Company Towns

A company town is a planned settlement for workers of a single-industrial organization. Many were built in Western Europe and the Americas during the nineteenth century as a response to the 'coke towns' of the industrializing world. They were predominantly private enterprise developments and every aspect of the physical town, and often life within it, was under company control. Some are well known. Bourneville in England (1879+), Pullman, Illinois (1880-4), the earlier Le Cruesot and Mulhouse in France and the Krupp industry towns in Germany amongst many others had both physical and social objectives in mind and were both autocratic and paternalistic. Such towns are characterized by company-built community facilities and housing. The housing is very much all the same with the more senior staff having the larger abodes. The manager's house is often distinctive.

Other company towns have been resource oriented. Many were located at the sources of mines. Wells, British Columbia (1937-67), for example, served the Gold Quartz Mine and had a population of 4500 at its peak. It was sold off when the mine closed in 1967. It now has a population of 250 people. Nhulunbuy

(1966+) in northern Australia is a town of 4000 people developed to exploit bauxite deposits. It flourishes still. Such towns will continue to be built while the earth's resources that are located away from major centres are exploited.

Most manufacturing-industry-based company towns were and are located in the suburban areas of cities. With the improvement of both individual and mass transportation and the provision of government funded housing programmes during the twentieth century, private enterprise company towns became unnecessary. Manufacturing-based company towns are, nevertheless, like mining towns, still being built. The reason for their existence did, however, change during the second half of the twentieth century. They were part of national policies for redistributing employment opportunities and population.

Internationally known architects designed some company towns. B. V. Doshi designed the GSFC Township described here. It is a thoughtfully considered company town, but many have been designed in a hurried fashion, because they are expected to be short lived. All company towns, whether designed by famous architects or not, have much in common. In particular, it is that design control is centralized. More than any other type of new town they tend to be total urban designs. Some follow the Garden City paradigm; others are Rationalist. Others (e.g. Yorkship Village - now Fairview - in Camden, New Jersey, 1918) are domestic scale City Beautiful schemes. A number, such as Fairview, have survived the demise of their parent company.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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