Capital Cities

Custom-built capital cities are much shaped by the motivation to make them symbols of their country or state. This necessity is particularly strongly felt and displayed in the design of their governmental precincts as is clear in the design of Washington, colonial New Delhi, Brasilia, Chandigarh, Islamabad, and, more recently, Abuja and Belmopan. Even more recently, there are the examples of Yamoussoukro in the Ivory Coast, and currently Putra Jaya in Malaysia. The scale of these endeavours varies considerably with Yamoussoukro being the most grandiose and Belmopan, the least. Brasilia is the only one that is really a total urban design and then only in its formal area. Chandigarh may have had an overall total infrastructure design but its components have been carried out piece-by-piece in accordance with general zoning codes and building byelaws. Only its capital and city centre complexes remain total designs. Brasilia is the exemplar of a total urban design guided by strong political and architectural ideologies. Its urban design process was quite autocratic in nature.

Will new capital cities be designed in the future? The relocation of national and state capitals is still talked about in various countries with varying degrees of seriousness. In 2004 the establishment of a new capital for South Korea was blocked by that country's constitutional court. There are continuing low key discussions of new capital cities for Argentine and Japan, and a state capital more centrally located than Juneau for Alaska. Possibly, the balkanization of regions of the world may result in new capital cities. Presumably when Chandigarh (at present serving as the capital of two Indian states: Punjab and Haryana) becomes solely the capital of Punjab, Haryana will require its own. Much depends on the drive of individual leaders to celebrate their own states and themselves.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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