Work Bench Ebook
Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips
There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.
A heavy duty radial or swing saw mounted on a long wooden table is a regular item of equipment in most joinery workshops for the rapid crosscutting of squared up boards and timbers. It is less common in cabinet-making shops simply because waney edge boards are more commonly used. Many shops do have a lighter version, the radial arm saw, which has been particularly developed for the home craftsman and has a versatility that enables many processes from ripping to drilling to be accomplished on one machine. Its main use for the professional, though, with other machinery at his disposal, is for crosscutting and trenching dadoing (cutting long housings) for book-shelving and similar carcass work.
It is hardly necessary to have complete sets of mortise-, firmer- and bevelled edged chisels for furniture-making, as the bevelled-edged will do everything necessary. Nor are complete sets of any one type essential, for there will always be three or four favourites to which the hand automatically turns. A first selection could be 1 8 in (3 mm), 1 4 in (6 mm), 3 8 in (9 mm), 1 2 in (12.5 mm) and 4 in (19 mm) bevelled edge (61 lA) with the addition of a 1 16 in (1.5 mm) firmer type (61 lB) and perhaps a 1 2in (12.5 mm) mortise-chisel (61 lC), with the later addition of a long paring-chisel (61 4B), and a butt- or sash-pocket chisel (61 4c) for fitting work away from the workshop. Various types of chisel handles are shown in 61 3. Figure 61 3A shows the universally popular box or ash carving handle 61 3B the traditional round ash 61 3C the oval splitproof plastic handle, either in polypropylene or the transparent cellulose acetate butyrate which is tougher but more expensive, and 61 3D...
As a rough approximation it is usual to take one-third of the diameter of a circular saw as its effective cut, therefore a 15 in (381 mm) saw giving a cut of about 5 in (127 mm) would be about the minimum for general work. However, many large concerns do not use timber thicker than 11 2 in (38 mm) building up for larger dimensions, and this greatly simplifies their stocks, while large-diameter saws are no 100 Startrite 9 in (228 mm) tilt arbor table saw 101 Wadkin heavy duty 10 in (254 mm) tilt arbor table saw 102 Radial arm saw (bench model). (By courtesy of DeWalt) longer necessary and most of the work is done on the 12 in (304 mm) sliding-table panel-saw (45B) which is an excellent compromise if large boards of ply and chipboard are used to any great extent. Additionally it is never advisable to fit small saws for ripping out stringers and bandings, etc. to large-diameter table saws, but they could be used in the smaller saws. (Where space permits it is advisable to double up with...
Most furniture-makers require turned components from time to time, from chair legs to turned drawer knobs, so it makes sense, if space permits, to undertake this within the workshop. The woodturning lathe can also be a useful source of income, and bowls and platters, often from the waste products of furniture-making, can keep apprentices and trainees gainfully employed between orders. It is preferable to purchase as heavy a machine as
It is a little sad that inlaid lines and bandings are no longer used in modern furniture, for they add great richness and a touch of welcome colour. Figure 302 1 shows various traditional examples, and 302 2-5 the method of assembly in which composite blocks are built up of layers of contrasting woods and veneers and then sliced as in 302 3, with a special planer or swage-set circular saw projecting only sufficiently above the saw-table to cut the thickness. Reproduction-work still makes use of these bandings, and those usually available from marquetry and veneer suppliers include 1 16 in (1.5 mm) boxwood and blackwood strings, 1 8 in (3 mm) boxwood, blackwood and rose inlay lines, three-line bandings box black box and box rose box, and some patterned bandings, viz. dentil, check, rope, domino, feather, herringbone, diamond and chevron in combinations of box, blackwood, mahogany, rosewood, tulipwood, satinwood and walnut, etc.
According to the brief, modular work benches and worktops are standardised and can be easily rearranged with regard to their technical equipment and spatial layout. Horizontal service lines support flexibility since they enable a number of defined spots of the floor plan to connect to the technical infrastructure. Transparency enhances the open plan character of the laboratories.
