Blueprints For Wood Projects

16.000 Woodworking Plans and Projects

Teds Woodworking is a guide by Ted McGrath which gives detailed plans of making your own favorite woodcrafts. It helps you excel in the woodworking industry by helping you learn various skills and techniques regarding woodworking. The book is written by a professional woodworker, and hence, you will see professionalism in various parts of the book. The book will not just help you make a craft just to earn money; it will enable you to increase the quality of your work so that you earn lots of praises as well. There's only one drawback that we could find and that being with 16,000 woodworking plans you're bound to get some which look a bit disorganized but that's easy to understand as it is extremely hard to place all these plans into their good categories. Read more...

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Certified Wood Products

Certified wood products are those made from lumber harvested in a sustainable manner and certified by a reliable third party. The certifying groups most active at this time are the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). The LEED rating system only awards points for FSC-certified wood, partly for historical reasons and partly because it is the most rigorous third-party rating system. However, Green Globes and the National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB) Green Home Building Guidelines also recognize the SFI and CSA systems. As a practical matter, most of the timber harvested in the US comes from public lands and is not certified to Certified wood products all carry a chain of custody certificate that tracks the lumber from the forest to the end-user. LEED-certified projects must use certified wood products for 50 of the value of all permanent wood-based materials in a building, including flooring,...

Hardwoods And Softwoods

Commercial timbers are defined as hardwoods or softwoods according to their botanical classification rather than their physical strength. Hardwoods (an-giosperms) are from broad-leafed trees, which in temperate climates are deciduous, losing their leaves in autumn, although in tropical climates, where there is little seasonal variation, old leaves are constantly being replaced by new. Softwoods (gymnosperms) are from conifers, characteristically with needle-shaped leaves, and growing predominantly in the northern temperate zone. Mostly they are evergreen, with the notable exception of the European Larch (Larix decidua) and they include the Californian redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's largest tree with a height of over 100 metres. Although the terms hardwood and softwood arose from the physical strength of the timbers, paradoxically balsa (Ochroma lagopus), used for model-making, is botanically a hardwood, whilst yew (Taxus baccata), a strong and durable material, is defined...

Standard sizes of sawn hardwood 20 moisture content to BS EN13132 1999

Table 4.2 Maximum permitted reduction from target sawn sizes of softwoods and hardwoods by planing two opposed faces Table 4.2 Maximum permitted reduction from target sawn sizes of softwoods and hardwoods by planing two opposed faces hardwood sizes by planing two opposed faces (BS EN 1313-2 1999)

Why Hardwood Is Carbon Neutral

Environmentalists generally agree that hardwood is a carbon-neutral substance. While living, trees sequester and store carbon in their cellular structure. In fact, nearly 50 percent of the dry weight of a tree is carbon. Because hardwoods grow to be large trees, they lock in substantial amounts of carbon. However, as the tree becomes overly mature processing of mature trees sequesters carbon as finished wood products and start the sequestration of carbon in the form of new trees. So conversion of wood into products such as structural beams, window frames, furniture, and doors, contributes to the long-term removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, helping to reduce global warming. Long-term management of U.S. hardwood forests for sustainable timber production makes a significant contribution to carbon sequestration. Each year for the last 50 years, American hardwood forests stored around 110 million tons of carbon dioxide (excluding all harvested material). This direct...

Plywood Sheathed Box Forms

Using two-by-fours for corner bracing works well, but any dimensional lumber will do. Install a solid plywood sheet on the bottom and four sides of the form. 5 8-inch (1.5 cm) or -inch (1.875 cm) plywood contributes to making a sturdy form with ample shear strength. The top of the form can be open-spaced boards. Be sure to install adequate blocking inside the boxes to prevent distortion from ramming the bags up against them during construction. Cut out handholds for removing the forms (Fig. A.21). solid plywood for shear-strength solid plywood for shear-strength A full size, mineshaft style door form can be constructed using two sets of four-by-four posts framed with two-by-fours at top and bottom, and sheathed on either side with plywood. This type of form can be dismantled after the wall reaches door height and reconstructed into an overhead lintel (Fig. A.23). exterior plywood siding held inplace with compression only exterior plywood siding held inplace with compression only

Plywood End Roman Arch Forms

Scribe a circle on a sheet of 5 8-inch (1.5 cm) or -inch (1.875 cm) thick plywood. This provides both faces of the arch. Cut enough two-by-four ribs to be evenly spaced at most nine inches (22.5 cm) on center over the entire arch form. Top and bottom ribs should be placed narrow edge out. The rest should be installed the opposite way. The bottom can be solid plywood or boards. plywood fac plywood fac flexible plywood or masonite sheathing 5 8 - 3 4 plywood face 5 8 - 3 4 plywood face flexible plywood or masonite sheathing

Plywood End Gothic Arch Forms

Gothic arches are designed in a variety of styles. They all share the same common shape of being more steeply sided than Roman arches. Creating a template on cardboard can aid in making the plywood ends, especially if multiple forms of the same shape are desired. See Chapter 10 for directions on creating a Gothic (or Egyptian) shaped arch. Follow the same procedure as a Roman arch for making the ribs. The skin for this type of arch can be made from two pieces of Masonite or a sturdy, bendable substitute (Fig.A.27).

Insulated Light Wood Frame

People living in high rainfall areas, heavy snow country, or areas with abundant access to wood products, can secure light, wood frame rafters to built-in extended eaves. We recommend light wood frame as an alternative to larger dimensional lumber. Not because the dome cant take the weight, but to reduce timber consumption (Fig. 13.9). Exterior wood-frame roof systems can be insulated, sheathed with wood, and covered with any kind of roofing material, like metal, wood, asphalt shingles, or Eco-shingles. A wood frame can be built right over the bag work of the dome without any mud plaster (Fig. 13.10). Japanese bird cage style light wood frame attached to extended eaves 13.9 Earthbag dome with a light, wood-frame roof attached to built-in eaves. 13.9 Earthbag dome with a light, wood-frame roof attached to built-in eaves. Japanese bird cage style, light wood frame attached to extended eaves

Masonry And Wood Construction

Masonry can form the exterior (and sometimes interior) loadbearing walls for either Wood Light Frame construction or Heavy Timber construction, systems named Ordinary construction and Mill construction, respectively. Both of these systems have higher fire-resistance ratings than all-wood construction and are permitted for use in larger and taller buildings. For more information on the fire resistance of these systems and the building types for which their use is permitted, see pages 312-313. For sizing the wood elements of Ordinary or Heavy Timber construction, see the appropriate pages under Wood Structural Systems beginning on page 49.

Pressed Wood Products

Mandalas Para Dibujar

Pressed wood products originated in Europe in the 1960s as an alternative to wood furnishings, and entered the U.S. market in the 1970s. Pressed wood products (Fig. 20-2) include particleboard, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), hardwood plywood, chipboard, and hardboard such as pegboard. These materials emit VOCs including formaldehyde, a-pinene, xylenes, butanol, butyl acetate, hexanal, and acetone. Chemicals that emit VOCs are used in pressed wood products to provide strength and moisture resistance. Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins resist moisture degradation, and are used in products destined for exterior Figure 20-2 Plywood, particle board, and oriented strand board (OSB). Plywood High-density overlay (HDO) plywood is exterior plywood with resin-fiber overlay on both sides. Medium-density overlay (MDO) plywood has phenolic or melamine resin overlay on one or both sides. Figure 20-2 Plywood, particle board, and oriented strand board (OSB). applications, as well as interior plywood...

Grading and classification of plywood

Clear distinction must be drawn between the grading of ply, which is concerned only with the quality of the face veneers, and the classification into groups or types, which is concerned with the nature of the bonding adhesive and the durability of the actual wood used. Hitherto plywoods were loosely grouped into interior and exterior qualities, but these terms are fairly meaningless. Admittedly, furniture-makers do not require weather-resistant plywoods, but they must be confident that the plies are well bonded and will not laminate, and that they will withstand bacterial and fungoid attack therefore the type of bonding medium used is of importance. It is, for instance, hardly sufficient to describe a plywood as well-glued or resin-bonded, for the former term may include weak vegetable glues, while the latter may be so extended with fillers compounded of cereal flours, etc. that the implicit moisture-resistant properties are lost. plywoods or veneered chipboards (A cross grained B...

