World War Ii Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

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Transformations between the Two World Wars and Rural Migration

The effects of the First World War were felt in many aspects of Algiers's urban situation, including a decrease in European immigration, stagnation of construction, and the postponement of the enlargement of the port. Two major phenomena characterized the period preceding the Second World War

The Second World

The Second World War (1939-45) was more destructive than the first in France alone, about 460 000 buildings were destroyed, and about 15 per cent of the listed buildings were damaged - half of them seriously. Many important historic cities suffered major damage, including London, Berlin, Dresden, Hildesheim, Warsaw, Saint-Malo, Florence. In December 1944, the decision was taken to rebuild the historic centre of Warsaw, and in February 1945 the town was again declared the capital of Poland. The reconstruction was justified by its national significance for the identity of the Polish people, and it was possible due to the existing measured drawings, prints, paintings (e.g., Bernardo Bellotto) and other pre-war documentation. The new Warsaw, however, corresponds to the old The huge reconstruction effort that had to be carried out was accompanied by debates about approaches to different situations. Similar problems had of course been discussed after the First World War, when, in Belgium,...

Reinforced And Posttensioned Masonry

Brickwork and blockwork, like concrete, have high compressive strength but relatively low tensile resistance. So, as with concrete, reinforcing and post-tensioning can be used to carry or relieve the tensile stresses. Reinforced brickwork has been used in India and Japan since the First World War, and in America since the second. In this country, a number of progressive engineers, architects and contractors have used reinforced brickwork for the occasional beam, lintol, etc., but, in the last decade or so, a fair number of reinforced brick retaining walls, a prestressed brick tank and reinforced brick cantilevers have been built.

Fort Bezuiden Spaarndam

Fort Bezuiden Spaarndam is a non-reinforced concrete fort built in 1901. It was planned as a standard model of the Defence Line of Amsterdam on a fort island with two cupolas with disappearing turrets (Fig. 1). The fort itself did not suffer from major damages during the Second World War, though the cupolas were blown up by the German occupation army. The remains of the cupolas still lay spread around the grounds. Since the cease of the military function in 1960, the fort was used for agricultural storage.

A new architecture for industrial research

However, possibly the most interesting and groundbreaking development took place independently from these unique architectural achievements in the Midwest and the suburban periphery of New York City. In the fifties, these areas saw the emergence of a new industrial research architecture that was closely related to the fundamental economical and social changes of the era. In his book The Organizational Complex - Architecture, Media and Corporate Space (MIT Press, 2003), Reinhold Martin, professor at Columbia University, New York, analysed the foundations of American commercial architecture right after the war by detecting and re-evaluating original sources and linking them to social sciences. His analysis puts corporate architecture into the context of structures of a so-called organisational complex . World War II and the pace at which economical interdependences within the new market created organisational structures for the leading corporations. They called for schematic and modular...

Fire resistance and accidental damage

Charles II was no fool to insist on brick and stone buildings after the Great Fire of London in 1666. The Victorians lit fires in their mills and warehouses, yet these were suprisingly free from being burnt down. In the bombing of the Second World War, brick structures suffered less damage than steel or concrete buildings - which fact provides evidence of not only the high fire resistance of masonry structures, but also of their inherent capacity to resist accidental damage (see Chapter 8).

Wood Street Group haunted modernism

The physical manifestation of this rich history was badly damaged (and in many instances obliterated) in the Blitz of World War II. Christopher Wren's church of St. Alban's, for example, survived only as a tower the one that now stands in the centre of a widened street and one has to imagine a scene that for many years took on a curiously romantic character as nature populated the ruins (of what had formerly been a garment area of large Victorian warehouses) with grasses and pretty wild flowers. David Kynaston describes the Barbican area as, for many years, 'virtually a wild heath, littered with the remnants of a commercial civilisation'. But the LCC planners saw it all as a massive opportunity to march optimistically into the future, taking the relaxed building controls of the mid-1950's as an opportunity to offer the City a realigned London Wall ('Route Eleven', the making of which unearthed hundreds of human skulls) and the Barbican.

International framework for conservation policies

From the period following the Second World War, there has been increasing international collaboration in the protection and conservation of cultural and natural heritage. A milestone in this regard was the World Heritage Convention of UNESCO in 1972, which has since involved most countries of the world in the process of clarifying culturally and environmentally sustainable conservation policies and strategies. The World Heritage List, while being strictly limited to sites considered of outstanding universal value, has become a model which is having an increasing impact also in the rest of heritage. One of the most interesting features of this convention has in fact been the interaction between culture and nature, a parallel that may well benefit both in the long run. The convention encourages the development of effective and active measures to be taken for the protection, conservation and presentation of heritage integrated in the life of the community. It has also promoted debate on...

Continuity And Ruptures

The consequences of the 1929 crisis brought a new halt to construction activity, apart from the launch of a few projects. Building activity started again from 1933 the completion of the eastern sector between the Y and Kennedylaan (1933-9) and the completion of the nonmonumental parts of the western sector. Some parts, such as the edge of Beatrixpark, were not completed until after World War Two. The various interruptions were to be marked by changes in the architecture. If the first phase (1918-24) showed some realizations conforming to Berlage's plan and was recognized by the exuberance of architects such as de Klerk, Kramer, Staal, Wijdeveld and Van Epen, the second one (1926-39) rather implemented serial developments, with a systematic application of blocks, layout principles and dwellings distribution by less well-known architects Rutgers, Warners, Westerman. Finally, during and after the crisis, the Amsterdam School suffered from attacks by the functionalist architects. The...

The Size Of The City Region

Writers and planners deliberating about ideal city size tended to increase this size as the twentieth century developed. Howard, at the end of the nineteenth century, was suggesting satellite cities of 32000 and a central or core city of 58 000 people. The planned sizes of new towns built after the Second World War were increased progressively from 50 000 to 250 000. While arguments about the ideal size of cities have occupied the minds of some scholars, cities - particularly in the developing world - have grown at a very rapid rate, so that cities having a multimillion population are now common. Mexico city is an exemplar of the city that will become common as this century

The Regional Province

In mid-twentieth century Britain the Second World War provided the impetus for government action on regional organization. An effective war effort required an effective administration for the country. Perhaps the threat of losing a war in the 1940s is a parallel for the present situation in the early twenty-first century with the ever-present environmental threat hanging over mankind like the 'Sword of Damocles'. In the 1940s, Regional Commissioners were appointed to control the affairs of nine Civil Defence Regions. Ministries had representatives in the regional capitals to coordinate regional transport and other aspects of the regional economy in order to maximize efficiency for the war effort. The 'command economy' for the moment is not the 'flavour of the month' draconian measures acceptable in wartime may not appear appropriate in peacetime unless the perceived threat of climate change and environmental degradation become more immediate. Nevertheless, there is much that can be...

The Evolution of Urban Studies

These developments were directly related to what was actually going on in countries around the world in the period. Perhaps the two critical events were the Paris uprisings of May 1968, with their parallels in many other countries, and the civil rights movement in the United States. In both cases urban discontent played a major role, both as immediate cause and long-term symptom of a deeper distress. The hopes of the immediate post-World War II period, in which the defeat of fascism was anticipated to usher in a period of universal democracy, freedom, and prosperity, seemed, despite the veneer of growth, to be disappointed, the democracy shallow and limited, the prosperity excluding many, the freedom not producing the just society that ought to

Baghdad Past and Present

In 1917 the British took Baghdad as a result of the First World War and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, which was allied to Germany. However, Iraq's first contact with the British dates back to 1763 when the English East India company set up a factory in the port of Basra to support commercial enterprises in the region. In 1802, a British Consulate opened in Baghdad, which stimulated British commercial activity in the area, such as importing British steamboats in 1836 and laying a telegraphic line in 1861. At the end of nineteenth century, the Ottomans decided to diversify their economic relationships with European powers, particularly with the Germans. This policy resulted in a series of high profile projects realized in collaboration with Germany such as the Berlin to Baghdad railway via Istanbul and Konya, which was built in 1899. The Young Turks' revolution of 1908 also used German systems as a model to reform the Ottoman political and economic systems.2 The British considered...

