New Towns

There is no census of the new towns built in the world during the second half of the twentieth century. We know that the number is vast. The proportion designed totally by one hand for one public authority or for one private developer is relatively small, but the number is still substantial. Some developments that started out as total urban designs became piece-by-piece urban designs; all have evolved since they were nominally completed. Chandigarh in India, for instance, is seen by many as the work of one man, Le Corbusier, but it has been the work of many people and is becoming more so as time passes. It started out as a total urban design on the drawing board but apart from two precincts it has evolved into a city-planning scheme with a number of urban design projects within it.

The group of total urban designs includes a national capital city, a number of state capitals in their initial stages, many cities built de novo to redistribute populations within a country and company towns. Brasilia is a national capital, while Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab, Bhubaneshwar, the capital of Orissa and Gandhinagar the capital of Gujarat, all in India, are examples of state capitals that began as total urban designs. The new towns programmes of the United Kingdom and of Soviet Union provided many examples of the second type of new town. Although none are included in this chapter, Runcorn described in Chapter 4 is an example. The Gujarat State Fertilizer Corporation (GSFC) Township in Vadodara in India is both an example of the manifestation of a government redistribution policy and a company town. Only the developments of Brasilia and the GSFC Township are described here. They fully exemplify the characteristics of new towns that are total urban designs at a large and small size, respectively.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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