Not until the end of the 17th century did things begin to improve with the perfection of the up-and-down saw, and much later the circular saw. Because pit sawing was so laborious, hewn sides were used whenever a regular surface was not needed (Buchanan 1976, 62). The introduction of power sawing was resisted in England for more than a century by hand sawyers who felt their craft endangered by this form of automation (Candee 1976, 133). Once accepted, the life of the pit saw was long indeed. Pit saws were used in the Virginia mountains even after the turn of the 20th century (Bealer 1978, 34). Pit sawing did provide two names, which ultimately became common English family names Pitman and Sawyer. The practice of vernacular building provided a number of other family names in England -Thatcher, Reeder, Slater, Tyler, Carpenter, Joyner, Bricker, Mason, Par-geter, and Dauber. The situation is similar in other languages. Advances at the end of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th...
There arc many ways to join members together. Beams can be tied with ropes, carved and assembled or connected with nails, screws and glue. When these structures were erected, joining was an extremely elaborate technique. Master jointers were dedicated craftsmen responsible for splicing and connecting elements of a building. Many factors had to be considered. The connections had to be strong enough to transfer forces such as bending, torsion and shear, yet appearance was an important factor. A variety of techniques sometimes simple, sometimes elaborate were developed.
Styles, the Jaipur school - at the express wish of the darbar - departed from that model it was a school not of fine art but of industrial design.10 The curriculum certainly included drawing and skills of Western origin, such as clock-making and electroplating, but most of the subjects taught related to local traditional crafts. They included carpentry and wood-carving, clay modelling and pottery (imported from Khurja), stone sculpture, filigree work, blacksmithing, koft-gari (inlaying gold on steel), embroidery and engraving (illus. 75).11 Instruction was given free to sons of the artisan class. Courses lasted from three to five years and were intended to impart 'a sound practical other, more artistic, pursuits. He was, for example, not only the surgeon but also the architect of the Mayo Hospital (built 1870-75 illus. 76).14 The purpose of the school - the revival of local industrial design - was established under his direction and pursued by his successor (from 1875 to 1907),...
It was now that Morris became committed to that belief in the inseparability of mind, hands and heart, using natural artistic and craft abilities to experiment with stone carving, clay modelling, wood carving, and the first of his illuminated manuscripts. To 'know' how to work with the hands and to employ a handcraft technique was to be fundamental to the rest of his life and to his Ruskinian ideas of the dignity of work.
Figure 11 11 shows a student using a drill press in the Engineering Machine Shop to fabricate a new connection plate for a truss . Figure 11 . 12 shows students preparing two trusses for a trial assembly prior to moving the trusses and beams to the final location on campus An initial assembly will be made of each bridge to ensure that all major components fit properly before they are transported to the site for final assembly Figure 11 11 shows a student using a drill press in the Engineering Machine Shop to fabricate a new connection plate for a truss . Figure 11 . 12 shows students preparing two trusses for a trial assembly prior to moving the trusses and beams to the final location on campus An initial assembly will be made of each bridge to ensure that all major components fit properly before they are transported to the site for final assembly
Deities looked down on an aerial view of the world, presented on a horizontal viewing surface on which a stereo image is visible, called an Immersive Workbench. Whilst mortals were capable of performing fine manipulations, deities were more capable of performing gross manipulations or structural changes to the world. Though the intention was that mortals and deities could assume the roles of apprentices and teachers or clients and demonstrators, the rigid use of different viewpoints was found to inhibit shared understanding of the design (Leigh and Johnson, 1996).
I've seen a lew sleds that use steel runners much like those on a miter gauge. That's a great feature and it may be worth looking lor the runners at your local hardware store. Finally, If the sled binds, try applying a coat ol paste wax to the sled bottom and runners. That should reduce the drag on the table saw top.
Before the introduction of power-driven circular saws all veneers were sawn by hand, usually V8 in (3 mm) and over in thickness, with deep saw kerfing which had to be planed off before laying or the ribbing would ultimately show through the polish. At the turn of the century specially large circular saws up to 18 feet (5.48 m) in diameter with very fine saw teeth and little set were introduced which could
Mother-of-pearl can be obtained prepared for use in various qualities and colours, blue, pink and green being the most expensive. It can be cut with a jeweller's piercing saw and filed to shape, but should be backed with a temporary veneer or sheet of paper before cutting as some varieties are very brittle. If laid with hide glue it should be roughened with a file and any slight curvature taken up with plaster of Paris mixed in the glue. Very little pressure must be used, sufficient only to press the shell home flush with the surface, and final finishing is done with 10 0 grit abrasive paper, from which the fierceness of the cut has been knocked off by rubbing two sheets together, followed up by pumice powder and rottenstone. The pearl can be engraved by brushing over with warm wax, scratching through the wax when cold and pouring nitric acid into the scratches, after which mastic suitably coloured is run into the lines to complete the design. Tortoiseshell can be cut and laid in a...