Instrumentalization of the Wood Frame

The history of wood construction in North America can be approximated by three stages. These stages are identified with a wood product log, plank, and lumber. Lumber is the result of the simple linear extrusion of the sawmill and includes particular parameters such as transport to the mill, forestry management, silvaculture, and land procurement. Each parameter reinforces the tendency in each other to normative practice. Building construction methods were designed based on the end product of the mill. Currently, North American wood frame determines lumber properties that, in turn, determine North American wood production creating an integrated system of production and consumption. The following short descriptions sort some aspects of wood frame construction into the eight categories of instrumentalization. Each category is part of a pair, one primary and one secondary instrumentalization, Feenberg's key word for each is italicized. Each category is, in turn, divided into an a, b, and...

Plywood Threeply Multiply

The technique of gluing together thin sheets of wood in a balanced construction with each layer crossed at right angles so that the wood grains are locked in position, effectively preventing all shrinkages across the width, dates from the seventeenth century, but it was only in 1896 that plywood was commercially produced for cheap tea-chests. Since then ceaseless development has produced a bonded sheet which is completely free from lamination, and which is generally available in thicknesses from 1 32 in (0.8 mm) to 1 in (25 mm), in a range of qualities for every purpose. which is still used for three-layer construction. Plywoods with more than three layers are usually classed as multiply, although the term 'five-ply' is sometimes used for five-layer construction. Obviously, the layers or veneers of which the ply is composed must be relatively thin or the strength of the timber and its tendency to shrink and distort will be greater than the strength of the bonding adhesive therefore...

Hardwood Flooring

Hardwood flooring has a proven track record for durability and aesthetic impact. Both solid timber and plywood laminates with a 4 mm hardwood-wearing layer are commercially available. The standard timbers are the European oak, beech, birch, ash, chestnut, walnut and maple, but additionally some imported hardwoods with darker grain colours are available and interesting effects are produced with bamboo. Frequently the timbers are offered with minimal knots and uniform graining or as rustic with knots and a larger variation of colour. Laminates are usually prefinished but solid timber may be sealed with oil or lacquer after installation on site.

Core Plywood

The standard core plywood products are blockboard and laminboard. Both are manufactured with a core of usually softwood strips sandwiched between one or two plies (Fig. 4.28). In blockboard the core strips are between 7 mm and 30 mm wide, but in laminboard, the more expensive product, they are below 7 mm in width and continuously glued throughout. As with plywood, the grain directions are perpendicular from layer to layer. Most core plywoods are bonded with urea-formaldehyde adhesives appropriate to interior applications only. The standard sheet size is 2440 X 1220 mm with a thickness range from 12-25 mm, although larger sheets up to 45 mm thick are available. Blockboard may be finished with a wide range of decorative wood, paper or plastic veneers for use in fitted furniture. Variants on the standard products include plywood with phenolic foam, polystyrene or a parti-cleboard core.

Bending plywoods etc

Fairly stiff resin-bonded plywood to WBP specification can be bent more readily if one side is wetted, or conversely the other side heated. Much depends on the thickness and number of plies, the direction of the bend in relation to the grain direction of the stout hearted core, and to the timber species of which the plywood is composed, therefore actual tests are necessary. If the plywood sheet is too stiff to take the curve two or more sheets of thin plywood to make up the thickness can be glued and bent between simple formers forms or merely stapled together as practised in boat hull building, for each sheet becomes concentric and the adhesive will lock the fibres and hold the curve. An admirable plywood for this purpose is Vi6 in (1.5 mm) birch three-ply, readily obtainable, which can be rolled up like a sheet of thin cardboard. Heat softening of wood was well known to traditional craftsmen, who bent their boxwood lines for delicate inlay (purffing) by repeatedly passing them over...

Wood Products

Wood products may be used as the primary footing material or mixed with other footing materials. Wood chips or coarse sawdust will provide some cushioning and moisture-holding capacity to an all-inorganic footing (sand, stonedust). Wood products are quite variable, not only from location to location around the country but even from load to load at the same wood mill. Any wood product will eventually decompose because it is organic, and smaller and softer wood products will break down into smaller particles that will eventually lead to compacted footing. Expect to add more wood products every couple years as the older wood decomposes. Eventually, some footing may have to be removed to maintain an appropriate depth. Manufactured wood products may be used as the predominant footing component. All-wood footing offers cushioning in a material with fibers that interlace for traction. Wood footing materials contain pieces larger and longer than wood chips or sawdust that are more durable and...

Key Points Plywood

Construction plywood is used in exterior applications. It is manufactured primarily from softwoods, although hardwoods are sometimes used. 2. The glue used to bond wood veneers is as durable as the wood itseif, enabling the material to be exposed out-of-doors without delaminating. Checking occurs less in plywood than in common lumber. 3 Plywood Is categorized into appearance grades based mainly on visual characteristics and engineered grades based mainly on strength (see Table 850-12),

Plywood grades

Additionally the United Africa Company grade their Cresta plywoods under Gold, Silver and Blue labels. Construction is the same throughout, and the grading refers to the face appearance only. The bonding is phenolic resin to WBP specification, and every sheet is impregnated against insect attack (lyctus, furniture beetle, termites, etc.), which does not affect the gluing or polishing properties. In practice it is not wise to go below BIBB, BB or grade 2 for veneering, while Douglas fir ply is altogether unsuitable owing to the upraised grain, and therefore grading rules for this particular kind of ply have not been included. It can be assumed that, unless specifically stated, all plywoods are dry glued, i.e. the veneers dried before gluing, and that except for the very lowest grades not suitable for furniture both the face and reverse are sanded flat for immediate use. Plywood dimensions In all usual sizes the length of the face grains is given first, irrespective of the length of the...

McMulleri Summer House Haliburtori

Even its evolution was a process of organic growth. The whole approach was influenced by the fact that funds were very limited but not - according to the architects - the love of adventure Friends and the whole family were involved in the planning and building work. This also gave rise to the organic functional design. Thirty-two standard plywood sheets (8x4 feet) from a do-it-yourself store served as the modules for the floor layout these were used to set out the building on the site - completely without any fixed grid system - around the trees, exploiting the views and taking into account the planned functions of the accommodation. The architects compare the layout to falling leaves forming a pattern on the ground. And hence the design was to mirror the process of organic growth as well. Tree tunks, firmly rooted in the ground, support parts of the building above. Roofs overlap like leaves. Structural elements are simply piled on top of each other and yet clearly define their own...

Extension to Architectural Office Lausanne

The air gap on the outside of the thermal insulation is very neatly planned in the roof and wall constructions. The vapour barrier is on the inside in front of the thermal insulation and directly behind the internal plywood cladding. Roof construction 50 mm gravel, synthetic roofing felt, 22 mm plywood, 160 mm air space, 120 mm thermal insulation, 15 mm plywood ceiling. Rooftop patio construction 27 x 160 mm wooden open-grid flooring, 40 x 60 mm battens, 20 mm plastic spacer blocks, 3 mm protective layer, synthetic roofing felt, separating layer, 22 mm plywood, 160 mm air space, 120 mm thermal insulation, 15 mm plywood ceiling. Wall construction 24 x 80 mm external cladding, 30 x 60 mm air space, protective layer, 120 mm thermal insulation, vapour barrier (airtight lining), 15 mm plywood internal cladding. on a concrete plinth which raises the timber construction about 400 mm above ground level and hence protects it from splashes of water. The timber frame...

Darwiri College Study Centre Cambridge

8 Section of south facade, scale 1 30. Floor construction load-bearing principal cantilever beams 365 x 150 mm, intermediate cantilever beams 290 x 75 mm -on top 20 mm tongue-and-groove oak parquet, underneath 2 layers of 12-mm chipboard and 20 mm ton-gue-and-groove oak facing between beams 100-mm heat insulation layer. Facade construction parapet from exterior to interior 25 mm oak facing on 175 or 75 x 25 mm oak frame on lathing, protective sheeting, 75-mm-thick heat insulation, vapour barrier, 18 mm plywood boarding, window of oak with heat-insulated double glazing. Flat roof from top to bottom lead covering, 20 mm boarding, 120 x 50 mm squared timbers, between these 70-mm-thick heat insulation and 50 mm air space, vapour barrier, 20 mm plywood boarding, 150 x 100 mm roof beams, 12 mm gypsum plaster board.

