. One of the prejudices of many design professionals is...

The cemetery of San Cataldo Modena Italy a necropolis in a set of buildings 19716

Jewish Cemetery Modena

A cemetery in much of the world is a horizontal necropolis, sometimes consuming acres and acres of land. Cemeteries can also be buildings. Either way they are cities of the dead. They have an ambiguous position when it comes to urban design and architecture. The cemetery in Porto Alegre, Brazil see Figure 6.13 is clearly a building, but that cannot be said for the cemetery at Modena, although its architect said that it was 'considered as a building'. Aldo Rossi, the Italian neo-Rationalist...

Lujiazui Pudong Shanghai Peoples Republic of China a global business precinct 1990

Shanghai Tower Masterplan

The Lujiazui also sometimes spelt Lu Jia Zui Finance and Trade Zone in Pudong, Shanghai is not only a good example of an all-of-a-piece urban design with highly laissez-faire overtones, but also a good example of the urban design and architectural values being displayed in China and many other Asian countries today. In China similar efforts can be seen the Fu-tian new district in Shenzhen and the River North area of Chongqing. Lujiazui is the largest single-construction site in the world....

So What Then is Urban Design

The case studies included in this volume show the breadth of urban design work. The field is concerned with specific design products varying in type from new towns, to precincts of cities, to elements of city infrastructure. The size of urban design endeavours has varied considerably over the past 50 years. Brasilia is a national capital, Pariser Platz is a square, and Trudeslund consists of a group of houses. It is always concerned with the three- and preferably the four-dimensional world....