Traditional Planning Product Types Comprehensive Plans

Most city-planning deals with existing cities. If its purpose is to shape the future of a city, the products will be in the form of written policies. These policies have to be accepted as binding by some legislative body - at the city level it is the municipal council - if they are to lead to any action. The task of creating specific programmes then has to be assigned to specific agencies and a budget has to be established to fund the programmes. If the goal of planning is to create a land-use pattern for the future city, the product will be in the form of a two-dimensional master plan coloured according to a code designating the type of activities (industrial, commercial, residential, etc.) that a block of land should house. Almost always the streets have been regarded as borders between land uses not as seams linking their two sides into a unified precinct. To implement such plans, zoning codes are developed, and the site coverage and, in the United States, the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) (the ratio of total usable floor area to the site known as Floor Space Ratio (FSR) elsewhere) are specified. The zoning code will assign permissible land uses but may also specify the allowable height of buildings and the number of parking places required. The goal has been to avoid conflicts between the activities that take place in each area of a city. The design implications of these ordinances on what the resulting built environments will offer are seldom fully considered. One of the reasons for the development of urban design as a specialized professional activity is that environmental quality has been poorly considered in city planning.

Urban design and city planning overlap when city planning involves the actual physical design of cities or their precincts. It overlaps when these plans deal with visions for the three-dimensional city and with methods to achieve that vision. Thus the design of Brasilia (see the case study in Chapter 7) or Seaside (see Chapter 8) can be seen as both city planning and urban design. The prime product of city planning has, however, been the comprehensive plan. It is clearly a city-planning product.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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