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The Renaissance Tradition

That the writing of architectural theory was revived in the Italian Renaissance is due to the coincidence that Vitruvius was seen to serve a particular fifteenth-century need, which was the cultural urge to revive the antique tradition in architecture. Even so, were it not for the solemn respect he commanded from Renaissance scholars, his work would have fallen into oblivion. But as it turned out, when a remarkably complete and pure manuscript text of De architectural was discovered in the monastic library of Saint-Gall (Switzerland) in 1414, the feverishly transcribed chapters were posted book by book to Florence, where they were eagerly awaited by the community of humanist scholars. From that time Vitruvius was regarded as the presiding spirit of the realm of architecture. His continued importance as a writer of architectural theory was assured, however, only by the composition, in Florence, of a treatise of similar format, De re aedificatoria, by Leon Battista Al-berti, begun in...

Repairs to First Bridge 1873 to 1887

The writer was unable to ascertain the name of the consulting engineer, if any, for this project . Many of the engineering design drawings for both the superstructure and the machinery and the shop drawings4 have been examined and no notation regarding a consulting engineer was found The title blocks on the design drawings read C&NW Ry, East Iowa Division, Bridge No. 0 over Mississippi River at Clinton, Iowa, Office of the Engineer of Bridges, Chicago, IL . Some are signed by S . J . Stern, engineer of bridges and W H Finley, asst chief engineer None have an approval signature of the chief engineer The shop drawings for the superstructure steel and the mechanical machinery were prepared by the Pennsylvania Steel Company of Steelton, PA, a technically progressive steel manufacturer that was absorbed into the Bethlehem Steel Company in 1916 The C&NW resident engineer during construction was F H Bainbridge He wrote an excellent description of the project during construction 2 However,...

The Structure of the Book

Furthermore, authors were selected on the basis of belonging to, being raised in, or being a citizen of, the city. A major shortcoming of the literature is the lack of a 'local' voice and I was hoping through this strategy to project an empathy and a deeper understanding which may be lacking if the writer is an 'outsider' - which may however in some instances have its benefits allowing for an objective evaluation of events. All authors are young, Arab scholars educated in Western universities (US and UK) and their views provide a fresh, and energetic, view of their cities. Another factor relating the authors together is that they are all architects, hence they have a natural inclination towards focusing on the built environment, i.e. emphasizing the spatial aspect. As such the chapters are, on the whole, heavily illustrated. These images are seen as critical in illuminating the themes explored in the book. It must be noted that in spite of many commonalities among the authors they...

English aesthetic theories

Contribution of poets and writers such as Henry Wotton, Francis Bacon, John Evelyn and John Milton, the idea of a picturesque classical landscape was gradually introduced into England at the cost of abandoning the earlier formal Renaissance garden layouts. The actual design and implementation of these pictures in reality was carried out by several distinguished architects. In the second half of the eighteenth century, several writers contributed to the development of the theories related to the design of landscape gardens and also to the appreciation of natural scenery. A particular reference in this regard is the treatise of the young Edmund Burke (1729-97), who published A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful in 1757. In the 1760s and 1770s, it became fashionable to make tours in the English countryside and select picturesque scenery that could be either interpreted in water-colour or described in words. The most notable of these tourists...

William Morris and Class Suicide

William Morris, the nineteenth-century British designer who wrote about the symbiosis of power and aesthetics, politics and art, was a formidable design theorist whose struggle over the ideology of the aesthetic has been denied. We know Morris the poet Morris the advocate of neo-Gothic revivalism Morris the inspiration of the Arts and Crafts movement Morris the designer of beautiful tapestries, carpets, paintings, glassware, and publications and Morris the producer of exquisite commodities. But William Morris, the tireless advocate of revolutionary socialism, the ceaseless propagandist, street-corner agitator, writer, lecturer, socialist theo

Intellectual Contexts

A very different generation of intellectuals in the 1960s and '70s underwrites the later forms of architecture I discuss. Informed by Marxism, the work of Paulo Freire, a sociologist, or Augusto Boal, a radical playwright, or Glauber Rocha, a film-maker, understands Brazil as an essentially poor society that must be recognized as such.36 Such writers stood in opposition to the utopianism of the earlier generation and its projects such as Brasilia, which they regarded as facile and self-serving. In place of grand utopian projects erected in the name of those in power, they proposed engagement with the poor and dispossessed in the form of cultural acts that would leave no material monument, but (they hoped) would quietly revolutionize Brazilian culture. In Boal's tough and radical work, which has been widely performed outside Brazil, theatre becomes a tool for the resolution of conflict in real-life situations. The 'theatre of the oppressed' sets out to empower those without power, and...

From Preface to Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Architects Painters and Sculptors 1550 1568

When I first undertook to write these lives, it was not my purpose to make a mere list of the artists, or to give an inventory, so to speak, of their works. Nor could I by any means consider it a worthy end of my - I will not say satisfactory - but assuredly prolonged and fatiguing labours, that I should content myself with merely ascertaining the number, names, and country of the artists, or with informing my reader in what city or borough precisely, their paintings, sculptures, or buildings, were to be found. This I could have accomplished by a simple register or table, without the interposition of my own judgment in any part. But I have remembered that the writers of history, - such of them, that is to say, as by common consent are admitted to have treated their subject most judiciously, - have in no case contented themselves with a simple narration of the occurrences they describe, but have made zealous enquiry respecting the lives of the actors, and sought with the utmost...

From Rules for the Direction of the Mind 1628

We ought to read the writings of the ancients, for it is of great advantage to be able to make use of the labours of so many men. We should do so both in order to learn what truths have already been discovered and also to be informed about the points which remain to be worked out in the various disciplines. But at the same time there is a considerable danger that if we study these works too closely traces of their errors will infect us and cling to us against our will and despite our precautions. For, once writers have credulously and heedlessly taken up a position on some controversial question, they are generally inclined to employ the most subtle arguments in an attempt to get us to adopt their point of view. On the other hand, whenever they have the luck to discover something certain and evident, they always present it wrapped up in various obscurities, either because they fear that the simplicity of their argument may depreciate the importance of their finding, or because they...

First Stage Local Antiquarianism 18411898

In the first stage, