Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiii

The text xiii

Illustrations xiv

A final acknowledgement xiv

Introduction: the argument xix

An observation xx

A preliminary note on urban design xxi

An evolving typology xxii

Case studies: successes and failures xxiii

The selection of the case studies xxiv

Developing the argument xxvi

Part 1 The Nature of Urban Design and Urban Designing 3

1 The public realm of cities and urban design 6

The physical public realm 7

The elements of the physical public realm 7

The functions of the physical public realm 10

The public realm of decision-making 17

The scope of concern of public sector decision-making 17

The quasi-public role of property developers 19

The objectives of urban design 20

The issues 20

The design professions and urban design 21

Commentary 22

2 Urban design processes and procedures 24

Urban design in autocratic and democratic societies 25

The urban designing process 26

Total urban design 28

All-of-a-piece urban design 30

Piece-by-piece urban design 32

Plug-in urban design 33

Financing 33

The market 35

Controls and incentives 35

Carrots and sticks in urban design 36

Design review 39

Commentary 41

3 An evolving typology of urban design projects 42

Types and typology 42

The utility and problems of typologies 43

Urban design procedural types and product types 44

New towns 44

Precincts 45

Infrastructure design 51

Miscellaneous: individual objects in urban space 53

Urban design paradigms 53

A typology of urban design projects 56

Commentary 57

Part 2 The Traditional Design Professions, their

Products and Urban Design 59

4 The products of city planning and the nature of urban design 61

Traditional planning product types: comprehensive plans 62 The design dimension of comprehensive planning for existing cities 62

City planning public realm policies and urban design 63

Urban design as part of comprehensive planning 65

New town planning and urban design 67

Case Study: Runcorn, England, UK 69 Commentary: Is planning just urban design? Is urban design just planning? 73

5 The products of landscape architecture and the nature of urban design 75

The products of landscape architecture: malls, squares, streets and parks 75

Pedestrian malls, walkways and experiential trails 79

Case Study: Oak Park Center Mall, Oak Park, Illinois, USA 81

Case STUDY: The Freedom Trail, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 84

A NOTE: The Heritage Walk, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India 86

Squares 88

CASE STUDY: Pershing Square, Los Angeles, California, USA 90

Case STUDY: La Place des Terreaux, Lyon, France 94

Streets 97

CASE STUDY: George Street, Sydney, Australia 98

Parks 101

Case STUDY: Kuching Waterfront, Sarawak, Malaysia 102

Case Study: Parc de la Villette, Paris, France 105 A NOTE: The Shanghai Waterfront Park, Shanghai,

People's Republic of China 109

Some notes on detailing the environment 111 Commentary: Are these landscape architectural products urban design? 112

6 The products of architecture and the nature of urban design 114

The products of architecture: buildings 114

Contextual design 115

Case Study: Pioneer Place, Portland, Oregon, USA 117

Buildings as catalysts for urban development 120 Case Study: The Guggenheim Museum and the Abandoibarra master plan, Bilbao, Spain 120

Buildings as urban designs? 124

Megastructures 124

A NOTE: Arcosanti, Arizona, USA 125

Case STUDY: Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany 128

Neighbourhoods 130

Case Study: The Unité d'Habitation, Marseilles, France 131

Building complexes as urban designs 134

Case Study: The cemetery of San Cataldo, Modena, Italy 135 Case STUDY: Kresge College, University of California at