Changing Baghdads Town Planning

Changes in local architecture and the urban fabric of Baghdad began slowly after the First World War and increased dramatically after the Second World War. Because Baghdad is the There are no reliable official data on Baghdad's population before 1965. However, at the end of the First World War, Baghdad was still a small capital city in a developing country, and had some 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1950s, the city began to experience pressure on its urban fabric similar to that in many other cities in developing countries. In 1965, the population reached 1.62 million (Hiwaish, 1988) and today it is estimated to be 5 million. This rapid population growth had major impacts on the city's infrastructure and created acute housing shortages. An early cause of these problems was an increase in the number of low-income rural migrants and their squatter settlements in the city. Yet until the 1950s, there was little planning to cope with the uncontrolled growth of the urban population and...

Two Classical Arches The Roman Arch Fig 104

Heavy wagons and legions of troops could safely cross a bridge constructed of arches without collapsing the structure. Many of these bridges outlasted the Roman Empire, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, and on into modern times, serving General George Patton during World War II just as they had served Caesar almost two millennia before (Fig. 10.5).

Production vs Conception

As engineers, at least as engineers of nuclear weapons, we have become omnipotent - an expression that is little more than a metaphor. But as intellectual beings we do not measure up to this omnipotence of ours. In other words by way of our technology we have gotten ourselves into a situation in which we can no longer conceive (vorstellen) what we can produce (herstellen) and bring about (anstellen). What does this discrepancy between conception (Vorstellung) and production (Herstellung) signify It signifies that in a new and terrible sense we know no longer what we do that we have reached the limit of responsibility. For to assume responsibility is nothing other than to admit to one's deeds, the effects of which one had conceived (vorgestellt) in advance and had really been able to imagine (vorstellen). (Anders 1972, 73 f.) G nther Anders reflects here the incommensurability or absolute disproportionality between the scale of human action and the scale at which its effects unfold. In...

Conservation vs restoration in England

Society of Antiquaries of London was reluctant to support it until 1879, when the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland and the Royal Irish Academy also agreed. After several hearings it finally became law as the Ancient Monuments Act on 18 August 1882. While this Act was limited to the protection of tumuli, dolmens, or stone circles, the Irish Act, approved a few years later in 1892, was already much broader. The first English list embraced mainly prehistoric monuments or groups of monuments such as Stonehenge. The Act was extended in 1913, when also Ancient Monuments Boards were established to give expert advice to administrators. Listing became more active after the First World War, but it was principally from 1947, after the ravages of the Second World War, that listing was generally accepted as a tool for the protection of historic buildings. British legislation has since become a model for other countries as well.

Tensional bands or ties in brickwork

The aftermath of the Second World War has left a legacy of expedient solutions in much of eastern Europe, where occupation was continued by Soviet forces until recent times. The need to stabilise ruins until repairs or reconstruction could be effected led to many stopgap measures such as steel tie bands around a church stairwell in Riga Old Town (Figure 2.62).

The State University of New York at as a superblock 1960

Bill for education in the United Sates resulted in a massive increase in the demand for tertiary education amongst World War II veterans - a demand that increased with the arrival of the 'baby-boomers' on the American scene. During the 1960s, SUNY expanded rapidly in various locations in New York State, including Albany, its capital. Being a public institution the development of SUNY was very much affected by political infighting in the state legislature.

British New Towns In The Twentieth Century

A number of the second generation of new towns built after the Second World War in the 1960s were clearly based upon the linear city concept. Notable amongst these linear new town plans are Redditch the linear city for Central Lancashire comprising Preston, Leyland and Chorley Runcorn and the first proposals for both Telford and the new city for North Bucks.

The Problems Of The Industrial City Ernst May And New Frankfurt

Among the architectural models of the Modern Movement, Frankfurt and Ernst May's intervention represent a fundamental aspect that is too often neglected. May's training happened at a time when art criticism in Germany was at its peak in those universities that were dominated by Wolfflin's influence. He followed the teaching of Theodor Fischer in the classical line of architectural theoreticians and a great number of his collaborators shared this background. At the same time, before World War One, he felt close to those modern architects who were grouped around the Deutscher Werkbund and he was in touch with Peter Behrens and Bruno Paul, who were advocates of industrialization. In addition, he had been to England twice, where he attended courses, but, most importantly, he worked for two years in Unwin's office in Hampstead Garden Suburb. He knew and appreciated London. 127 The close relationship between Unwin and May, which started again after World War One, can be easily demonstrated....

Clifton Estate In Nottingham

New towns were not the only post-Second World War urban developments in Britain. Around most major cities in the country large urban extensions were built by the local authorities. These estates were built for those unable to secure a mortgage, or for those with a preference for renting a home. Estates like Croxteth and Kirby in Liverpool were built in the 1950s and 1960s throughout the country. Clifton in Nottingham is one such quarter. It was built beyond the River Trent to the south of the city. The new development, consisting mainly of

The Balustrade On The Roof Of The Church Of Santa Maria Della Steccata In Parma

A very simple thermal analysis, following an attentive in situ inspection, demonstrated that the phenomena were linked to the different thermal strains between the surface stones and a metal bar inserted after the Second World War to retrofit and better connect the structure, hit and damaged by a bomb (Fig. 9).

International organizations

(Roerich Pact) in Washington, on 15 April 1935. According to the preamble of the pact, immovable monuments should be preserved and protected because they constitute the heritage of the people's culture. Such protection should be valid both in time of peace and of war. The principles of the pact were later to inspire UNESCO and found the basis for international agreements after the Second World War (Cl ment, 1993). Such common responsibility does not, however, remove the responsibilities of single states. In fact, the respect of national sovereignty of each state remains a fundamental question in the context of international efforts to protect and monitor the condition of the 'common heritage of mankind'.

Courtyards and the Interstitium

Los Angeles, like Spain, has a long history of courtyard buildings. The era of courtyard buildings in Los Angeles dates from the 18th century Spanish missions to elegant housing of the 1920s. Then the building boom after World War II mostly rejected this history in favor of air-conditioned tract houses and high-rises. Now, concerns for earthquake safety and for energy conservation, as well as the need for greater density, have awakened interest in midrise courtyard buildings for many different applications.

War Standardization and Solidarity

Bell's misreading from World War i appears awkward and offensive, and warns us against future anecdote and memoir as we find ourselves faced with such generalizations. In World War ii, Norway was occupied, as also Demark, but the Germans never occupied Finland regardless of

Origins and Developments

- although some have divided this period in two parts 1820-1945 (end of World War II) and 1945-1971 (Kazim, 2000). As opposed to downright physical occupation with all the responsibilities it entails, the British preferred to construct a series of treaties with a few select Sheikhs - tribal leaders. This was, of course, aided by the lack of any 'structured' state, or a unifying entity, a functioning civil, urban society as can be found in Egypt, for example, which would necessitate radical measures such as occupation. These treaties came to be crucial factors in the formation of the UAE and the emergence of various emirates such as Abu Dhabi and Dubai. One of the most significant is the 1820 treaty signed by the Sheikh of Abu Dhabi, to be followed by other Sheikhs including the Sheikh of Dubai which officially designated the British as the rulers of Historic Oman. This treaty extended to the Sheikhs' descendants as well. In 1922 another interesting treaty was signed specifying that in...

