Conclusion

Urban design encompasses much. The objective of this book has been to display and understand its range of activities through the provision of a typology for classifying design projects. It has also presented a number of descriptive case studies that illuminate the typology. Case studies are probably the easiest way to display the work subsumed under the rubric 'urban design'. They have been categorized here by the process by which they have been carried out and by the type of product they are. Classification by type of product has been the tradition in architecture, but classifying by process gets closer to the essence of the nature of urban designing. Either way, the goal has been to show the scope of concern of urban designers.

The nature of its cities is an indicator of the state of a culture. Cultures are in a state of constant flux, sometimes slowly as in the second half of the twentieth century in the Western world and sometimes rapidly as in the first half. The economically developing world is rapidly undergoing the major upheavals, social, political and physical, that the so-called first world experienced more slowly earlier. Technological changes accompanied by a rise in the economic state of a society inevitably raise questions of what its people want to be and what kinds of environments, social and physical, they want to inhabit. Urban design activities will continue and will be buffeted by changes in the political attitudes that shape the future.

Urban designing will always require acts of will on the part of individual design professionals and lay-people, citizens, and politicians. In taking the field forward much can be learnt from the successes and limitations of the processes and products of the last half-century. There are now many fine examples of policies that have led to fine urban designs. There are many fine projects around the world. My own hope is that urban design will continue as a collaborative professional activity - a collaboration between public and private sectors of the economy, a collaboration between politicians, design professions and citizens, and between research and practice. If it is really to serve people well in the long run it must be based on an increasingly sophisticated body of knowledge about how cities function and the relationship between environment and human behaviour. It must be based on a much greater understanding of how the built and natural worlds interact than we now possess. More rigorous case studies than those presented here would steepen all designers' learning curve and would highlight what makes urban design an important and a unique professional activity.

Bellevue, Washington in 1989
Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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