New Town Planning and Urban Design

In the design of new towns, the comprehensive planning objectives are presented in the form of a master plan. The master plan presents a vision of what the city hopes to be at some future date. Often this master plan is a statement allocating land uses to areas based on some image of a transportation network. At other, but less frequent, times it is a three-dimensional representation of the future state of a city as was the case for Runcorn, the case study included here.

Runcorn has been chosen because it was celebrated for its architectural experiments and also because the distinction between planning and urban design is totally blurred in its development. Runcorn consists of a number of clear urban design projects within an overall master plan that was developed in three-dimensional form. Its overall organization follows a standard model. The first generation of twentieth century British new towns as well as places such as Columbia, Maryland (see Figure 4.2) all follow it. It is a normative model still widely used. A city is divided into a hierarchy of precincts. Runcorn's design was also so based on a clear transportation network that it could almost be regarded as a plug-in urban design.

The planning and designing procedures in Runcorn were similar in character to much current work in continental Europe. Planning and designing are wrapped up into a single design effort. In the development of Zuidas, the new central business district for Amsterdam, planning and urban design have gone hand-in hand. Its designers refer to their work as city planning rather than urban design showing that the distinction between the two is often not made even though much in Zuidas is architecturally specific. The same was true during the second half of the twentieth century in the communist countries of Eastern Europe. In the former Soviet Union a number offiat cities with populations as large as one million people were developed across northern and central Asia in the same manner.

Figure 4.2 The organization of Columbia, Maryland. (a) The conceptual layout of the city, (b) a view of the city centre in 1993, (c) a village centre and (d) a neighbourhood centre.

Figure 4.2 The organization of Columbia, Maryland. (a) The conceptual layout of the city, (b) a view of the city centre in 1993, (c) a village centre and (d) a neighbourhood centre.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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