Weekend House Osaka

Roof construction from top to bottom roofing felt, 8 mm asbestos-cement sheeting, 4 mm plywood, 60 x 120 mm members laid to match roof fall on 105 x 180 mm roof joists, 50 mm thermal insulation between 60 x 120 mm members, suspended timber lattice comprising 38 x 45 mm battens, 4 mm plywood ceiling. External wall contruction from outside to inside horizontal 240-mm-wide tongue-and-groove planks, waterproof sheathing paper, 9 mm chipboard, 40 x 120 mm studding at 500 mm centres, 50 mm thermal insulation in the bays in living areas, tongue-and-groove planks as on the outside, otherwise 4 mm plywood on 15 x 45 mm battens. The external walls incorporate 120 x 40 mm studs at 500 mm centres between the main columns. Attached to the inside of these are 240-mm-wide tongue-and-groove planks which are butted together at the main columns and which are provided with vertical 34 x 36 mm cover strips at all studs and main columns. This surface made up of horizontal planks and...

Concrete Edge Form

Tree Column Plan

6 Tree column, scale i ioo and 1 50. i Glulam segment. 2 300 x 160 x 32 mm scantling. 3 Concrete plate, grout 4 Pressure chamber for height adjustment. 5 Tree ring. 6 Hardwood dowel. The annular members are glulam beams. Their cross-section is so inclined towards the horizontal that they form the surface shell of a truncated cone. The rings are of two parts with cross-sections of 85 x 800 and 120 x 800 mm at 12 cm centres. The 120x120 mm intermediate timbers are glued to the lower beam half. After installation of the meridian ribs the upper beam half was connected to the lower beam half by twenty 270 mm hex head screws and 20 mm hardwood dowels. Of similar design to the annular rings, the boundary beams are 1300 mm in width. Due to the varying height and slope of the roof edge they, like the ribs, are doubly curved and twisted. Their weight is transmitted to the ground via the facade columns. The meridian ribs unload their forces in the 12 cm spaces between the tree rings and edge...

Felling And Sawmilling

If a tree is a large one and the timber above the first main break is usable, then the whole trunk is felled and taken to the saw-mill alternatively the second length above the break (branch or fork) is split for cordwood, and only the butt or main trunk is used. Except in tropical rain forest trees, where lack of light and overcrowded conditions encourage very straight, clear cylindrical poles often up to 180 ft (55 m) high in emergent trees, second length timber is usually inferior in quality, with large knots, twisted grain and a much smaller percentage of heartwood. Such timber is, therefore, only suitable for building construction work, although an occasional second length will yield good-quality narrow planks. Branches are not used, for not only is the proportion of heart-wood very small but the pith is off centre, with the annual rings in tension at the top and in compression underneath, therefore causing considerable shrinkage. Occasional prime walnut, mahogany and ash trees,...

Seasoning And Moisture Content

The growing tree which is full of sap can contain anything from 50 per cent free water up to 200 per cent in certain swamp-grown softwoods. A single cubic foot (0.02832 m3) of green oak, for instance, can contain up to 28 pt (16 1) of water which must be reduced to at least 4 pt (2.27 1) before the timber is fit for use. The object of seasoning is, therefore, to accelerate the evaporation of this surplus moisture, rendering the wood lighter, harder, stronger, less susceptible to discoloration and mould attack, and much less liable to shrinkage and distortion. Ideally, hardwoods should be sawn and piled for drying when humidity values are high and initial drying relatively slow but in practice most merchants or dealers cut and pile timber throughout the year, stacking the boards fairly close so that the drying-rate is not too rapid. On no account should green wood be close piled without air spaces between each plank, as this will inevitably invite mould and fungi attack (the same...

Good design on anyterms

The splint is made of plywood that has been formed into complex curves. Its design language was radical in 1942, and is still inspiring today. It appeals to me not because of its medical purpose but as good design on any terms. How many other examples of design for disability might that be said of How often do we qualify, even excuse, design in this field because of the market for which it is intended Perhaps this standard of design is not even considered appropriate

Disability inspires design

Charles Eames believed that design depends largely on constraints. 1 It was the particular constraints of the U.S. Navy brief that led the Eameses to develop their own technology for forming plywood in complex curvature in the first place, in order to make a lightweight yet stiff structure that accommodated the form and variation of the human body. But this technique had a far-reaching influence on the future work of the design partnership and design in general. Organic plywood forms underpinned the iconic mainstream furniture manufactured by Herman Miller in the 1940s and 1950s, and through which the Eameses became famous and influential. This sequence of events challenges the so-called trickle-down effect whereby advances in mainstream design are expected to eventually find their way into specialist products for people with disabilities, smaller markets that could not have supported the cost of their development. Flow in the opposite direction is just as interesting when the issues...

Drawing Tables and Surfaces

Manufactured tables have drawing surfaces that range in size from 30 x 48 inches (762 x 1.21 mm) to 30 x 60 inches (.762 x 1.52 m) and are usually made of wood or hardboard over a cellular core. However, a wood drawing surface can become scored and grooved over time, which affects the drawing quality of the surface. It is best to cover the bare wood top with a protective finish such as plastic melamine or a vinyl drawing-board cover that gives a bit of resiliency and is easy to keep clean. The latter covering is often produced with an off-white and a colored side. Which side to leave faceup is left to the individual.

Seattle Washington United States 2000

Structure concrete and wood frame Interiors emphasize the structural simplicity ot the house and its inherent modesty - a fact that does not prohibit the residence from having a spectacular openness toward its environment. Wood surfaces give a warmth that might otherwise be lacking in this residence. The small. 190 square-meter GOSLINE HOUSE tor a retired couple stretches along a narrow sloping site with views of an arboretum and the Cascade Mountains.The building is positioned to preserve a Madrona tree and large Deodar Cedar. The owners, encouraged an architecture that reveals the nature and assembly of its basic building materials, including common wood framing, plywood, polycarbonate sheets, concrete, steel and glass. The open layout includes a second-floor master bedroom that overlook* the living room, two offices that can double as guestrooms, and details such as a mail-sorting nook shielded by a small sliding barn door. The modest house reveals the particular...

Juxtaposition Of Materials And Components

Transmission of a soluble component from one part of a building to another, however, may cause not only staining but more serious trouble. Thus sulphates from bricks can cause breakdown of mortar, corrosion of metals or disintegration of stone. Most timbers are acidic, particularly the heartwood of oak and of Douglas fir, due to the presence of volatile acetic acid, and can corrode some metals. Western red cedar shingles, through the presence in the wood of water-soluble organic derivatives, and lichens on roofs can both attack metal rainwater goods and flashings. The external use of aluminium, copper, phosphor-bronze and other non-ferrous metals, and of stainless steel, needs great care because of the often unforeseen opportunities for electro-chemical corrosion. Washings from limestone onto some sandstone plinths and mouldings can cause deterioration of the latter. It should be emphasized that different materials which, in isolation, may possess adequate durability can deteriorate...

Heavy Timber Construction

Heavy Timber construction is characterized by high fire resistance (it has a substantially higher fire rating than unprotected steel), high load capacity, and the unique aesthetic qualities of the exposed wood frame. The framing members for Heavy Timber construction may be either solid wood or glue laminated. Heavy timber frames are used for low-rise commercial and industrial buildings and in residential construction. Because the framing members are typically prefabricated, on-site erection times can be rapid with this system. However, the larger sizes of the framing members make this system less suitable than platform framing for structures that are highly irregular in form or layout. Special provisions may also be required for the integration of mechanical and electrical systems into heavy timber framing.

Fireresistance Ratings For Glue Laminated Wood Beams

The model building codes do not distinguish between glue laminated and solid wood beams. To quality for Mill construction as defined by most building codes, wood floor beams must have a nominal size of at least 6 X 10 (140 X 241 mm). If supporting a roof and ceiling only, they may be no smaller than 4 X 6 (89 X 140 mm). Beams of lesser dimension may be used in Ordinary construction and Wood Light Frame construction.

Laminated solid timber

Glulam is of course laminated solid timber and can be seen in Fig. 3.13. However, most of the laminated timbers used as joists, beams and purlins etc. now use much thinner laminates and are more akin to plywood construction in the thickness of the veneers (see Fig. 4.2), than the traditional 30 mm or 40 mm thick laminates used with conventional glulam. However, unlike conventional plywood where alternative veneers have timber grain laid at right angles to one another, most of the products in this category have laminates parallel to one another bonded by high performance adhesives. The trade name of one such beam, Parallam, describes its construction. This particular product is of course solid, but unlike a piece of solid timber is extremely stable, and again unlike a piece of solid timber, has all of the major strength reducing features engineered out thus enabling it to develop the strength of an almost perfect piece of timber, giving an even higher performance. Such timbers are...