Santa Cruz, California, USA 138

Case STUDY: Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco, USA 140

Urban objects 143

Commentary: Are these architectural products urban design? 144

Part 3 The Core of Urban Design Work: Procedures and Products 147

7 Total urban design 149

The case studies 150

New towns 151

Capital cities 151

Case Study: Brasilia, Brazil 152

Company towns 157

Case Study: The GSFC Township, Vadodara, India 158

Precincts: green-field and cleared brown-field sites 161

Case Study: The Capital Complex, Chandigarh, India 162

Case STUDY: The Barbican, London, England, UK 164

Precincts: urban renewal 167

Case Study: Rockefeller Center, New York, NY, USA 168

Precincts: historic preservation and urban revitalization 173

Case Study: Clarke Quay, Singapore 174

Precincts: housing complexes 178

Case STUDY: Pruitt-Igoe, East St Louis, Missouri, USA 181

Case STUDY: Raleigh Park, Sydney, Australia 184

Case Study: Trudeslund, near Copenhagen, Denmark 187

Precincts: campuses 189 Case Study: Universidad Central de Venezuela,

Caracas, Venezuela 191 Case Study: The State University of New York at Albany,

New York, USA 195

Precincts: streets 198 Case Study: The Avenue of the Victory of Socialism,

Bucharest, Romania 199

Commentary 202

8 All-of-a-piece urban design 204

Design guidelines 205

The case studies 208

New towns 209

Case Study: Seaside, Florida, USA 210

Precincts: green-field and cleared brown-field sites 215 A NOTE: The Citizen Centre, Shenzhen,

People's Republic of China 216

Case STUDY: La Défense, Hauts-de-Seine, France 217 Case STUDY: Canary Wharf, Isle of Dogs, London, England, UK 224

Case Study: Euralille, Lille, France 229 Case Study: Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai, People's Republic of China 232

Case Study: Battery Park City, New York, NY, USA 240

Case STUDY: Paternoster Square, London, England, UK 248

Case STUDY: Pariser Platz, Berlin, Germany 254

Case STUDY: Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, Germany 259 A NOTE: The World Trade Center site development, New York, NY, USA 264

Precincts: urban renewal 270

Case Study: Charles Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 271

Case STUDY: Central Glendale, California, USA 276

Precincts: campuses 282 Case Study: The State University of New York,

Purchase, NY, USA 283 Case STUDY: The Denver Technological Center,

Denver, Colorado, USA 287

Precincts: housing 290

Case STUDY: Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse, Berlin, Germany 290

Precincts: waterfront festival markets 294

Case STUDY: Darling Harbour, Sydney, Australia 295

Commentary 300

9 Piece-by-piece urban design 304

Planning districts and urban design 304 Case Study: The Theater and other districts,

New York, NY, USA 306

Case STUDY: Central Bellevue, Washington, USA 309 CASE STUDY: The Center City District, Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania, USA 314

Commentary 317

10 Plug-in urban design 318

Plugging-in as an idea 320

The case studies 323

Urban links: binding cities into units 323

CASE STUDY: Curitiba, Brazil 325

CASE STUDY: The MRT system, Singapore 330 CASE STUDY: The Jubilee Line extension, London, England, UK 334

Precinct links: binding precincts into units 339

Designing the infrastructure to be plugged into 339

Case STUDY: Expo '92, Seville, Spain 341

Case Study: Aranya Township, Indore, India 344

Plugging in the infrastructure 346 Case Study: The skywalk system, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 347

Case STUDY: Paseo del Rio, San Antonio, Texas, USA 350

Plugging-in components: strategic investments as catalysts 353

A NOTE: Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA 354

Commentary 356

Part 4 The Future of Urban Design 359

11 Learning from the case studies: current and future issues in urban design 362

Substantive issues 364

The range of variables (and people) of concern 365

Efficiency: are efficient environments efficient? 367

The segregation and integration of activities and people 368 The segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic: the nature of streets 370

A sense of place 370

A healthy biogenic environment and sustainable development 374

Changing technologies and urban form 377

The impact of vandalism, crime and terrorism 379

Procedural issues 380

The nature of the design process 380

Who leads? 381

The nature of public consultation 383

The nature of creativity 384

Dealing with the future 385

The degree of control 387

Commentary 388

12 Afterthoughts: Urban design - field or discipline and profession? 390

So what then is urban design? 391

Urban design, a discipline? 392

Conclusion 394

References and further reading 397

Index 411

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