Training and education

Although recognized as essential, training in conservation is relatively late in comparison with the restoration practice. France paid attention to this issue in the middle of the nineteenth century, followed by England, Germanic countries and Italy. However, most training has only been established since the Second World War. The first 'new' countries in this regard were Denmark in the 1950s, USA and Turkey in the 1960s, followed by an increasing number of courses in the 1970s and 1980s, especially in Europe. With the help of UNESCO and ICCROM, training was gradually 'exported' to other countries as well. According to the ICCROM databases (GCI-ICCROM, 1994), there had been an increase of 41 per cent in the number of specialized courses from 1978 to 1994. However, in 1995, most training programmes were still organized in Europe (57 per cent), and few in Africa (2 per cent). The majority of international training programmes had been initiated by ICCROM, or organized in collaboration...

The Foundation of Modern Dubai7

During the 1947-1971 period, following World War II, Dubai continued to maintain itself as a mercantile city. However it still remained more or less a British protectorate, a status enhanced by a series of political measures and development projects. For example, numerous contracts were extended exclusively to British firms in 1947 the British Bank of the Middle East was established, in addition to the construction of Al-Maktoum hospital, a joint project with the British, in 1953. At that time Dubai replaced Sharjah as the seat of the British political agent.8

Forms of Resistance and Anti Colonialism

The period following World War II saw a weakening of British hegemony and the emergence of the United States as a replacement. This was of course linked to a rising global anti-colonial movement in the period between 1945 and 1965 which manifested itself in forced withdrawal from many Arab countries. This was in contrast to what happened in the Gulf, however, which witnessed an early British voluntary withdrawal for a number of reasons. The more peaceful transition here ensured that oil concessions would remain intact and that British firms would be hired for maintenance and expansion of infrastructural installations. A stable political structure in place ensured the continuity of ruling entities and prevented the emergence of an armed insurrection.

The Production of Culture and the Critique of Capitalism Germany

The culture workers who congregated in Germany, from Berlin to Frankfurt, addressed the same questions regarding culture's reflection of economic change and the role of art in representing social life, as did the theorists in the Soviet Union.25 The Social Democratic Party (SPD) nominally ran the liberal capitalist Weimar Republic formed after World War I, and artists were embraced as catalysts for development of a new postwar production mechanism, with a concomitant culture based on German excellence. Simultaneously, the German Communist Party (KPD) of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht which included originating member-artists George Grosz, Weiland Herzfelde, John Heartfield, and Erwin Piscator challenged the Weimar regime and drew support from the USSR, even while it critiqued Soviet bureaucratization, for a more thoroughgoing socialist revolution in Germany. The defeat of the Berlin uprising and murder of Luxemburg and Liebknecht in early 1919 both clarified and consolidated the...

Futures Of Technology

In his writing of the 1920s and 1930s, Benjamin's reformulation of vision and his extension of the modern concept of experience through colour were increasingly brought to bear on the question of technology. His expanded concept of 'Technik' sought to avoid the oppositions of exteriority and interiority, and of base and superstructure, through which technology had come to be addressed but it does so not by positing their identity, which for Benjamin is the route pursued by aesthetic perception, a response he describes by the term aura.19 In fact, Benjamin's understanding of Technik envisages the increasingly violent disjunction and non-identity of technique and technology in modernity. Benjamin's attitude was informed by the events of the First World War, which provides a crucial context both for the Arcades Project and for his writing on contemporary technical reproduction. For Benjamin, the war manifested the violent consequences of nineteenth-century Europe's failure to come to...

Change and permanence on the Strip

Las Vegas's greatest growth has been since World War II. There are noticeable changes every year new hotels and signs as well as neonembossed parking structures replacing on-lot parking on and behind Fremont Street. Like the agglomeration of chapels in a Roman church and the stylistic sequence of piers in a Gothic cathedral, the Golden Nugget casino has evolved over thirty years from a building with a sign on it to a totally sign-covered building. The Stardust Hotel has engulfed a small restaurant and a second hotel in its expansion and has united the three-piece fa ade with 600 ft. (183 m) of computerprogrammed animated neon.

Postindustrial cities

The Le Corbusier-driven interest in urban form based on militaristic concerns - high-rise blocks presented a smaller target to aerial bombers - struck a chord after World War II and has influenced social housing worldwide ever since. A focus on physical planning and traffic from pre-World War I - with visions of multi-layered streets and flying machines - continued to influence city planning into the 1970s, with the idea that vehicles and pedestrians should be separated vertically. This is evidenced in Cumbernauld Town Centre and the former Bull Ring, Birmingham. However, the critique of this approach was forming as early as 1947.

Time Saver Standards for Urban Design375

The socialist house, which is a new type of construction appearing in socialist countries where there is no longer private land ownership and also in advanced democratic countries. Among the earliest European examples are the houses constructed by the city ofVienna after the First World War.

Glasgow A Typical Postindustrial City

Old Images Westbury Tyrm

At the end of the First World War Glasgow had long reached and already passed the height of its industrial development but with the exception of the intrusion of nineteenth-century railways, which in the twentieth century would be paralleled by the intrusion of motor-ways had not yet undergone any major changes regarding its development patterns, which are all based on traditional principles shared by many industrial cities throughout Europe. At this stage one would therefore expect the most coherent city form and structure, if such coherence ever existed. The first signs of a departure from the traditional Glaswegian development principles incremental growth without much formal planning and urban design, the grid, the perimeter block and high-density development can be seen immediately after the First World War in a period during which the Corporation provided new housing in form of cottages and flats. To accommodate the new housing estates the city area is expanded from 7,763 ha...

Reasons for adapting buildings Background

Demolition was often the fate of redundant or obsolete buildings in British urban areas up to the late 1970s. The post-World War II recovery triggered a slow but inevitable rise in general prosperity and the boom in property up to that period. This in turn prompted rapid urban growth and redevelopment in both private and public sectors. Moreover, as car ownership increased there was a need to re-plan existing urban layouts to accommodate an expanding road system.

Tribute to Masters of Modernism

Through his connection with the Modem Movement in Japan, Inoue came into contact with several important architects. In 1934 he invited the influential German architect Bruno Taut to Takasaki City. Taut helped popularize the use of Western motifs in Japanese arts and crafts, and later became a co-partner of the shop Inoue set up for selling textiles, tableware and home furnishings in Ginza. In 1945, as World War II ended, Inoue helped establish the Takasaki People's Orchestra, (now the Gunma Symphony Orchestra). The Gunma Music Center, where the Gunma Symphony Orchestra now performs, was also Inoue's brainchild. He proposed that Antonin Raymond (1888-1976) be the architect of the Music Center, which was completed in 1961. Incidentally, Inoue also influenced the choice of the architect for the Gunma Prefecture Museum of Modern Art. designed by Arata Isozaki in 1974

Lighthouses in a Sea of Ignorance Object Lessons in the Middle East Africa and Asia 194519584

Immediately after World War II American contractors, architects, planners and engineers did not limit their ventures to Europe. President Truman anticipated U.S. involvement in promoting American technology to underdeveloped countries as well as to war-torn Europe when he announced his Point Four Program in 1949. For example, 'American advisers employed by Point Four have . . . set up model farms in India and health programs in Iran . . . Money from this program has also paid for a two-year technical and economic survey supervised by the engineering firm of TAMS for the government of Burma' (Architectural Forum, 1955, 102, January, p. 101). And in Afghanistan from 1947 to 1955, Morrison-Knudsen oversaw the construction of two large dams. By 1955 this Boise-based company had over 560 million worth of foreign contracts, ranging from south and central Asia to northern Africa. These projects included the erection of the Gal Oya Dam in Sri Lanka (Bleifuss, 1951), military bases in north...

Sapa Is A Slim Line Tonic For Art Deco Treasure

A treasured landmarkArt Deco building in Glasgow has been transformed into contemporary private apartments with the highly distinctive facade carefully retained and updated. The eight-storey building was built in 1938 as the Beresford Hotel and was described as Glasgow's first skyscraper. The hotel was originally used for visitors to the Empire Exhibition, and then became a favourite rendezvous for American servicemen during the Second World War.