If the grooves are worked with a spindle-shaper or router they can be stopped well clear of the ends and the tongues cut back accordingly (134 5), but if worked with grooving- or combination-plane or circular saw it is more difficult to stop the grooves and they can be allowed to run through, either showing the ends of the tongues which is not objectionable if well done or cutting back and filling in with carefully selected end-grain pieces (134 6). Twin grooves and loose tongues (134 2) save timber width moreover, solid tongues (134 1) worked with matched cutters in a combination-plane are not wholly satisfactory, for the carefully planed edge has to be cut back to form the tongue, and the tightness of the joint may suffer. With machine-cutters, however, solid tongues are so easily formed they are standard practice in production-work and 135 shows the variations possible.
Shaped edges which are convex can be worked with a smoothing- or block-plane provided the curve is not too acute, but for quick curves and concave edges a metal compass-plane is obtainable whose flexible spring steel face can be adjusted to any arc. This is an expensive tool proportionate to the amount of use which could be found for it, and given a true eye most curved edges can be worked equally well but rather more slowly with spokeshaves which have either a flat face for convex work or a round face for concave work. The screw-adjustable type illustrated is easier to handle than the cheaper version in which the cutter is secured with a thumb-screw and which must be set by hand. A chamfer version with two adjustable fences set at a true angle of 45 was manufactured until recently and is probably still available. For difficult woods there is much to be said for the wooden spokeshave illustrated in Figure 54A, in which the iron is flat to the wood, cutting bevel uppermost, and the...
Certain basic machines are indispensable to every workshop even where hand work predominates. These are circular table saw radial arm-saw band-saw planers spindle moulder shaper mortiser horizontal borer overhead table router drill-press bench-grinder sanders and lathes. If much veneer-work is done then either a screw-operated or vacuum-bag veneerpress will need a high priority, while production shops would place the dovetailing-machine and belt sander high on the list. Where it is intended to install only the most basic machines then obviously the table saw, planer and band-saw will take pride of place.
Not for the faint of heart, heavy-duty tools may also be used to sculpt bales, including chain saws and angle grinders with lancelot wheels or circular saw blades spinning backwards. Exercise A extreme caution using these LAN tools, and be sure others on 18.32 Gently persuading the bales the site know what you are into line.
1-4 are all corner joints for top and bottom fixings on flush carcasses, while 5-8 can all be used as alternatives for jointing divisions, fixed shelves, raised bottom panels and inset and oversize tops. It is a matter of choice or of the equipment available whether one stops the joints at the front edge or merely applies solid wood edgings after the joints have been through cut with the spindle shaper or groover. Naturally, the biscuit jointer and portable router come into their own when joints are stopped. Figure 177 shows some of these joints in a very basic construction with an oversize top and separate plinth.
For the whetting or honing of ground edges (and all edge tools are supplied ground but not honed) a variety of stones are necessary. They can be either India, carborundum, or the slower cutting Washita, which is an inferior form of Arkansas, while true Arkansas is very scarce and expensive. Both India and carborundum grits are artificial, and therefore their quality is consistent, but Washita is a natural stone and can vary considerably, with an occasional piece almost too hard to cut the best, however, will give an excellent edge. All these stones are usually bought in the standard size of 8 in (203 mm) by 2 in (50 mm) by 1 in (25 mm) for sharpening chisels, plane-irons, etc., and should be mounted in a wooden box with a lid (Figure 65), or otherwise covered when not in use.