Fabricated timber using metal nail plate connectors

All of the punched metal plate connected types give copious open space for services between the joists, thus avoiding the potential problems of incorrect notching and boring for services which is so often one of the problems with the use of even conventional solid soft wood floor joists. Over notching with the installation of pipes on the upper surface, and electrical installation on the lower surface, can dramatically decrease the joist's performance. Clearly with the 'I' beam and the solid laminated beams, the question of piercing for services has to be addressed and the manufacturers' literature should be carefully adhered to as to avoid weakening the floor diaphragm being constructed.

Attic Construction Using Engineered Timber Components

Although most of the discussion above has referred to 'floors', the sloping rafter element of one side of an attic is in effect a floor tilted to the appropriate pitch. Instead of carrying the dead load of the furniture and fittings and the live load of the occupants, the rafter plane carries the dead load of the tiles (and snow), and the live loads of winds plus possible loads from any high level ceiling and water tanks installed in the space above. Using engineered timber components for attic rafters is similar to the use of these components in floors. Trimming openings in the floor for a stairwell, becomes a trimmed opening for the dormer of the roof window. Ease of access for installing services is equally necessary through rafters as it is through the floor, and the larger spans required of attic rafters are easily achievable with engineered timber components. Some of these engineered components can also be used for purlins on the smaller spans, and on longer spans engineered...

Dovetailing attachment

Without doubt the most useful of all accessories for use with the 1 4 in (6 mm) or greater capacity router. Accurate and tight-fitting machine lap dovetails can be cut at 3 4 in (19 mm) pitch in hardwood up to 9 in (228 mm) in width in any combination of thicknesses from 3 8 in (9.5 mm) to 1 in (25 mm). Multi-pitch attachments are also available providing for additional pitches which enable the spacing of the dovetails to fit

Ribbed and profiled finishes

Ribbed concrete is typically cast in-situ against vertical timber battens fixed to a plywood backing. In order to remove the formwork, without damage to the cured concrete, the battens must be splayed and smooth. A softer ribbed appearance is achieved by hammering off the projecting concrete to a striated riven finish. Profiled steel formwork and rope on plywood produce alternative finishes. Where deep profiles are required, expanded polystyrene and polyurethane foam can be carved out to produce highly sculptural designs.

Metabolism Of The Tree

The tree is protected from extremes of temperature and mechanical damage by the bark, inside which is the bast layer, which transports downwards the sugars synthesised in the leaves. Radial rays then move the food into the sapwood cells for storage. Inside the bast is the thin and delicate cambium, which is the growing layer for the bark and sapwood. Growth only takes place when the cambium layer is active, which in temperate climates is during the spring and summer seasons. produced at the start of the growing season tends to be made from larger cells of thinner walls, and is thus softer and more porous than the late wood produced towards the end of the growing season. Each year as the tree matures with the production of an additional growth ring, the cells of an inner ring are strengthened by a process of secondary thickening. This is followed by lignification in which the cell dies. These cells are no longer able to act as food stores, but now give increased structural strength to...

Adaptive reuse of industrial buildings Characteristics of pre1900 industrial buildings

New double-glazed hardwood windows cleanable from the inside fitted to these openings. First-floor windows have safety rail at 1.05 mm above floor level. The dead lights below this level to be glazed with safety glass. All windows to have horizontal vertical DPCs and be pointed in silicone mastic sealant.

Photo By Marco Lqrenzett1

ABOVE RIGHT This lobby's figured wood paneling, floor pattern, and ceiling treatment coordinate to create a rhythm through space. Wood paneling was suspended in front of the wail and treated as artwork, facilitating a tight schedule by allowing rniiiworkers to begin fabrication prior to demolition of the existing interior. The opaque glass door leads directly to the bookstore, a key contact point for public distribution of the firm's publications. PHOTO BY JON MILLER

Problems with timber generally

The growth of the tree influences the density of the timber, with spring growth being less dense than summer growth. The growth area of timber, just below the bark in the cambium layer, lays down a ring of new sapwood. This layer acts as a conduit and storage facility for food and water. The inner heartwood layers of the tree offer structural support. Timber is broadly classified into two types, softwoods and hardwoods. The straw-like cells in softwoods are termed 'tracheids' and these are passed through in the radial direction by ray cells at various intervals. The trees in general retain their leaves throughout the year and grow quickly many can be felled within 30 years. Although the timber is generally of low density and durability, it is used extensively in construction. Treatment is required for softwood to be used externally this may also reduce the risk of discolouration from ultraviolet radiation. The hardwoods in general lose their leaves in winter, and to support the growth...

Specification Of Timber

The building industry uses timber for a wide range of purposes from rough-sawn structural members to claddings, trim and highly machined joinery. The specification of timber for each use may involve defining the particular hardwood or softwood, where particular visual properties are required. However, for the majority of general purposes, where strength and durability are the key factors, timber is specified either by a strength class, or a combination of timber species and strength grade.

The Construction of Trussed Rafter Roofs

There are two alternative systems to the punched metal plate fastener, one being a metal plate punched with holes which is then fixed to the timber joint with special twisted nails (Fig. 6.1b). The other is to use plywood gusseted joints, the plywood being fixed either by glue with nails to hold it in position whilst the glue cures, or exclusively by nails of designed size and fixed to a specific designed pattern on the joint Fig. 6.1c illustrates such a joint. With the exception of the glued option, the latter two methods are suitable for site assembly.

Timber Piles And Foundations

Historically, a range of softwoods and hardwoods has been used for timber piles, but in the UK Douglas fir, up to 500 mm square and 12-15 m long, is a standard material (BS 8004 1986). Other suitable timbers are treated Scots pine or larch, oak in non-salt water soils, elm, beech and sycamore. Untreated timber below the water table is virtually immune to decay, but it is at risk from biological degradation above this level. It is therefore appropriate to treat timber with preservatives if it is to be used above the water table. Preservative-treated timber piles, cut off below ground level and capped with concrete, should have a service life of 100 years.

Laminated Timber Manufacture

Sections may be manufactured to order, to any uniform or non-uniform linear or curved form. Figure 4.22 illustrates typical laminated-timber arches, columns and portal frames as generators of structural forms. The aesthetic properties of laminated timber can be enhanced by the application of suitable interior or exterior timber finishes. The majority of laminated-timber structures are manufactured from softwoods such as European redwood or whitewood, although the rib members within the roof structure of the Thames Flood Barrier (Fig. 4.23) were manufactured from the West African hardwood, iroko. Steel fixing devices and joints may be visually expressed (Fig. 4.22) or almost unseen by the use of concealed bolted steel plates. Laminated timber performs predictably under fire conditions with a charring rate of 40 mm per hour as defined within BS 5268 4-1 1978. Preservative treatments are necessary when the material is to be used under conditions in which the moisture...

Mortise and tenon joints

These are probably the best known of all woodworking joints. The variations are many and only the principles and the main types need be given. All tenoned work follows the same general principles. The width of the mortises is slightly over one-third the thickness of the stile (142 5) but pitched according to the width of the hand-or power-chisel available. The rail width in corner mortising is also divided into three, one-third for the haunch or seating and two-thirds for the tenon, less a bare 1 16 in (1.5 mm) shoulder at the bottom edge to cover any slight gap caused by a slack tenon or bruising of the mortise socket end in levering out the waste in hand-methods. The final width of the tenon itself less the haunch becomes the length of the mortise cut to receive it. In all framed-up work it is always better to provide an extra length to the stiles to form a horn (142 1) at top and bottom which helps to prevent the splitting of soft wood while deeply mortising, and also to protect...

Horizontal diaphragms

Floors and roofs with plywood sheathing are usually flexible they transfer load, similar to simple beams, in proportion to the tributary area of each wall Wall reactions R are computed based on tributary area of each wall Required shear flow q (wall capacity) q RIL (L length of shear wall) Assume plywood diaphragm, plywood shear walls on light wood framing Dead load

Pfennigcker Nursery School near Tbingen Germany

The solid wood, with a density of around 750 kg m, is both thermally massive and reasonably insulative, though additional insulation is placed externally. In this way the internal surfaces are relatively warm, thereby reducing the radiative heat loss from occupants and allowing for lower air temperatures, reducing stuffiness.