Pariser Platz Berlin Germany an historic square revived 1992 to the present

Pariser Platz Stimmann

After the reunification of Berlin in 1989, and the dismantling of the wall that ran through it dividing East and West Berlin, Pariser Platz became available for reconstruction. It had been lying empty since being destroyed in World War II. During this period it lay in the East Berlin, or Russian sector, of the city that served as the capital of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik (GDR). The square is bounded on one side by the Brandenberg Gate which terminates the vista down Unten den Linden the ceremonial axis of Berlin. Before World War II the then great powers of the world, the United States, Great Britain, France and Austria had established their embassies on the square or in its vicinity. In addition, the Adlon Hotel and several prestigious apartment and commercial buildings enclosed it (see Figure 8.40). Figure 8.40 Pariser Platz as it appeared before World War II. Figure 8.40 Pariser Platz as it appeared before World War II. At the time of this study (2004) the last remaining...

Nofines concrete housing Preamble

No-fines concrete was employed for housing construction in the late 1940s as a response to the shortage of bricks and bricklayers in the aftermath of World War II. Weir and Wimpey were two of the main British contractors who developed no-fines construction for dwellings, and implemented particularly in Scotland during the inter war period (SEBD, 2001). By the 1960s it was also being exploited as an infill-walling component to the in-situ reinforced concrete frame of some multi-storey blocks of flats. Since then it has been mainly used as the principal cast in-situ walling element in low-rise non-traditional housing built by organizations such as the Scottish Special Housing Association (now called 'Communities Scotland').

The Avenue of the Victory of Socialism Bucharest Romania a government precinct 197789 but continuing

After World War II a communist dictatorship was established in Romania under President Nicolae Ceausescu. Ceausescu initiated a number of large-scale urban design projects as part of his programme to turn Romania into a modern country. These efforts focused on Bucharest, a city that was badly damaged by a major earthquake in early 1977. In rebuilding the city Ceausescu announced that new buildings would have to be designed along modern lines. He also seized the opportunity to demolish many structurally sound areas to enable him to build a new government complex. The complex was to be a celebration of his new political order. It was also an opportunity to get rid of a quarter of the city that was full of single-family houses belonging to the old power and intellectual elite. As Ceausescu proclaimed

Expositions of 1876 and 1893 Initial Catalysts for Exporting American Architecture

Iron Company of Wilmington, Delaware, which specialized in railway bridge and viaduct construction. By 1881 the company had secured the contract, 'with very great opposition' from local manufacturers, for the erection of three kinds of bridges in South Australia and Victoria, 'each an example of elegance and simplicity, combined with a maximum of strength and affording a monument of American skill and enterprise' (American Mail and Export Journal 1881, 7(6), p. 274).2 Because of what occurred subsequently regarding the appeal of American construction technology, the diffusion of those kinds of iron and steel 'monuments' - beyond Australia to Africa, Southeast Asia and South America - was one of the important trends of the pre-World War I period in the saga of the exporting of American architecture. The fact that local manufacturers objected strenuously to Edge Moor's presence was also significant - and indicative of later challenges in American architectural exporting, as will be...

Taking the Shorter Road the Fuller Construction Company of the Orient 19201926

As important as university teachers or practicing architects. After World War I one of the most important of these firms, which taught Japanese builders on site how to erect reinforced concrete and steel-framed structures, was the George A. Fuller Construction Company of the Orient, Ltd. The company was a branch of the main Fuller Company which, in the early twentieth century, many contemporaries believed to be the most prominent American construction company. Founded in Chicago in 1882 and incorporated in New Jersey in 1901 early noteworthy examples of the firm's work in New York City were the Flatiron Building, Pennsylvania Station, Wall Street Exchange, the National City Bank and the Plaza Hotel (Daly, 1957). In Chicago the company erected the Tacoma Building and the Monadnock Building. Other major North American cities also featured Fuller Company buildings (Fireproof Building Construction, 1910). The Fuller Company was one of the first U.S. construction companies to rationalize...

Aesthetic design in bridges Introduction

Bridge Aesthetics And Design

Gradually, however, as the pace of industrial change intensified, by the expansion of the railways, and by the building of road networks, a radical step change in the design and construction of bridges occurred. Bridges had to be functional, they had to be quick to build, low in cost, and structurally efficient. They had to span further and use fewer materials in construction. Less excavation for deep piers and foundations under water meant faster construction, whereas short continuous trestle supports across a wide valley were simple to construct and required shallow foundations. Under these pressures, standardisation and prefabrication of bridges displaced aesthetic consideration in bridge design. Of course, there were exceptions when prestigious bridges were commissioned in major commercial centres to retain the quality and character of the built environment. And sometimes even these considerations were sidelined in the name of progress and regeneration, as was the case in the...

Daylighting of Alna River in Holalokka Oslo

A silent consequence of urban expansion, particularly since World War II, has been the disappearance of many small streams from European cities. Culverted out of sight and out of mind of city residents, most streams have ended up as sewer canals. This is the case even in Oslo, capital city of Norway, a country of streams, waterfalls and lakes of enormous natural beauty

The past 200 years bridge development in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

Oldest Steel Bridge Europe

Since the development of steel and of the I-beam, many beam bridges were built using a group of beams in parallel which were interconnected at the top to form a roadway. They were quick to assemble but they were only practical over relatively short spans for rail and road viaducts. The riveted girder I-beam was later superseded by the welded and friction grip bolted beam. However, relatively long spans were not efficient as the depth of the beam could become excessive. To counter this, web plate stiffeners were added at close intervals to prevent buckling of the beam. Another solution was to make the beam into a hollow box which was very rigid. In this way the depth of the beam could be reduced and material could be saved. The steel box girder beams could be quickly fabricated and were easy to transport. Their relatively shallow depth meant that high approaches were not necessary. Most of this pioneering work was carried out during and after the Second World War when there was a huge...

Archaeology and the Old Testament

Sources of the Euphrates, and saw a fragment of a ship on the way back which was filled with snow and dark red on the outside. The Russian aviator officer Roskovitsky claimed to have seen the Ark's remnants from his aeroplane during the First World War. Czar Nikolai the Second is supposed to have commanded an entire expedition there, that had not only seen, but also photographed, the remains of the Ark. The American historian and missionary Aaron Smith from Greenborough, an expert on the problem of the Great Deluge, wrote a history of Noah's Ark mentioning 80 thousand publications on the topic. Finally, a scientific expedition was arranged for. In 1951 Smith spent 12 days on top of Mount Ararat with 40 of his colleagues. They found nothing. Nevertheless, he made the following claim Even though we failed to find so much as a trace of Noah, my trust in the Biblical tale of the Deluge had only become firmer we shall yet return (quoted in 444 ). In 1952 the expedition of Jean de Riquer...

The Solar Stigmata of the Ecology Movement

Although there had been a thriving industry producing solar water heaters before World War II, their poor efficiency (ten-year life expectancy) and the low price of postwar electricity made them economically obsolete. The resurgence of solar heaters during the 1970s energy crisis was thus an unacknowledged revival. There had been an earlier generation of solar architecture, proposed initially between 1938 and 1958, when scientists and architects at MIT collaborated on four experimental solar houses that used active equipment for gathering and storing solar radiation. The principles of these systems were developed from Horace de Saus-sure's heat trap, or hot box, introduced in 1767. He based the design on observing glass-walled conservatories. An insulated box with three layers of glass when left in the sun could reach a temperature of 230 F. The MIT group perfected the copper-coiled mechanism invented by Edward Morse in the 1880s for rooftop solar collectors and added innovative...

Cultivating Smartcities

Maquette Avion Design

Urban agriculture is not a new phenomenon its popularity and adoption has waxed and waned over the millennia, from the recycling of urban wastes and tunnel irrigation networks in ancient Persia for agriculture, to the stepped cities and farming terraces of Machu Picchu that can be considered as a precursor to hydroponics. Proposed intervention sites vary considerably in scale and context. Within dense urban areas, roof tops, windowsills, balconies and walls can be appropriated for the growth of edible crops, evoking the spirit of the Second World War victory garden when America was still in the midst of the Great Depression. In a remarkably ambitious programme, gardening classes, literature, seeds, fertiliser and committees were organised, yielding 40 per cent of the country's non-military produce at the time.