Carborundum silicon carbide used as an abrasive. carborundum saw a circular saw whose blade is see types of timber framing joint illustration. 4 carpenter's mallet a small wooden hammer or mallet used by woodworkers for applying blows to chisels etc. 40 carpenter's pencil a sturdy pencil with a thick lead and rectangular cross-section to avoid rolling when put down, used by a carpenter for marking of cuts, levels etc. on wood and other materials sometimes known as a builder's pencil. 130 carpenter's square see framing square. carpenter's vice see bench vice. carpentry construction work in timber in North
Radius is small) is negligible with respect to the number of those lying on the cutting front, which is almost straight. According to this statement, we neglected the contribute given by the previous ones so that the whole cutting process can be considered as performed by a straight chain saw. Actually the model that we are going to present can be applied also to circular saws with large radius since, in this case, the exact trajectory of the single tooth can be approximated with a linear one.
Most positive distractions are based on some form of nature (water, gardens, and other views of nature) however, they can also be constructed items, such as statues, interesting patterns in interior brick or stone on the wall, mosaic tile scenes on walls or floors, and aquariums. Even a beautiful reception desk with wood carving can divert attention. Most positive distractions fall under three primary categories water features, artwork, and gardens nature.
So it becomes valuable to think not only of what to include in the prototype but also to consider carefully where and how to use it. An effort was made to use the Spyfish experience prototype in a relaxed environment, away from desks or workbenches, but using it on a moving boat, somewhere sunny, during a lazy holiday, could have contributed even more to the experience. With a project as inherently technological as this, it is too easy for the whole design process to be tied to the ongoing technical development, conducted in the laboratory or this state of mind. Experience prototyping can be a healthy antidote to this perspective.
Of course, independent and unique African-influenced design and creativity were limited because of the controlling, oppressive relationship of the master over his slaves despite their skill. Unlike the uniquely African American influence in gospel music and other personal arts developed within the slave experience, architecture was much too visible, public, and permanent to allow clear African motifs and references to be expressed. In fact, many subtle African and African American influences are often found in and around the plantations and urban areas of the Deep South. In The Black Architectural Experience in America, architect and educator Richard K. Dozier cites how African skills in ironworking and woodcarving, as
One of the most useful of all planes is the 22 in (558 mm) try-plane 'jointer No. 07 with 23 8 in (60 mm) cutter. Shorter planes in this category are known as 'fore' for general levelling, and longer planes 'jointers' for shooting square edges, etc., but the middle size will do everything necessary. Jack-planes can either be 14 in (355 mm) or 15 in (380 mm) long with 2 in (50 mm) or 23 8 in (60 mm) cutter (Nos. 05 or 05V2). The name itself is probably a corruption of 'jackass' or 'Jack of all Trades' and fit for anything it is, therefore, reserved for the rougher work although it is as much a precision tool as any other. It is often recommended that the jack-plane iron should be ground to a slight Block-plane Block-plane A smaller version of the smoothing-plane not available in wooden form which can be held in one hand is the metal block-plane, and this 6 in (152 mm) plane is best obtained with an adjustable mouth and cutter. The cheaper versions are not fully adjustable and the...
The uniformity of light is related to the height and spacing of luminaires in relation to their light output and distribution pattern. A ratio of the spacing between lamp fixtures to the mounting height above the work surface is used as one criterion in light uniformity design. This is probably the simplest method and is represented by the s Hp ratio, where s is spacing between fixtures and Hp is lamp mounting height minus work surface height. If an obvious work height is not clear, such as workbench height of 3V2 feet, then use a height of 2 feet. This 2-foot height would apply within the general stable stall area, while the working height of the indoor arena would be the riding surface, or floor of the building.
Busways offer plug-in receptacles that can be posi- tioned wherever needed. You have probably seen light-duty plug-in busways in countertops and along laboratory or workbenches, where it a less expensive alternative to installing many separate convenience outlets. Busways can provide 20 to 60 A at 300V in two- and three-wire constructions. Heavier 100-A power at 600V in three- and four-wire constructions is used for direct connection of machine tools, light machinery, and industrial lighting. A plug-in busway makes connection simple and quick with a plug-in device, and saves large amounts of expensive hand labor to connect to cables or conduit frequently, as in machine shops and workshops. A plug-in busway is used for direct connection of light machinery and industrial lighting. Heavy-duty busduct (Fig. 30-5) is used for the vertical feeders in high-rise buildings, for example, to connect a basement switchboard to a penthouse machine room.