Carcass assembly with knockdown fittings

KU and KD fittings are described in Chapter 31 p. 291, and 175 1-4 shows a typical particle board wardrobe construction employing these fittings. In practice, these provide rigid fixtures while any looseness which might develop in use can always be corrected with a screwdriver. They can be used for some solid wood carcass-work, and in fact table shrinkage plates, table brace plates and detachable leg fittings are knock-down fittings in the true sense, but the usual run of KD carcass fittings call for dimensionally stable materials.

Tables and carcass stands and stools

A curved stand is shown in 212 9 and various methods of connecting the rails in 212 13. They can be either cut from the solid or laminated, dependent on the sweep. In 212 13A dowels are used to support the weak cross grain in a pronounced sweep in solid wood, and 212 13B a bridled method. If the leg has to follow the curve and lie flush with the rails then the latter must be slightly inset and the leg rounded off after assembly. Figure 212 3c is a dovetail method and 212 13D a bridle and tenon for inset legs, while 212 13E shows a tenoned construction halving the tenons, as shown by the dotted lines, for greater length. A cross-stand for small tables is shown in 212 10,14 and if the cross is at 90 it can be dowelled together or halved, but if the crossover is at any other

Insulation Protection

In areas where horses or riders can come in contact with insulation and or vapor retarders, protect the insulation assembly with a stronger material such as stall lining boards, plywood, PVC boards, or fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) panels. Choose mechanically strong insulation materials (closed-cell boards) where activity may impact sidewalls or roof insulation, such as from balls in indoor polo arenas. Heated rooms in the support area, such as tack rooms and lounges, may be insulated to resi Rodent and bird interest in insulation materials as nesting sites can be considerable. The best protection is an interior liner in addition to the exterior siding and roofing. Be sure to protect the ends of insulation panels and below-grade perimeter insulation. Suitable liner protection materials include FRP or 3 8-inch plywood (below-grade rated for perimeter application). Plywood is not necessarily rat-proof but will discourage most mice. An aluminum foil layer is not sufficient...

Roof Plates for Post and Beam Designs

For post and beam designs, the roof plate is simply a plywood baffle, or barrier, under which the top course of bales comes to rest. It provides protection against pests and moisture (from possible roof leakage), a point of attachment for stucco mesh, and a plaster stop. Often this plate is caulked to the beam. If this plywood barrier is cut to 1 inch wider than the bales on both sides, it becomes a good plaster stop and provides a good edge for abutting the finished ceiling material inside and the soffit material outside. Don't forget that this plywood baffle will also be

Punched Nail Plate Joists Rafters And Purlins

Plywood sarking fixed to top of rafters over entire roof slope. Noggings provided at all unsupported board edges. Plywood fixed to underside of rafter on sloping ceiling only. Noggings provided at ply edges. Plywood panels between rafters fixed to 50 x 50 frame fixed to rafters. Fix ply at ends to blocking between rafters. Minimum 25 mm air gap between top of ply and top of rafters. Plywood panels incorporated to provide continuation of notional line of rafter diagonal brace. Plywood sarking fixed to top of rafters over entire roof slope. Noggings provided at all unsupported board edges. Plywood fixed to underside of rafter on sloping ceiling only. Noggings provided at ply edges. Plywood panels between rafters fixed to 50 x 50 frame fixed to rafters. Fix ply at ends to blocking between rafters. Minimum 25 mm air gap between top of ply and top of rafters. Plywood panels incorporated to provide continuation of notional line of rafter diagonal brace. Plywood gusset Plywood gusset

Types Of Noise Transmission

Floor squeak is a phenomenon found in wood structures, which is most often caused by the rubbing of nails against wood framing members or metal hangers. It is high pitched and localized to the area around the point of contact. It can occur when there are gaps between the floor diaphragm and the supporting joists and when no glue has been used, or when joists are supported by metal hangers. It can also be exacerbated by the use of wood products having a high glue content, which do not allow the nail to grip the wood.

Sliding Flush Doors Wood

Sliding actions for light flush doors suitable for sideboards, free-standing cupboards, etc. are shown in 233. The doors are usually composed of laminboard, particle board, etc. edged with hardwood all round (the top and bottom edging can sometimes be omitted in laminboard without detriment) and face veneered in the

Drawer rails runners kickers and guides

A typical carcass framing for a chest is shown in 243 1, with (A) the top bearer rails dovetailed into the sides, (B) the lower drawer rail twin stub tenoned in, (C) the central division, (D) drawer runners, and (E) kickers, whose function it is to prevent the drawer sides kicking up as the drawer is withdrawn. In solid work the drawer runners (3D) are stub tenoned and glued into grooves in the front rail and housed to the sides, but the housing dadoes must not be glued, and the runners are secured by open slot screwing at the back. Plywood or laminboard sides have the runners housed and glued with a small pin (4A) driven in at an angle to hold the runner flush with the front rail. The centre division (c) has a front upright tenoned and wedged to top and bottom rails, and a long-grain division tongued in with a wide double runner (D) screwed up. An alternative method of forming the centre division is shown in 243 5,

Long Stay Car Park Cladding

Vincent Timber's Cumaru cladding has transformed a previously dull and uninviting long stay car park with a warm and user-friendly look that is guaranteed to last 50 years or more. Situated in Slough, the car park was constructed for a new Travelodge located just 350 yards from Heathrow T5. The large, plain and square two storey concrete structure offers 154 spaces to the hotel's visitors. Cumaru - a Brazilian hardwood - was specified on the site to brighten up the construction with its unique, dark red visual characteristics. As a hardwood, it is classified as very durable, which makes it ideally suited to an outdoor application, especially upon a car park that is likely to see such substantial use. The future is bright for the car park's new look. Not only is Vincent Timber's Cumaru strong while being rot and vandal resistant, but it will weather incredibly well to a delicate silver-grey patina that will last for 50 years or more.

Are Buildings for Squares

To follow the Uniform Building Code requires uniform building materials. We turn round trees into dimensional lumber. We cast cement into specific size blocks. We have learned to build with products instead of processes. I-beams, plywood, brick, and lumber are all products designed for corners instead of curves. We do this not because it makes stronger buildings we do it to support the manufacturing industry. Square building materials are easier to stack and transport than curved ones. Rectilinear, square

Ardex Has The Flooring Solution For New Equine Hospital

AF 2510 two-component polyurethane flooring adhesive was selected to fix a combination of Altro D 25 and Altro Maxis 25 safety flooring, which included coved skirtings to the corridors. ARDEX AF 2510 offers high heat resistance and high strength, and is ideal for fixing PVC, polyolefins, linoleum, rubber and hardwoods.

Escutcheons Keyplates

Constant use of a key in a lock can scar the wood surface and escutcheons are, therefore, both decorative and utilitarian. Figure 269 1 shows the usual pattern thread escutcheon split at the base and pressed into an appropriate hole in the drawer front the slight spring offered by the split grips the wood, and the shape of the hole can be marked out by placing the escutcheon in position and smartly tapping with a hammer. Figure 269 2 is a heavier type with a fine hole in the base for a fixing pin 269 3 the disc plate for surface fixing with brass escutcheon pins 269 4 the disc plate with screw-in thread, and 269 5 an oblong plate. The cheaper varieties are stamped out of sheet brass, sunk flush and glued with Araldite epoxy glue, but the better patterns have either pin fixings, screw-in threads or small metal tongues (269 5) which are knocked into the wood thickness. Plates can also be formed from ebony, rosewood, box, bone or ivory, etc. (269 6) cut to outline, recessed and glued,...

Ceramic glaze see glaze

Cesspool, cesspit, sewage tank in the treatment of waste water, an underground storage container, emptied at regular intervals, for sewage which cannot be piped away for treatment. Ceylon ebony Diospyros ebenum a hardwood from tropical India and Sri Lanka its timber is very heavy and dark brown or black. Ceylon satinwood, East Indian satinwood Chloroxylon swietenia a tropical hardwood from India and Sri Lanka with very heavy timber.

Preparation Of Groundworks Or Substrates

Either solid or prefabricated woods (plywoods, particle board, etc.) can be used for veneering provided they are stable, mild mannered, not too coarse in the grain and free from defects, although heated animal glues (hide glues) should not be used for particle boards as they tend to swell up the surface chips. Very absorbent woods should be sized before laying, defects cut out and filled with plugs cut to follow the grain (280 1) holes and depressions filled with plastic wood, wood-dust and glue, or plaster of Paris and glue (not wax-based stoppers or putty). The usual advice given that the groundwork should be well scoured with a toothing-plane to roughen up the surface as a key for the glue is not strictly accurate. The old toothing-plane is undoubtedly an excellent tool for the general hand-levelling of bumpy surfaces, but glue sticks by molecular attraction, although some degree of mechanical attachment is usually present, therefore keyed surfaces are not really necessary (and...

