The planning of neighbourhoods was a preoccupation of city planners and architects for the entire twentieth century and is still a subject of major attention. Debates on the utility of the concept as a unit in urban design continue (Madanipour, 2001). Clarence Perry, a sociologist, developed the idea of the neighbourhood unit as part of the 1927, The New York Regional Plan. He proposed that all the facilities of daily life be located within walking distance of a set of residential units. The focus, or the core of the unit, would be an elementary school, shopping facilities, and a community centre (see Figure 6.10). It is a pattern central to New Urbanist thinking today.

The unit is exemplified in the design of Radburn, New Jersey which became a prototype for new residential neighbourhoods around the world (see Stein, 1957). It is the idea behind the Runcorn 'communities'. It has seldom been copied on all its dimensions, but rather only in plan and not in three dimensions. It has had mixed success when applied in plan form only. Le Corbusier also created a neighbourhood type, but it was located in a single building. It is a vertical neighbourhood. He also called it a 'unit'. It, even more so than Radburn, has had mixed success as a prototype.

It must be remembered that communities and neighbourhoods are two different phenomena. A community consists of people who interact with each other; a neighbourhood is a spatial schema. The two can coincide especially if the population is homogeneous and has shared problems and a need for mutual support. The idea that one can create a community through physical design needs to be considered with great caution. The affordances for interaction on a local level can be created but whether residents perceive or use them depends on their motivations.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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