Have fallen or been pruned from trees. Brutalism, 1 New Brutalism a modern architectural style in Europe from the 1950s and 1960s, characterized by lack of decoration, expression of structure, and use of modern materials such as glass, steel and board-marked concrete. 2 see futurism. bruzz chisel, corner chisel, dogleg chisel, parting chisel a woodcarving chisel whose blade is V-shaped in section. 41 BSW thread acronym for British Standard
Types 79 hide 74, 294 impact 77 preparation of 75 preparing surfaces for 77 resin 75, 298 types of 74, 79 working properties of 75 Gluing difficult materials 78 Go-bars 341 Gothic tracery 375 Gouges 106 Grasshopper gauge 92 Grinding and honing angles, chisels 106 wheels 108 Grits, abrasive 84 HAND TOOLS, see also tools 90 Handles 287 glass door 243 metal 290 wood 287 Handrail bolt 166 Hand saws 95 Haunches 160 Height adjusters 285 Hide glue 74, 294 Hides, leather 66 edging 330 Lathes, woodturning 136 Leather 66 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 511 Sandbag veneering 308, 327 Sanders, electric 125,136 Sanding materials, see also abrasives 81 operations 81 papers 81, 85 rubbers 84. 110 techniques 83 Sand shading, marquetry 319 Saw-chops clamps 96 Saw-horse 145
The lightweight electric chainsaws which have recently been introduced are a great asset to the furniture-maker. They are invaluable for roughing out large, thick boards to arrive at the sizes that can be manhandled on the normal workshop machinery. They are much safer and more versatile in use than the portable circular saws, although a little more wasteful of wood. Also, for those involved in sculptural work, heavy bowl turning or carving, they are very manageable aids to roughing out and removing waste material.
Sharpening 113 Woods, list of 32 Wood-scribe 45 Work-benches 145 Working-drawings 348, 361, 363 Workshop automation 140 drawing 363 equipment 352, 363 furnishings layout 141 geometry 363 heating 142 layout furnishings 141 lighting 141 planning 141 regulations 507 safety precautions 511 Woodworker's vice vise 87 Woodworm 29
These have only a limited use for the furniture-maker who, unlike the joiner and builder working out on site, has constant access to a floor-mounted machine. On occasion, however, the surface planer may not be wide enough, and then the portable is extremely useful for these extra wide boards or table tops, even though, for final accuracy, a hand plane will be needed. It is also useful for rebating if for any reason this cannot be undertaken on either the spindle moulder or surface planer. At the cost of little more than a large hand plane, it is, therefore, a useful addition to the workshop equipment.
The amount of illumination needed in horse facilities varies from 3 footcandles in hay and bedding storage areas to 50 footcandles in an office or tack room. Up to 100 footcandles is supplied as task lighting where precise work is done, such as an office desk, veterinary care area, or shop workbench. A footcandle is a measure of light output. The English system uses footcandle (fc) per square foot and the metric system uses lumen (lm) per square meter, or lux (1 fc 10.76 lux).
Both latex and synthetic foams can be obtained in sheet form (solid foam) and with cavities which cut down weight and give increased softness, and in a range of thicknesses up to 12 in (305 mm) according to the type. They are also obtainable in a range of densities corresponding to soft, medium, and hard for traffic seating (railway, bus seating, etc.). Pad thicknesses can be built up with rubber adhesives (Bostik, etc.) and can be cut with shears, corrugated kitchen scissors, sharp knives or on the band-saw. They can be glued direct to solid plywood bases or placed direct over resilient webbings. Adequate ventilation must be provided, and if covered with impermeable materials leather, leathercloth and PVC-coated fabrics solid bases must be pierced with 1 4 in (6 mm) holes at 3 in (76 mm) centres, and loose cushions provided with brass eyelet holes sewn in, or potential users will suffer serious embarrassment, as the effect is that of a joke cushion. It is usual to cover foam padding...