Assessment of masonry arch bridges

Included both field and laboratory tests to calibrate theoretical work. During World War II, this research was used to develop a quick field method to classify bridges according to their capacity to carry military vehicles this was subsequently adapted for civil use. Although in recent times, concern has been expressed about the appropriateness of its application to short span bridges.

Introduction And Historical Development 189

The period between 1903 and 1918 saw the use of welding primarily as a method of repair, the greatest impetus occurring during World War I (1914-1918). Welding techniques proved to be especially adapted to repairing ships that had been damaged. After World War 1(1918), there was continued experimentation with electrodes and various gases to shield the arc and the weld area, resulting in the development of gas tungsten arc welding and gas metal arc welding (see Sec. 5.2). During the period 1930 to 1950 many improvements occurred, including in 1932 5.5 the introduction of the use of granular flux to protect the weld, which when coupled to the use of a continuously fed electrode resulted in the development of submerged arc welding (see Sec. 5.2), where the arc is buried under the granular flux. This common method of the 1990s was patented in 1935.

Exporting American Construction and Planning to Russia

Albert Kahn Architect Ford Review

One of the most curious series of construction dramas that reflect the growing pervasiveness and increasing scale of American architectural influence between the two World Wars was played out in the former Soviet Union. Jean-Louis Cohen (1993, 1995) and William Brumfield (1990) have written extensively about several dimensions of this influence. Brumfield's analysis of how Russians perceived American architecture from 1870 to the end of World War I concludes that ' enormous and efficient define just the qualities that Russian observers valued in American architecture' (Brumfield, 1990, p. 43). He specifies how, from the 1870s to World War I, through architectural journals such as Zodchii (The Architect) and Nedelia stroitelia (Builder's Weekly), there was a black-and-white 'conduit for information on technical innovations' (Ibid., p. 44). Soon after the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876 Russian architects such as Sergei Kuleshov began to publish their impressions of American urban...

New Directions in French Architecture and the Showcase of the Paris City Edge 196590

Then, at the end of a period that was extraordinarily productive quantitatively in terms of dwellings and public buildings. French architecture as a whole was in a state of collapse due to various factors. The first of these was undoubtedly the craven consensus of the profession in the face of generous commissions for post-Second-World-War reconstruction and public works. This was the attitude that governed the encounter between the functional and constructive ideals of the functionalists and the compositional techniques of the cole des Beaux Arts when they met on the terrain of the new suburbs. The second factor relates precisely to the state of crisis existing at that time in the cole, which had remained closed to any conceptual modernization notwithstanding individual efforts made on a practical level by Marcel Lods. Georges-Henri Pingusson and later Georges Candilis. The third and final factor concerns the lack of informed criticism and theory, notably the incapacity to call into...

Building Materials and Construction Methods Wood and Related Materials

Cruck framing, which survives mostly only in Great Britain. One reason why this and other research on traditional buildings and construction methods has proved so fruitful is that in the British Isles, wars - which are so destructive to traditional buildings - have been largely lacking since the 17th century. Devastation in World War II occurred mainly in the cities.

An inner city development

The City Corporation of London (now Corporation of London) was originally the sponsor of the project. It had started purchasing land at the end of World War II and by 1954 had acquired freehold possession of 50 of the site and had taken steps to acquire an additional 25 . It was, however, the London County Council who ultimately promoted the project. In addition, an architectural leader, Sir Gerald Barry, formed the New Barbican Committee as a political pressure group to take the lead in shaping the type of development that was to occur. It was the Committee that developed the first building programme for the site.

CADoxiadis and the Science of Human Settlements

Tema History

Doxiadis experienced the misery of World War II and the German occupation of Greece. In his first major public role he served as UnderSecretary and Director General of the Ministry for Housing and Reconstruction for Greece between 1945 and 1948, and was MinisterCoordinator of the Greek Recovery Program and UnderSecretary, Ministry of Coordination from 1948 to 1951. The enormity and complexity of problems, scarcity of resources, urgency in guiding recovery and development and, afterwards, the complexity in allocating aid provided through the World Relief and Marshall Plan were decisive in Doxiadis' approach and his further involvement in the overall concept of a science of human settlements.

David E Skinner Residence 1905

David Edward Skinner was a native of Michigan. Skinner's company, Skinner and Eddy Shipyards, established ship construction speed records during World War I. He also served as president of the Metro Building Company. Friends and business colleagues urged him to become involved in politics, hoping that he would run for mayor of Seattle, but he declined, focusing his attention on business interests.

The Evolution of a Modern Home

When japan opened to the world after the Meiji Revolution in 1868, it actively emulated architectural traditions from Germany and Great Britain. However, ideas of modernism did not take root in Japan till after the Second World War Toshihiro Karnikozawa, the owner of this house, is a scholar of German literature well versed in the aesthetics of modernity and rationalism. His wife, a piano teacher, had lived in Germany during her childhood. Although built with Western materials and techniques, this one-storied, rectangular concrete box house has a calm sense of space reminiscent of traditional Japanese homes.

Taking the Longer Road Building Banks in Argentina and China 19171924

American architectural commodity' was an up-to-date banking structure which, as a result of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913 and new investment possibilities, some U.S. banks began erecting in many financial centres worldwide by World War I.7 Two examples of this trend, the First National Bank of Boston's headquarters in Buenos Aires and the International Banking Corporation's branch in Shanghai, illustrate how two major U.S. financial institutions exported 'citadels of commerce'8 abroad during the 'dramatic decade' between the end of the war and the crashing of the stock market. They also suggest how American architecture was exported both as a set of technological systems and as cultural icons of economic power during this period. Figure 3.5. Banco de Boston, Buenos Aires, 1921-1924, This branch of the First National Bank of Boston represented how hopeful contemporary U.S. bankers were about foreign trade with Latin America after World War I. The design and construction of this...

Westernization versus traditionalism

But the quest for Western-style individuality was soon thwarted by the advent of a new form of conformity, namely a mass culture determined not by an ethical code but by the products of mechanization masstransportation, massproduction, massconsump-tion, massmedia. Powerful corporate enterprises, aided by the sustained growth of the economy since the Second World War, now dictate virtually every aspect of consumer life. They manipulate the life of the individual from the cradle to the grave.

Section 2 QUESTiONiNG ORiGiNs Searching For Alternatives

During the post-World War II era, when faith in modernity was declining, increasing numbers of architects chose to travel to sites that were perceived as important to architectural knowledge but neither belonged to the established Grand Tour, associated with the origins of architecture, nor to a category associated with modernity and progress. Hermann Schlimme's chapter, 'The Mediterranean Hill Town A Travel Paradigm', examines travels

Extension Of The Berlin Museum With The Department Jewish Museum

Jewish Museum Berlin Plan And Dimension

At the intersection of Wilhelmstrasse. Fried-richstrasse and Lindenstrasse. in an area where empty bomb sites from the Second World War are still unfilled, an extension to the Berlin Museum is intended to house the Jewish Museum, a combined archive and memorial occupying more than 1000 square metres. After a competition held in 1988. Daniel Libeskind. the Polish-born, internationally renowned architect, was selected. The programme for the extension to the Berlin Museum required that there should not be a separate, isolated Jewish museum, but that the new building should reconnect the German and Jewish 'experience' and completely integrate it into the other museum collections of the city. Libeskind accepted the validity of this objective. In his design, no visitor to one building can avoid the second, nor can a Jewish visitor withdraw to a separate wing surrounded by the Jewish past alone.