Preparation and laying resin glues

The groundwork substrate is prepared in the same way as for hammer veneering, laying the veneeers 'with the grain' on solid wood and 'across the grain' of plywoods, etc. The surfaces should not be roughened or keyed except for a light sanding to break through any surface glazing or grime, followed by a thorough dusting to clean the fibres. Any generalpurpose single-application resin glue can be used for cold pressing at room temperatures, but special veneering glues such as Aerolite KL (CIBA (ARL) Ltd) with gap-filling powder hardener are preferable. The glue should be mixed exactly in accordance with the maker's instructions and applied to the groundwork in a thin coat, spreading it evenly with spatula or palette-knife, or more satisfactorily rolling it out with a photographic rubber roller or trough hand spreader, carefully checking for bare spots, as there will be no surplus glue to level them out in the pressing, and allowing a few minutes air drying according to the make of glue....

Overview Of Fence Options

Wood board, or estate, fence is the classic beauty of horse fencing, while post and rail is a more rustic alternative. Other fence types incorporate wood as posts and visibility boards at the top. Wood fence is the first choice for many horse facilities owing to its safety and aesthetics. With new preservative treatments, wood fences can last longer with less care than they used to. A drawback of wood is that it can splinter and injure a horse. Properly installed, however, a wood fence generally poses little threat to the horse that it confines. Be aware that the horse may pose a threat to the fence if he is a confirmed wood chewer. Most horses chew on wood and can substantially damage wood fences. Horses are especially fond of soft wood such as spruce, fir, and pine and tend to chew less on hard wood such as oak. Wood chewers can be deterred with an electric wire strand or lumber protected by metal (without sharp edges) or plastic guards on the edges.

Boardstyle Fence Wood Board

Fence strength depends on the wood species and lumber dimensions and how the assembly is fastened together. For example, hardwoods are stronger, for the same size, than softwoods. Fence posts can be square, round, or partial round in cross section (see the posts selection of this chapter). Board thickness is usually 1-inch rough-cut for hardwoods such as oak or 2-inch nominal for pressure-treated softwoods. Weathered oak boards are very hard and when broken tend to splinter into long jagged pieces. Pine boards break more cleanly and are therefore preferred for fencing young stock. Protect softwoods with an electrified wire strand or edge protection because horses easily chew through softwood boards, which compromises fence strength, is unsightly, and costly for frequent board replacement. Board width of 6 inches is common and looks most balanced. Board spacing based on increments of this width is the most pleasing to the eye space boards 6, 9, or 12 inches apart (Fig. 15.2). Usually,...

Figure 159 Wood Floor Ceiling Constructions

1 Layer 5 S (16 mm) Plywood Slued and Screw Nailed 1 Layer 3 4 CH mm Plywood Slued and Screw Nailed 1 Layer 3 4 fH mm Plywood Slued and Screw Nailed In wood construction both stiffness and damping can be increased by using the stepped blocking shown in Fig. 12.24. The blocking works for several reasons. The first is the damping added by the moment connection provided by the glued faces and end nailing. Second the stiffness is increased by building the equivalent of another beam in the middle of the joist system. The third effect is additional load spreading, which distributes a point load over several joists and helps increase the composite floor stiffness. Stepped blocking is more effective than doubling joists or reducing joist spacing, although the two can be combined to good effect. When prefabricated truss joists are used, a spacer plate must be installed as in Fig. 12.28. Stepped blocking should be located at the mid-span in joists having a length of between 12 to 18 feet (3.7...

Loadbearing Top Plates

For load-bearing designs, a strong top plate is a must. You will already have determined the size and style of top plate you will be using, but when building it, you must ensure that the corners will meet in a strong bond and that any joints in the lumber are offset to avoid creating weak spots in the structure. L-shaped plywood corners can help to strengthen corners and ensure that they are square. Top plates can be constructed on the foundation before the walls are built. By using the foundation as a template, you assure a perfect match between the top and bottom of the wall. While the top plate is on the foundation, you can mark and drill holes for the precom-pression wires or straps that will correspond with those embedded in the foundation. Before moving the top plate sections aside to make way for bales, label the sections with directional arrows N, S, E, and W so that installation is simplified.

Standard Joinery And Casework Details

Spline joint Used for gluing plywood in width or length Since the spline serves to align faces, this olnt is also used for items requiring site assembly. Edge banding Method of concealir t plvs or rnner cores of plywood orparticlebo.i d when edges are exposed. Thickness or ci hgura-tion will vary with manufacturers' practice

Post and Beam Top Plates

Depending on how the tops of your bale walls interface with the framing, you will still need some kind of cap over the straw. Often, this is a strip of plywood attached over or under the beam, or to the underside of the floor or roof joists. Place this wood carefully and caulk, or otherwise seal, the joints between strips. Cut this cap wider than the bales (one additional inch on each side), so that it can act as a plaster stop and create a clean edge for abutting ceiling or soffit material.

Marshalls Street Furniture Launch Outdoor Living Rooms Concept

Outdoor Living Rooms Is an Innovative new concept In street furniture from Marshalls Street Furniture's French Partners Slneu Graff. The ranges Include seats, armchairs, loungers, footrests and low tables. Furniture can also be grouped In configurations to provide opportunities for socialising and relaxing. Outdoor Living Rooms showcases five new co-ordinated ranges Garden City has been designed In collaboration with Industry designer Ceclle Planche and has a light transparent aesthetic which Is constructed from steel with luxurious arm rest facings In a mahogany tinted hardwood. Optima uses clean and elegant lines with steel legs and hardwood slats In a deep mahogany finish, only the essentials are retained In the design to create an outdoor suite designed to be as uncluttered as possible. Optima also has a bench and a high table making It suitable for the creation of a contemporary eating area. There are three ranges In cast Iron and timber Opera has a restrained design offering...

Sikkens Showcased At Eisteddfod

Sikkens high performance coatings have been incorporated into the design and construction of an innovative adaptable building concept showcased at the National Eisteddfod of Wales in August this year. The building is a pavilion, one of a pair of simple structures designed by the Design Research Unit Wales at the Welsh School of Architecture, one timber and one steel using simple yet highly sustainable forms of materials, construction and public interaction. The plywood storage pavilion was prefabricated at the School as standardised shelving units. Coloured panels create a play of depth over the facades. To protect the wood and also to decorate the structure, Cetol BL21 and BL31 from the Sikkens woodstain range were specified. Cetol BL21 is applied to bare timber and offers the low odour and quick drying advantages of waterbased products. Used beneath Cetol BL31, an acrylic semi gloss finish, the combined system assures protection and long lasting colour fastness.

Vertical Sectionpantry Cabinets

Either solid wood or veneered seat and back. Generally the most expensive option. Wood seats and back can be contoured lor increased comfort. Fig. IT All wood seat. Either solid wood or veneered seat and back. Generally the most expensive option. Wood seats and back can be contoured lor increased comfort. Architectural Woodwork WOODWORK DETAILS

Figure 1618 Masking Sound Loudspeaker Locations

A successful open-office design must include four key elements and fails if any of the four is missing. The elements are 1) partial height barriers at least 1.65 m (65 in) high, having sufficient transmission loss, provided by a 3 8 plywood or other interior panel 2) absorptive material typically 25 mm (1 in) fiberglass panels on the reflecting walls or additional barriers to prevent flanking 3) a highly absorbent ceiling (NRC .85) and 4) an electronic soundmasking system with loudspeakers located above the acoustical tile ceiling set to emit a particular spectrum in the range of 45 to 49 dBA.

Inspect and Mark Electrical Boxes

Your wiring should already be routed between the curb rails, with the boxes (preferably airtight, R-2000 plastic boxes with -inch flanges) mounted. The electrical inspector should visit the site before the bale raising to inspect the wiring, since it will be buried in the straw soon. With the nod from the electrical inspector, you can fasten the boxes to the wooden stakes that will keep them located in the bale wall. These stakes can either be long and narrow, fastened to the side or back of the box (See figure 10.6), or they can be flat pieces of thin scrap plywood mounted to the top, bottom, or side of the box. The stakes can be driven into the bales, or the plywood inserted between the bales vertically or horizontally. The electrician should leave you some extra wire length, as the wires will be threaded between the bales in a somewhat circuitous route. 18.5 The R-2000 electrical box is fastened to a scrap of plywood which can be inserted between two bales to keep it in place. The...