The four sides require three stopped dadoes, a stopped tenon and a rabbet cut. Follow the illustration for the cut locations. Use a router and T-wide straight bit for the dadoes and the table saw for the rabbets and tenons. All the dadoes, as well as the rabbet, are on the inside face of each sideboard. Be sure to orient the boards properly In pairs with the wood veneer edge to the front. The stopped tenon is on the top edge of each panel. The light guard is made from solid wood and has the bottom front edge rounded over with a router bit. Secure the guard to the bottom of the bridge, flush with the front edge of the bottom board, using glue and biscuits. Drive a 2 -long finishing nail through the inside of each tower side and into the light guard end to further secure this board.
These need only be softwood and require no vices but here again they should be strong, steady and truly level. Separate benches for gluing up, especially for the hand-coating of glue on veneers, etc., are probably a luxury but well worth the extra space if it can be provided, for resin glues set glass hard and have an unholy knack of badly scarring finished surfaces if allowed to harden on working-tops. Oilstones and bench-grinders also deserve a special bench or table, preferably with metal-lined top, and placed in the most convenient position with equal access for every maker. This saves litter on work-benches and helps to keep the surfaces clean. A long slot for hand-tools is provided at the back of the standard bench, but wall-mounted racks over the bench are more convenient and leave the bench-top free for wide work. At least two saw-horses (Figure 126) are needed for supporting planks while crosscutting, also two low stools of similar construction 12 in (304 mm) high and with 9...
Perspex or acrylic sheet (polymethyl methacry-late) is readily obtainable in clear transparent, pastel shades, full colours, and transfusing and fluorescent colours in thicknesses from V25 in (1 mm) to V2 in (12.5 mm) in colours, and up to 2 in (50 mm) in the clear sheet. It is also supplied in clear rod and tube up to 1 in (25 mm) diameter. Although not as hard as fused glass it has the same clarity and appearance and can be cut very easily with circular saw, band-saw or very fine-toothed handsaw, using low speed and light pressure and feed. It is easily drilled with the normal twist-drill lubricated with a trace of thin oil, and can be bent to simple curves at a temperature just short of boiling water (201 F 94 C). For accurate bending a wood form should be used, the perspex sheet heated in front of an electric plate or similar source of heat, bent over the form, covered with a cloth and held in position for from one to two minutes to cool and set. Cut edges can be bonded together...
The bench-grinder is virtually indispensable for the rapid grinding of cutting edges, moulding blanks, etc., and the various abrasive wheels are listed on p. 108. 115 1 2 in (12.5 mm) capacity five-speed table drill or drill press 116 8 in (203 mm) high-speed bench-grinder
These are sometimes known as 'sabre saws', which is more correct as the term 'jigsaw' could also be taken to mean power-driven fretsaws in which the blade is secured at either end. Available in home, general and super duty, some have vertical stroke, and others have a cycloid action which keeps the teeth clear of sawdust. The no-load speed is usually around 3000 strokes per minute, with a stroke depth of from 1 2 in (12.5 mm) to 1 in (25 mm) and a cutting depth of up to 23 8 in (60 mm) in softwoods and 1 in (25 mm) in hardwoods and resin-bonded ply. Various types of blade can be obtained with fine, medium and coarse teeth for sheet metal, fibreglass, plastics, wood,
But terrified of the rusting circular-saw lying in its wood pile lair (an assortment of deck chairs) in the garden, improvisation was called for. Nightly, I carried the fire from one room to another in a large baking tray, puzzling over myths of the campfire as the original organising feature of social space.
Mass-produced, i.e. quantity-production, furniture is more the result of business expertise and engineering skill than the application of fine craftsmanship, although furniture is and probably always will be a craft-based industry while it continues to use a natural and viable material. The modern factory employs machine- and hand-workers of a variety of types, assemblers, finishers, polishers, upholsterers and inspectors, etc., and, in the narrow sense, expert cabinet-makers might have no place at all in the organization. However, most large concerns keep a nucleus of skilled craftsmen for prototype-work, while all learners and apprentices do, or should receive, training in either wood machining or the basic hand-skills. In effect, therefore, a modern furniture factory which is efficient, well organized, and anxious to maintain a standard of quality is the basic handshop vastly extended, systematized and mechanized, in which the skilled fingers which once held chisels, wielded planes...