Mark Lovell Mark Lovell Design Engineers

Corten External Walkway

Radiant House required some special ingredients to be completed using traditional skills. Generally, all noteworthy projects need three main ingredients a good client, a good design team and a good builder. If any of these ingredients are missing the full potential of the project cannot be realized. A construction skill not commonly available in the building industry was wing fabrication. To assist the construction process a retired aeronautical engineer, James Say, was introduced to the builder to help the craftsmen adapt their skills to the needs of this aeronautically inspired structure. His experience of building Second World War timber fighter aircraft and the highly acclaimed Puffin Aircraft was brought to bear.

From US Metropole to Latin American Peripheries

By the end of 1917 San Juan was experiencing the most explosive building boom in its history, with over 1 million in investments being focused on the construction of schools, hospitals, office buildings, warehouses and newly-paved roads. Most building materials for these projects - 'principally cement, reinforcing steel, lumber, hardware, plumbing and electrical supplies and roofing' - were imported from the United States (Building Age, January, 1918). Changes in the design of upmarket residences were also evident in Puerto Rico during the 1910s, in part because of a local architect Antonin Nechodoma who, enamoured of the U.S. bungalow, designed local variants built with concrete for himself and several clients. Anthony King (1995) has documented how trans-national the building type of the bungalow had become by the early twentieth century. In dominions that came under the control of the U.S. because of the Spanish-American War, such as Puerto Rico and Hawaii, the U.S. variant of the...

The contemporary prototype gardens as mindscapes

Contemporary Public Gardens

The new garden prototype which emerged after the Second World War could not have been more different from its predecessors. Everything had changed - from the social background of its sponsors to the themes and elements of its composition. Its architectural settings were now the inner courtyards and entrance ar-pas nf municipal and prplprtural govprnmpnt off ires, Western-style hotels, museums, cultural halls, corporate headquarters and public piazzas.

New Spirit of Construction Federations of Contractors and their Challenges to Rationalize

Near the end of World War I, 'many thoughtful observers among American contractors began to realize the instability, lack of harmony, and generally uncertain conditions that beset their industry' (Constructor, 1929, 11(2), p. 38). These included the building trades (F d ration Internationale, 1932, no. 18, p. 1). The International Federation had four goals to establish ongoing relations with members centralize commercial, industrial, scientific and social information for members' use encourage the creation of associations of building trade employers in member countries and highlight the international importance of construction trades in the context of international business. As the Herald Tribune (N.Y.) reported 'in a word, to stimulate, coordinate and assemble information from diverse areas of national and international construction activities' (F d ration Internationale, 1930, no. 10, p. 7). Between 1905 and the outbreak of World War I the Federation had organized three smaller...

Italian Colonialism In Retrospect

To be sure, the history of Italian colonialism bears some comparison to histories of other European colonialisms. But despite Italians' many efforts to catch up (with France and Britain in particular), theirs is a distinctive case which cannot always be understood by referring to other European colonial histories. Italy entered very late into the era of modern European colonialism. Its colonial policies might well have continued in the increasingly oppressive direction they had been taking, but Italy's defeat in World War II makes this a moot point. For the purposes of this book, it is important to keep in mind that we will never know how, or to what extent, the rural settlements would have developed in the long

The Masonry Curtain Wall And Its Deterioration Mechanisms

The First World War administered the final blow to the arts and crafts movement in Europe, and the machine became the basis of a new architecture. Modern European architecture required that the labor of producing the parts be performed in the factory rather than by craftsmen on site. German intellectuals were in awe of the example of the American skyscraper, a strong symbol of the new world for which they endeavored. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, prior to relocating in Chicago, prepared a series of unrealized projects in which the most famous came to be known as the Glass Skyscraper, a highrise enveloped totally in glass. Contemporary with the European modernists, America had entered a second skyscraper era. The post World War I period brought a demand for increased speed in design and erection. Curtain wall construction, however, continued to utilize the masonry techniques that had been developed by the turn-of-the-century. Though mass production and standardization had begun to impact...

Tower of London 1077 on

There is an architecture to the Tower, and it is not uninteresting. Within the complex as a whole, the 27 m tall White Tower is the central feature that remains substantially as it was in when completed, as the conquering sovereign's forbidding foothold in the eastern boundary of the City - a dominant place from which he could oversee the City's cowering and unfriendly inhabitants. The Tower remained an imposing place of imprisonment and executions until World War II although, officially, it was still a royal residence. Inside, residential conveniences included the St John's Chapel a small Norman space of distinctly massive charm and it was not until the reign of Henry VIII (1509-47) that the sovereign moved to Westminster Palace and St James' Palace, in the west.

Thomas Leverton Donaldson 17951885

One of these streams was to enter a dead-end that hardly survived the trauma of the First World War and was pretty effectively terminated off by the second, although it still occasionally erupts into vitality and was arguably at the emotional core of much so-called PostModernism. The other stream enjoys the hindsight that sees in it some of the significant roots of Modernism. And Lutyens, like Shaw, arguably had a place within both of these streams. Norman Shaw had first taken the Queen Anne into the sphere of public buildings with his New Scotland Yard building of 1886, a design literally founded upon granite hewn by the convicts of Dartmoor. And while Ernest George was romping around west Kensington formulating novel mixes in residential design, John Belcher, in 1890, offered the City his neo-Baroque Chartered Accountants' Hall - a work most people now take for granted, but one that shocked and delighted observers at the time. During the 1890s this direction of architectural design...

Sir Stirrat Andrew William Johnson Marshall 191281

Marshall was born in India, son of a civil servant. He was educated in England and, in 1930, entered Liverpool University's school of architecture. Not untypically for a young architect at that time, he became devoted to an ideal of service to the community fused together with a love of science and engineering. After graduating in 1935, local authority posts in Willesden and the Isle of Ely confirmed his conviction that public service was the right vehicle for the pursuit of social architecture. World War II found Marshall fighting the Japanese and narrowly escaping the fall of Singapore.

Robert Hooke 16351703

The historian Kerry Downes summarises the churches in the following manner Wren's churches well suited the liturgy and the society oftheir time this is evidenced by their influence on English religious architecture of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. But by about 1840 many were in poor repair and increasingly unsuited to changes in taste and liturgy. Moreover, as the City of London became a place only of work, not of residence, churches became redundant and their sites more valuable than their fabrics. The ecclesiological movement led to refurbishment high box pews were removed, stalls were introduced for robed choirs before the altar, and stained glass was inserted. The progressive damage of these changes was exceeded by the effects of the Second World War, after which only half the churches were left and almost half of those had to be virtually rebuilt, often with further liturgical and decorative changes. Thus St Bride's, Fleet Street, was reseated as a sumptuous collegiate...

Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church rc

Scott's later life was filled with controversy. First, over proposals for a new bridge at Waterloo over the post-World War II rebuilding of Coventry Cathedral, a commission from which he resigned, leaving the opportunity for an open competition, which Basil Spence won and then over Bankside Power Station, argued to detract from St Paul's and promote the corrosion of London's fabric. During this period Scott was firmly a part of that rather disoriented classical spirit labelled the 'George VI style' a broad body of taste neither Modern nor Art Deco nor properly classicist or anything else and which, during the mid-thirties, Country Life was promoting as a middle path between robust Neoclassicism and Modernism.

Location location location The Queens House 161635

Designing the Covent Garden 'piazza' and church. In fact, like Le Corbusier's white villa, the pristine Queen's House had a rather short life. Completed in 1635 there was a mere seven years before its courtly joys were rudely disrupted by the Civil War, just as the bourgeois life of Le Corbusier's villa, completed in 1931, was disrupted by World War II.

Exporting Steelframed Skeletons of American Modernity

As will be shown more comprehensively in Chapter 2, by World War I these ventures began to coalesce into more rationalized processes and organizations and they began to reflect a particularly American brand of modernity. Other historians, who have previously probed the dynamics of what some have termed that 'landscape of modernity', have examined the relationships between pluralism and the American Century (Ward and Zunz, 1992, p. 4, and Zunz, 1998), between foreign politics and American pop culture (Wagnleitner and May, 2000), between Canadian and U.S. architectural practices in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century (Gournay 1998), or between high-rise construction and 'am ricanisme' (Cohen and Damisch, 1993 and Cohen, 1995). This scholarship is 'part of a growing literature on the influence of American culture abroad' (Kaplan and Pease, 1993 Pells, 1997 Appy, 2000 Wagnleitner and May, 2000, p. 4). However, despite this proliferating scholarship, what might be called the...