Jigs and platens for LF heating

Narrow strip elements can be laid directly against the veneer or laminate in edge banding, etc. but some softening is often necessary to absorb inequalities. If a strip of old bag press rubber is available this can be placed either between the element and the veneer or against the pressure member, with a thin piece of heat-resistant material to conserve the heat. Figure 325 3 shows a typical disposition. Continuous strip elements (325 1, 2) in panel form cannot be laid directly against the veneer as there are gaps between the strips, and in order to spread the pressure a sheet of 20 gauge aluminium is often used with an interleaving of 1 16 in (1.5 mm) laminated plastic to insulate the strips. The elements can be attached to the wooden pressure former with again a thin layer of some type of heat-resistant material to conserve the heat, and a softening pad if necessary (325 5). Platens or jigs can be made of plywood or blockboard on a rigid softwood foundation, and shaped to fit for...

Radiofrequency RF heating

Three basic methods of applying RF heating to a glue-line are practised (a) through or transverse heating (b) glue-line heating (c) stray field heating. In 'through' heating metal platens are applied on either side of the work (325 7), and the whole mass of wood is heated in order that the glue-line itself can reach the required temperature for a rapid set. This method is generally adopted for laminated bowed doors, etc. in either plywood or constructional veneers, where pressure can be applied on either side by male and female formers forms which have been lined with non-ferrous metals (copper, brass, aluminium, etc.). These form platens which act as electrodes for the high-frequency voltages to pass through the total thickness of the laminates, dependent of course on the power of the generator and the assemblies, fastening tops, etc. The platen is covered with silicone bonded glass-cloth to yield a smooth surface, and mounted on a 23 8 in (60 mm) insulating plywood base with a...

Implementation And Design Development

The Hall was closed to the public in January 2006 and site work commenced with the protection of the flags by covering with polythene throughout the Hall and then laying 75 mm thick close-boarded timber protection overlaid with plywood boards to form a trackway along the centre of the building from the North door off New Palace Yard. The weight of plant and the stacking of storage materials was restricted to avoid overloading the flags, which were only supported around their perimeter by dwarf walls.

New Clear Binding Primer Extends The Life Of Problem Surfaces

New from Zinsser is Peel Stop a clear, flexible bridging sealer for surfaces where peeling, flaking, dusting or chalking is a problem. It is suitable for interior or exterior use forming a breathable membrane over questionable or faulty substrates. Peeling paint is usually caused by moisture problems, paint fatigue or painting over chalky surfaces. Peel Stop tightly bonds to old paint and problem areas, forming a sound surface for new paint forming a tough acrylic film that stays flexible and helps prevent peeling by letting moisture escape. It is formulated to prevent peeling, blistering, checking, cracking and flaking on wood cladding and trim, yellow pine, rough sawn cedar, textured plywood, chalking or powdering, concrete and concrete block, stucco and galvanized gutters. Peel Stop can be applied with a brush or roller and cleans up quickly and easily with soap and water. It is available e in 946ml and3.78ltr pack sizes.

Prepping a Bale House for Plastering

Exposed wood surfaces to be plastered that are wider than 1.5-inch should be covered with house wrap or painted with slip coat, then covered in plaster lath (diamond lath works best). If you can push some straw in behind the mesh, even better. This helps prevent shrinkage cracking of the plaster as it hits a different substrate. Plaster stops and drip edge. Plaster stops must be installed around doorways, windows, and at the top of the bale wall where needed. These can be temporary strips of plywood, 1-by-2s, permanent flashings, or trim boards. Drip-edge flashing must be installed above windows and doors, and below windows if no other drip sill provisions have been made. Generally, plaster stops of are ideal.

Building The Structure

An example of this comes to mind quickly. A friend, an amateur, was building a house for his in-laws in Bolinas, California in 1967.1 walked over one day to see how he was doing. He seemed to be doing well, was just finishing up laying the hardwood floor. I didn't see any pipes or water lines coming up through the floor, however, and I asked about this.

Project Construction

The visible materials are all East Gippsland timbers and were chosen for their high yield and durability. The external weatherboards are yellow stringy bark, sawn radially and also harvested from the site. Red iron bark was used as feature flooring in the main entrance and corridor and feature grade plywood to walls and ceilings. Exposed timber trusses and furniture all utilize local high-end native hardwoods while concealed roof trusses and wall structure use plantation pine framing. The other material employed extensively in the complex is corrugated iron sheeting, which has been used for the roof and for some of the external wall cladding. This is a product that has a long association with the hardwood timber industry, especially in traditional timber mill structures, and requires no maintenance. TOP Interior-red iron bark used as feature flooring. Much of the woodwork is minimally finished.

H Two Way Joist Floors

As in one-way floor systems, the dead weight of two-way slabs can be reduced considerably by creating void spaces in what would otherwise be a solid slab. For the most part, the concrete removed is in tension and ineffective, so the lighter floor has virtually the same structural characteristics as the corresponding solid floor. Voids are usually formed using dome-shaped steel pans that are removed for reuse after the slab has hardened. Forms are placed on a plywood platform as shown in Fig. 18.11. Note in the figure that domes have been omitted near the columns to obtain a solid slab in the region of negative bending moment and high shear. The lower flange of each dome contacts that of the adjacent dome, so that the concrete is cast entirely against a metal

Common Footing Materials Sand

Other materials, such as wood and rubber, may be mixed with sand to overcome some difficulty encountered when using sand alone. Wood products added to sand footings will add moisture-holding capacity and improve traction while adding some cushioning. Rubber adds cushion to a sand footing and can prolong the useful life of the sand through decreased abrasion of sand particles on sand particles. Although rubber can add some cushion to worn sand footing, for old and eroded sand the better long-term fix is to discarded the failed surface material and replace with a new mixture. Rubber is a relatively expensive addition to a footing that has outlived its useful life and is best replaced.

Characterizing Footing Materials

Table 17.1 presents characteristics of several common footing materials. The characteristics represent those selected specifically for good arena footing (e.g., dust potential). You can see why wood products would be added to a footing to increase moisture-holding capacity and why rubber pieces or sand would be added to reduce compaction. Figure 17.3 offers a look at the footing particle size distributions that were found in six indoor riding arenas located at commercial boarding facilities in central Pennsylvania. (Particle size distribution determines the various ranges of particle diameters in a composite material such as arena footing.) Note that the two sand arenas were very different in their particle size distribution. This emphasizes why you should be specific as to the desired type of sand (or

Key Points Wood Shingles and Shakes

Most wood shingles are produced from western red cedar, although eastern white cedar, tidewater cypress, and California redwood are also available. 2 The No. 1 grade for all species of wood is all clear, all heartwood, and all quarter-sawn. The lower grades are quartersawn or plain-sawed, have heartwood and sapwood, and have increasing degrees of imperfections. 3. All shakes are manufactured from western red cedar (graded No 1 and 100 percent heartwood) and are used primarily for siding or roofing Grades All cedar shakes are graded No. 1 and are 100 percent heartwood, free of both bark and sapwood (Table 850-18). Lumber species commonly used In the manufacture of glue-laminated beams include Douglas fir, larch, hemlock, fir, redwood, and southern yellow pine Clue-laminated beams for exterior applications require certain adheslves and preservative impregnation. If the site is particularly humid, all-heartwood construction may be warranted.

Construction of corner cabinets etc

Tall cabinets can have separate top and bottom carcasses, with the sides made up of top and bottom framing rails and grooved-in plywood panel grooved into the front pilaster and back post (423 3), or solid laminboard sides grooved together (423 4). In 423 3 the back post will continue down to floor level, but 423 4 will require a stump leg added. Tops and upper carcass bottom can be framed in as 423 5, dovetailed to the pilasters and either rebated rabbeted into the side rails or screwed to fixing fillets, or tenoned (423 6) and screwed from the outside while the lower carcass bottom will have to be housed dadoed in as 423 10 or treated as the tops (423 11). The pilasters are usually set at right angles to the sides, but this is not obligatory and the angle or splay can be flattened slightly if necessary, but the doors should enter as 423 9 with the appropriate angles taken from a full-size layout. (See also Canted dovetails, p. 176.) Drawer arrangements are shown in 423 7, where in...