Bits are probably the most abused of all woodworking tools, for too often the wrong type is chosen, or the bit is incorrectly or over sharpened. The general run of bits are supplied with either square taper shanks (69 1) for use in the armbrace, or parallel round shanks (69 14) for hand-drills. A few types are also available with parallel shanks turned down to 1 4 in (6 mm) diameter (69 13) for use in the standard drill-gun, and with Morse taper shanks for lathe heads or specialized drilling-machines. In the main, parallel shank-bits are classed as machine-bits with a constant shank diameter of 1 2 in (12.5 mm), but the universally used Russell Jenning's auger- and dowel-bits are also supplied with 1 4 in (6 mm) and 3 8 in (9.5 mm) diameter shanks. Types of bit are as follows.
Instruments need maximum care and preservation from damage, Adjustable shelving must vary according to instrument sizes. Roll-away racks for bulky instruments are needed. Smaller instruments are best cared for in cabinets. Other provisions include lockers with master-keyed padlocks, student benches, record cabinet, music filing cabinet, piano dolly, and music stands. If possible, a small area for instrument maintenance should be provided sink with hot and cold water, floor drain, shelves, workbench, gas outlet for Bunsen burner, and counter for instrument repair
Laminated plastic veneers can be cut with circular saws, using square tipped teeth without set, band-saws with hack-saw-shaped teeth, or fine-toothed backed tenon-saws, in all cases cutting with the face side up. For machine-saws in production-work tungsten-carbide teeth should be used, for the resin content is very hard on cutting edges while if there is any tendency for the back to chip or 'tear out' with any type of saw the teeth should be resharpened, and the plastic sheet firmly supported with applied top pressure if possible. An alternative hand method which gives no tear is to score the face with a hardened steel scraper or cutting tool a special blade is available for Stanley trimming-knives and the sheet will then snap easily with a clean fracture, as in glass cutting. Narrow cross-cuts, corners, etc. can be cut with a fine-toothed hack-saw, while for contour cutting portable electric sabre-saws or fret-saws with
Originally developed in the fourteenth century this process uses separate inlays of wood, ivory, bone, tortoiseshell, mother-of-pearl, brass, silver, etc. cut to shape, laid on the ground substrate, the outlines traced with a fine point and the appropriate recesses cut in with wood-carving tools, slightly bevelling the shoulders of the cuts to give a tight fit. Wood thicknesses are usually from 1 8 in (3 mm) to 1 4 in (6 mm) thickness and can be levelled off flush after laying, but the more precious materials in thin sheets are laid on a bed of plaster of Paris and hide glue suitably coloured. Metal insets can be laid with hide glue if the surface is first rubbed with a slice of garlic to destroy the grease, or preferably with epoxy glue. The original intarsia-work employed arabesques and elaborate perspectives.
Forming a new opening in an existing wall must be done with due care to avoid danger to the operatives and minimize the risk of collateral damage to the surrounding construction. A 'Stihl' or other similar diamond-toothed circular saw about 300-400 mm diameter can be used to cut the profile of the opening in the existing masonry.
Vertical pillar drill-stands with spring-loaded instant-return feed and fixed table are usually available for all models of hand drills. With the gun clamped in position the stand becomes an effective vertical table-drill or drill-press for vertical drilling of wood and metal. It lacks the versatility of the orthodox drill-press but will perform most of the main functions of the heavier tool.