Acquiring Mental Angles of Approach the AlAs Foreign Relations Committee 19201930

Between World War I and the Depression, many American architects seemed generally less well-prepared for practicing abroad than many of their counterparts in civil engineering, building contracting, or material exporting. There were certainly some notable exceptions (such as Frank Lloyd Wright in Japan, and others introduced below) but American architects often rode abroad cautiously on the coat tails of others in the building industries. In this regard, design and construction were dynamically interrelated activities (Strike, 1991). Architects such as Alfred Zucker in Buenos Aires brought his favoured steel framing technology with him from New York when, independent of direct corporate affiliation but still affected by his intimate familiarity with Milliken's practices, he ventured south. And at the NFCI's inception in 1918, some architects were rubbing elbows with contractors, even if the latter greatly outnumbered the former. As one architect noted, Judging by the AIA's membership...

American Building and Planning in China 19071937

Ciclon David Republica Dominicana

World War I and 1937, when Japanese military control halted virtually all significant construction throughout China. It was not until 1914, however, that an American architect established an office in China. Rowland Curry, a native of Wooster, Ohio who graduated from Cornell University in 1907, moved to Shanghai in 1914 after practicing as an architect in Cleveland for 7 years. In Shanghai at the outbreak of World War I Curry was one of approximately twenty architects in that city, most of whom were British (Cody, 2000). Riding the rising crest of an economic boom, Curry designed banks and other commercial structures, as well as schools and an American Club, for which he often used American materials and structural systems that were increasingly becoming available for purchase in Shanghai, either through agents (such as Andersen, Meyer) or from representatives of the American firms themselves (such as Truscon). By the end of World War I other American architects and contractors were...

The doubling of the sky

Claude Parent Slope

Today, the question is how the diversity of possible fl oor forms can be reintroduced into everyday building tasks. The timber j oist floor, a popular method of support since ancient times - and up until the Second World War still the dominant method in the Western world -, was supplanted step by step by steel beams and reinforced concrete slabs. A quick review of the historical development prior to the flat slab shows the diversity of design

Hong Kongs Cheung Kong Center 19951999

1915 and based in Nebraska, is the third largest architecture & engineering practice in the U.S. After World War II it was one of the earliest U.S. architectural firms to expand its operations abroad. In 2000 LAD had ten offices in the U.S. as well as branches in Dubai, Madrid and Berlin. The firm opened its Hong Kong office in 1969 and during much of the 1970s employed as many as eighty architects at a time to handle commissions either in Hong Kong or within East Asia. However, by 1994 the office had been scaled down dramatically, only hosting five architects when Leo Daly himself won the Cheung Kong commission.

You Too Can Be Like Us American Materials Spaces and Skills to Europe 19451958

Bechtel Pipeline

Specific interests within the nations of Europe tended to diverge following the Second World War. France, for instance, was fascinated by problems of productivity and industrialization, while Russia imitated the skyscraper, and British architects became interested in the American landscape, popular culture, and technique in general. (Cohen, 1995, p. 183) Figure 5.7. The Trans-Arabian Pipeline, constructed in the early 1950s by the Bechtel Corporation of San Francisco, was one of many ventures undertaken by American oil companies throughout the Middle East after World War II. (Source Architectural Forum, 1955, 102, January, p. 106) Figure 5.7. The Trans-Arabian Pipeline, constructed in the early 1950s by the Bechtel Corporation of San Francisco, was one of many ventures undertaken by American oil companies throughout the Middle East after World War II. (Source Architectural Forum, 1955, 102, January, p. 106) Figure 5.8. Oil loading terminal at Khor Musa, Iran. In addition to the...

Landscape architecture in Denmark

Danish landscape architecture has been vigorous for over a hundred years.1 Its origins were in the design of private gardens, but since the start of the 1930s landscape designers have participated in a wide range of projects from parks and housing areas to motorways and landscape planning. After the Second World War, the amount and range of landscape architectural assignments rapidly expanded. Several landscape architects had careers which spanned 40-50 years and during this period a new generation grew up. Many of them worked at the offices of G.N. Brandt and C. Th. Sorensen and were part of a well-connected network which provided the basis for a common experience, and the formation of a tradition (which is understandable in a small country with only five million inhabitants). In her Guide to Danish Landscape Architecture, Annemarie Lund remarks that during the 1930s 'several landscape architects continued enthusiastically to experiment with various geometrical shapes to create...

Modern historical consciousness

During the twentieth century, and especially since the Second World War, protection of cultural heritage has grown to international dimensions, involving organizations such as UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOM and ICOMOS, the definition of charters, recommendations, guidelines, and conventions, as well as promoting awareness campaigns and developing specialized training activities. The concept of cultural heritage has been broadened from historic monuments and works of art to include ethnographic collections, historic gardens, towns, villages and landscapes. The increase in scale and the recognition of diversity in cultures and physical conditions have led to a new situation, where the meaning of cultural heritage itself, and the policies for its safeguard have required reassessment.

Riverfront San Antanio Texes Urban Design

Due to major cost overruns Hugman was dismissed as project architect and replaced by J. Fred Buenz in 1940, and the WPA project was completed. The result was very attractive. The onset of World War II further inhibited development. Lack of maintenance meant that by the 1960s, the river in downtown San Antonio had deteriorated and had an exaggerated reputation of being a hanging-out area for 'unsavoury types, vandals and derelicts'. Perceptions of its state sparked a series of redevelopment ideas. A San Antonio businessman, David Straus, started a campaign to boost the economic state of the downtown area and to restore the river and redevelop its surroundings. San Antonio's Tourist Attraction Committee proposed a redevelopment plan drawn up by MARCO Engineering but the plan was rejected as having too trite a character. In 1962 the San Antonio Riverwalk Commission was established and charged with developing a new master plan.

From Components to Systems the American Construction Specialist

They expressed in promotional literature and trade journals, exporters of portable buildings craved profit, speed, and construction systems yielding both adaptability and universal methods. There were significant variations in where portable buildings were erected, how people reacted to them, and how well or poorly exporters fared. The specialist construction engineer 'tailored' his solution to his client's individual needs, but that same engineer 'taylored' szcjhis design and production system to maximize his own efficiency as he met his client's demands. Arguably, the virtues of specialization that the author of the above essay was extolling was an outgrowth of the 'American system of mass production' that was being refined precisely during this initial phase of American architectural exporting (Hounshell, 1984). The targeting and fine-tuning of this specialization characterized the second stage of this exporting, after the calamitous World War I which began in the Balkans in 1914.

The Metal And Glass Curtain Wall And Its Deterioration Mechanisms

New technologies resulting from World War II had a great influence on the acceptance of the machine-made metal and glass curtain wall. Given the abundant postwar supply, aluminum was reasonably priced. There was experimentation with mild steel, stainless steel, and bronze as well. Extruded components were suitable for standardization and could be prefabricated for delivery to the site. This was important because labor had become a significant part of construction costs. The new curtain wall technology further decreased building weight and construction cost, and increased usable floor area. Prefabricated construction was less limited by cold temperatures which prohibited erection of wet walls of brick and mortar. The invention One of the first post-war buildings to be constructed with a glass curtain wall was the Equitable Building (Pietro Belluschi, 1948) in Portland, Oregon. Belluschi was able to take advantage of leftover aluminum stockpiled for World War II by smelters and to...