Other Options for Surfacing Bale Walls

Strategies for affixing other forms of siding typically use thin wooden strapping to act as attachment points. This can be run vertically between the wooden bale curb and the top plate, affixed at intervals that match building code requirements for the particular siding. Fill the spaces between the strapping with plaster. Wooden siding,plywood as a base for cedar shakes or even vinyl or aluminum siding can be attached to the strapping for interior walls, drywall can be mounted.

The Geometrical Mechanical Empiricalintuitive Concept And Safety

Gothic roof structures are widely spread contin-ental -type roof structures, including in Romania, where they were built until the 18th century, and were mostly made from hardwood. Each truss of roof has a tie-beam, upper collar, collar beams and angle braces main trusses possess hanging truss(es) built of king or queen posts (possibly including pairs of slanted struts and compound rafters) , while longitudinal bracing frames are (only) vertical.

Resonator Sound Absorbers

Panel resonators consist of a membrane of thin plywood or linoleum in front of a sealed air space that usually contains an absorbent material. The panel is set in motion by the alternating pressure of the sound wave. The sound energy is converted to heat. Panel resonators are used for efficient low-frequency absorption, and when middle- to high-frequency absorption is not sought or is provided for by another acoustic treatment. They are often used in recording studios.

Extant London works include Sainsbury Wing National Gallery 198591

In turn, this 'more' has three principal aspects. First, there is the stair (modelled on the example of the Scala Regia, in Rome) accessed from (a rather dreary and far too low entry hall), complete with a reverse perspective and, above, a heavy structure that marvellously hangs and turns out to be made of plywood and without any actual structural role. Secondly, there is a section schema within the various rooms of the gallery that refers itself to John Soane at the Dulwich - except that this is now entirely a conceit determined to exclude light rather than bring it in. Thirdly, and more interestingly, cross-axial relations are set up that seek to draw the visitor's eye to important art works as they pass between the rooms through their connecting arches. All these aspects of the architecture command attention but fail to be totally convincing intellectuality now plays a problematic and irritating relation to the substantial facts of space, concrete form and actual experience. The...

Isolating Sound In Floorceiling Spaces

Installing a resilient layer between the structural floor and a hard finish floor treatment like marble, ceramic tile, or wood will help cushion impacts. Resilient products are often installed beneath lightweight gypsum concrete or other lightweight leveling materials. Floor underlayments are used to control sound transmission of both impact and airborne noise in floor systems, and consist of pre-compressed molded glass fibers. The sound matt is installed between a plywood subfloor and the floor's finish material. Floor underlayments provide a system stiff enough to prevent grout cracking in tile floors while being resilient enough to greatly reduce noise.

Arena Maintenance Surface Grooming

Surface grooming involves frequent movements of displaced footing material with mechanized and handheld tools. Generally, a specific surface-grooming tool is either pulled behind or attached to a tractor. A three-point hitch attachment between tool and tractor may be used for convenience in positioning and lifting the tool. The tool is specific to the type of footing material, with more penetrating grooming needed for heavier materials, such as sand and screenings, while lighter tools are effective in redistributing lighter footing materials, such as wood products or crumb rubber. Different tools require widely different operator skill levels. Experience will play a role in effective surface preparation. It is important to use as noninvasive a tool as possible to maintain the footing material and integrity of the base. The tool should not dredge the base material up into the footing material. Adjust the tine height to prevent the tool from contacting the base material. some tools...

Ceramic floor tile adhesives

Bed according to the quality of the substrate. Standard products are suitable for fixing ceramic tiles, quarries, brick slips, stone and terrazzo to well-dried-out concrete or cement sand screed. Where suspended timber floors are to be tiled, they must be well ventilated and strong enough to support the additional dead load. An overlay of 12 mm exterior grade plywood, primed with bonding agent and screwed at 200 mm centres may be necessary. In refurbishment work, it is better to remove all old floor finishes, but ceramic floor tiles may be fixed over cleaned ceramic or possibly primed vinyl tiles, providing all loose material is first removed.

Fire and sound rating

Some aspects of fire and sound rating have important structural implications. Fire ratings define the time a structure retains its integrity while exposed to fire. Codes require fire rating for buildings based on floor area, occupancy and type of construction. Fire rated walls may also separate large buildings into smaller areas considered separate buildings. For light-weight wood structures a layer of 5 8 in Type X gypsum board on each side of the wall provides one hour fire rating. A second layer on each side provides two-hour fire rating. Fire rating of floors requires, in addition to gypsum board on the ceiling, lightweight concrete or thick floor plywood. Sound rating provides privacy in party walls and floors separating adjacent apartments, condominiums, or offices. The Impact Insulation Class IIC) for floors and Sound Transmission Class STC) for both floors and walls define sound ratings. IIC and STC ratings of 50 are the typical minimum standard for party floors and walls...

Ventilating The Roof Void

Rafters have been left in place, may not provide sufficient depth to install adequate insulation and at the same time maintain a ventilation void above. It may be necessary to provide some additional depth to the rafter by fixing a packer beneath, creating the construction indicated in Figs 12.6 and 12.7. It is necessary to maintain the ventilation space above and to do this either plywood can be installed or, if the roof covering has been stripped, it may be possible to introduce some of the proprietary plastic components for this purpose.

Claddings as sheets or shingles

Plywood sheets can be used as exterior cladding. However the risks are greater than in the case of solid wood boards. If anything other than the very highest quality of sheet is applied, and if anything but the greatest possible attention is devoted to the finishing of the edges and to the mounting, there is a substantial risk of 'delamination' the layers of the sheet will become detached from each other Only plywood sheets with a facing of gaboon (Aucoumea klaineana) or sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum) can be finished with a layer of transparent varnish. With all other types, a full-cover coating is required to provide adequate protection against ultraviolet light. Because the edges must also be protected, the sheets are cut to size and treated in the factory.The order dimensions must be extremely accurate since the sheets cannot be sawn again. (Suppliers impose these requirements in connection with the guarantee.) In addition to plywood, there are also sheets of heat-hardened...

Estimating The Cost Of Manhours In Handwork

Proprietor must assess his own capabilities and those of his employees. Common joinery items are usually in softwood of fairly large dimensions, with no careful selection of materials and no elaborate detailing. In furniture, hardwoods require from 10 to 20 per cent more time to work, more time to cut the smaller joints, more time to finish off and a cabinet-door only a quarter of the size of a standard softwood door might take twice as long to make. The only practical method, therefore, is to see the work as a whole and attempt an assessment of the hours required to make it in terms of one man's working time then to itemize the various operations, i.e. making working drawings, setting out, preparation of jigs and templates, getting out material (plenty of time should be allowed for this as it entails careful selection), sawing out and planing up for carcass, jointing carcass, getting out drawer material, framing drawers, fitting drawers (again allow plenty of time), etc., etc.,...

Exterior To Interior Noise Transmission

The sound transmission characteristics of several types of exterior walls have been measured by the National Bureau of Standards (Sabine et al., 1975) and are summarized in Fig. 10.14. Where the exterior surface is a lightweight material such as wood or aluminum siding, thin sheet metal or skim coat plaster over Styrofoam, a layer of 5 8 plywood against the stud is usually necessary to bring the mass up to satisfactory levels. It can be seen from Fig. 10.14 that most windows and doors have STC ratings that fall well below the ratings of the commonly used exterior walls. Thus it is necessary to use resilient mounts or separate stud construction on exterior walls only when there are no windows or doors on the wall or where the ratings of these penetrating elements are higher than standard construction will produce. Single Wood Stud Wall -2x4 Stud 1 Layer 5 Redwood Siding 3 4 Insulation Board Sheathing 1 Layer 5 3 Drywall

Advantages of manufactured boards

1 Plywood and laminboards, etc. have no natural line of cleavage and cannot be split across the length or width, as the grain direction of each alternate layer is opposed to the direction of the force. General stiffness and rigidity is also much greater, and a strip of plywood is Stiffer than a strip of steel of equal weight, and therefore thicknesses as opposed to solid wood can be reduced by as much as 25 per cent. Particle boards do not have the same high strength weight ratio and are relatively weak in all directions, nevertheless they have much the same dimensional stability, and sufficient strength and stiffness for most purposes. 4 Construction is balanced, therefore movement is negligible under normal conditions, making them ideal for large or flush surfaces. Plywood in particular possesses a natural resilience which enables it to be bent to reasonably small radii of curvature without damage. 5 The utilization of common woods in plentiful supply, which can be face veneered...

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