All bench-planes for general levelling, i.e. jointer-, try-, fore-, jack- and smooth-planes, have double irons (Figure 60 1) composed of the cutting iron proper and the cap-iron whose function it is to stiffen the cutting edge and break up the shaving as it is raised so that, robbed of its stiffness, it does not tend to run ahead of the cut in a series of small splits in the surface of the wood. The closer this cap-iron is to the cutting edge the sooner the shaving is bent over and broken, and therefore fine cuts or difficult timbers require a close-set cap-iron and a narrow mouth which, in the case of metal
The trimming and jointing of narrow veneers to form larger panels is done by special saws or power-operated guillotines in production-work, but knife cutting by hand is rarely satisfactory and the veneers should be worked as in jointing narrow boards. Single leaves can be planed up on the shooting-board (293 1) if adequately supported as shown, or a pack of veneers can be cramped clamped between two wood straight-edges and either held in the vice (288) or passed over the jointer. If the veneer edges tend to splinter out or crumble they can be supported with strips of adhesive tape while they are being planed. After planing, the edges
Badly warped tops can often be corrected by saw kerfing, provided the under surface is not visible in the fixed position. A series of parallel cuts are run in with the circular saw, 1 4 in (6 mm) apart and to within a full 1 8 in (3 mm) of the upper surface. The board is then Cramped clamped down to a level surface, and softwood wedge strips or strips of veneer glued into the
The effectiveness of this machine is governed by the throat depth, i. e. distance from saw to body framework, and a 20 in (508 mm) band-saw will cut a width of 19 1 2 in (495 mm) and a depth or thickness of 13 in (330 mm). The smaller machines (12 in 304 mm throat, etc.) have small-diameter wheels imposing greater strain on the band-saws, therefore here again it should be as large as possible. All machines have (or should have) a tilting table and ripping fence, 105 Wadkin band-saw 105 Wadkin band-saw
The drill-press equipped with 1 2 hp (0.373 kW) motor has a range of pulley speeds for wood and metal, graduated feed, locking handle to the feed and swivelling table which can also be tilted for angle drilling. Its V2 in (12.5 mm) capacity chuck will accommodate all types of machine bits and drills, and it can be used not only for all vertical drilling operations to any preset depth, but also for veining, shallow grooving, light hollow-chisel mortising, drum sanding and polishing, etc.
A skilled machinist can accurately thickness a panel on an overhand surface planer jointer but it requires practice and is dangerous. Ideally one should have a long bedded surface planer for the accurate truing of one surface and long edges, and a separate thicknesser surfacer to reduce stock to a consistent thickness. Alter- 106 Surface planer jointer 106 Surface planer jointer natively, where space and cost are crucial, a combination surface planer and thicknesser, often referred to as an over and under, would suffice.
Convenient grid dimensions for the width of lab spaces were found to be 1.15 m for the interior fit-out and 6.90 m on centre for the bearing structure. This structural grid provides the most efficient spacing of laboratory workbenches and corridors. It is also in tune with building regulations for laboratory buildings and prevents excessive spare areas. The interior fit-out grid ranges between 1.05 and 1.30 m. The classic interior works dimension is the 1.20 m Euro-grid , which can be reduced to 1.05 m to minimise the cubic content of the building. As common laboratory furnishings are based on 0.6 m 1.2 m modules, these dimensions also determine the depth of laboratory spaces. Common structural grid dimensions for the depth of spaces, therefore, range between 6.90 m and 7.20 m. Whether architects opt for square or rectangular lab spaces depends on the particular design.
Assuming that several narrow boards have to be jointed together with hide-type glue, the boards should be arranged on the bench, choosing the best face uppermost, matching the grain and colour and, wherever possible, reversing the heart side so that any subsequent rounding is equalized without losing too much thickness (133 2). The boards are then marked as shown (133 1). The first board is held in the vice and the second board placed on it edge to edge and tested with a straight-edge across the total width. Any tilt either way on the top board must be corrected by replaning the edges but if the boards have been squared on a jointer with incorrectly set fence, or on a shooting-board which is out of true, then reversing the face of
If you've bought rough lumber, surface it (or have it surfaced) to 1 Vinnch and -inch thicknesses, then cut all pieces to size. Cut the half-lap joints as shown in top supports A, bottom supports B, and uprights C, using a radial-arm or table saw with a dado blade, or a router with a straight bit. Next, cut notches in uprights C to receive
These have power-driven vertical spindles on which the appropriate cutters are mounted and fed down to the work, while some models have an adjustable side swing movement enabling the width of cut to be increased or extended without moving the router-fence or changing the cutters. Usually these tools rely on speed rather than power output, therefore the depth of cut obtainable at any one setting is fairly small, but the degree of finish is quite high. Many models are available from fractional up to 21 2 hp (1.864 kW) with cutting speeds up to 27,000 rpm for the lightweight models, and a range of cutters for straight-line and circular grooving, moulding, veining, dovetail cutting, rebating, slot cutting, edge trimming, etc. The router itself with double handles can be moved freely in any lateral direction, but a range of guides for straight and circular cuts, trammel-points for circles and bases for working against templates give the tool wide versatility. It can also be mounted...