Precincts Urban Renewal

The Barbican was built on a site bombed out during World War II. In a sense it was an urban renewal project. Urban renewal projects, as understood here, however, involve the planned demolition of obsolete and or decayed segments of cities, in whole or in part, and their rebuilding. The new development may be publicly or privately financed, or some mixture of the two. Often governments use their power of eminent domain to acquire land and to accumulate small sites into single-parcels ripe for redevelopment. Private companies without that power

Jacobs Office 18841902

Ganga Singh was indeed to become, in British eyes, the paragon of a modern maharaja, a reformer of the institutions and infrastructure of his state and a contributor to the political processes and assemblies of his day. He served, for example, as first Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes, and he represented the Indian princes at the League of Nations, while at home he developed education, medicine and new communication systems. It was by no means inconsistent with this image - though equally a reminder that he was, after all, a Rajput king - that he was also an active and successful soldier. In support of his imperial masters, he fought in the First World War in France and in Egypt, at the end of which he was the Indian signatory of the Treaty of Versailles. And in the Second World War, although turning sixty, he again visited the front, in the Middle East.63

Application Of Rvi Methodology On Selected Historical Churches

The Hagia Sophia Church was built in the 13th century during the period of the Komnenos Empire. 1427 is the date when the church was provided with a bell tower. It is a well-known fact that in 1864, while the building was serving as a mosque, it was maintained thanks to the donation by Riza Efendi. During the 1st World War, the building served respectively as store, hospital, and mosque. It was re-stored again between 1858-1962 by a collaborated work of Edinburgh University and the General Directorate of Endowment (General Directorate of Pi-ous Foundations). Since then the church has been serving as a museum.

Conclusions For American Architecture

Concrete was a complementary building material to the steel frame and, as the twentieth century began, those complements yielded yet another significant American technology for export reinforced concrete. I suggested in Chapter 2 that by the end of World War I steel and concrete had helped create a foundation for a system of contracting abroad. However, I also explained that the materials did not magically configure such a foundation without the deft (and some might argue 'devious') intervention of either human ingenuity or guile. Truscon and Ideal were two of the companies that engaged in significant operations. The challenge of the Panama Canal, the passing of the Federal Reserve Act, the establishment of the National Association of Manufacturers and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce were some of the critical developments related to the U.S. government in the first two decades of the twentieth century. World War I marked a watershed in American architectural exporting, as it did in so...

Design culture buildings and users

Proportionslehre

Sandercock (1998), for instance, notes how the power of modernist ideology promoted, post-Second World War, specific conceptions of design and space which, while claiming to be neutral and inclusive, failed to acknowledge social multiplicity or difference. The claimed neutrality of modernist design, with its emphasis on de-contextuality, standardisation

The preservation movement in the USA

During the 1930s and 1940s, historical groups started joining forces to save whole districts, and rapidly this new preservation effort was accepted in historic communities all through the country. An early example was Charleston, where the first zoning ordinance was given in 1931 (Hosmer, 1981 232). At the same time, several state governments included preservation objectives into their programmes although not yet systematically. Pennsylvania created a historical commission as early as 1913. More organized efforts came after the Second World War with a growing number of historic districts, including Philadelphia, Annapolis, Savannah and Providence. A watershed for historic preservation was the 1966 National Historic Preservation Act at the Federal level. In this act, Congress authorized the Federal Government to give maximum encouragement to agencies and individuals, as well as to assist state and local governments and the National Trust for Historic Preservation in expanding and...

The Nonobservance Of Native Policies

In hopes of retaining Italy's colonies despite its defeat in World War II, propaganda of 1946 depicted Italians and natives working the fields side by side. In hopes of retaining Italy's colonies despite its defeat in World War II, propaganda of 1946 depicted Italians and natives working the fields side by side.

The Last Stages Of Italian Colonial Expansion

In the few years before Italy entered World War II in June 1940, two further developments altered the geography of its Empire. First, just as three Algerian d partements had been absorbed into metropolitan France in 1881, Libya's four coastal provinces became an integral part of Italian territory in January 1939 rather than a colony, they were now Italy's nineteenth regional district. The advantages of this change for Italy were two to ensure for itself a vast reservoir of Libyan military conscripts, and to help suppress any future independence movements. This final act of Italian imperialism brought the number of Italian territories to six, not including the Tianjin concession (Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Libya, the Dodecanese Islands possession, and Albania). But the Empire was short-lived. Eritrea and Somalia came under British Military Administration control in 1941, and Haile Selassie regained his Ethiopian throne. In the Mediterranean, German forces took over Albania directly...

Philosophy technology and craft

Easy Drawingof William Harvey

One of the first structural analysts of the substantial ruins of Tintern at the time of the First World War was William Harvey, whose studies of Tintern, Rievaulx, Westminster and St Paul's Cathedral were published by the Architectural Press in 1925,4 advocating the essential practice of knowing the whole building to understand its movements and the reason for distortion and fracturing. Two major areas of concern were identified at Tintern, once the ivy was removed. The first was a progressive westward movement of the north chancel wall, towards the great arch of the missing tower and the overhanging broken end of the north arcade of the nave (Figure 4.2). Local repairs were not able to contain this westwards movement, as the north-west pier distorted and developed a pattern of fine stress cracks. The drift of its masonry piers in the chancel to the west could only be restrained by the installation of the reinforced wall head beams shown in Figure 4.3. The corbelled masonry of the...

Landscape architecture in the Netherlands

At the end of the nineteenth century, the industrial revolution triggered the growth of many Dutch towns. During the Second World War a lot of houses were destroyed, especially in the bigger cities, so in the post-war period, a project of large-scale development was introduced to fill residential needs. This project has also, perhaps, become second nature to the Dutch. Like the perpetual defences against water, this building project is an ongoing one as well. The reason is that the average area required by a household has grown substantially, while the number of people per household has decreased dramatically.

Housing Policy And City Planning In Frankfurt

The activity ofErnst May in Frankfurt corresponded exactly to the happiest period of the Weimar Republic, a time of economic prosperity. In order to appreciate the importance of the achievements in the field of construction, one has to consider Germany's situation at the end of World War One. As a consequence of the military defeat and the abdication of the emperor, the first crisis, a political one in 1918-21, witnessed the collapse of the economy in an atmosphere of brutality, marked by the repeated and violent confrontations between political groups that ended with the crushing of the revolutionary parties.65 Then, while industrial production progressively improved, inflation accelerated to enter, from 1922 onwards, into a crazy spiral. The political crisis was succeeded by a monetary crisis, which ended only in 1924 with the complete reorganization of the German finances by the Stresemann government through the creation of the Renten Mark, loans from foreign countries and the...

The Search For Modernity

Europe's loss of political and economic power at the end of the First World War coupled with an increase in American power lent the New World a strength and independence it had not known before. The United States' new national self-confidence showed in its activities in the cultural sphere. The first museum of modern American art was opened at New York University in 1927 the development of precisionism meant a new, genuinely American form of modernity in painting. Even before, American artists had sought liberation from the long dominance of Europe and of France in particular, and countermovements developed. Thus, the members of the Society of American Sculptors, founded as a response to the National Sculptors' Society, unequivocally advocated Americanism in their work. In 1923, the League of American Artists published a statement formulated in terms borrowed freely from military rhetoric The time has arrived when the American Artist is the equal, if not the superior, of the foreign...

Performance Design Again

In 1967 Progressive Architecture magazine published a special issue on performance design, explaining it as a set of practices that had emerged from general systems theory, operations research and cybernetics thirty years earlier, at the end of the World War II.1 The editors described its practitioners as systems analysts, systems engineers, operations researchers and argued that it was a more scientific method of analyzing functional requirements, which involved psychological and aesthetic needs as well as physical measures of performance. The interest in performance clearly draws on the long history of determinism and functionalism in architecture, understood in large part through the mechanical and organic analogies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is perhaps fitting at the outset to recall that Le Corbusier's famous description of a house as machine for living was his adaptation of the phrase that he and Ozenfant had earlier used to describe painting, a...

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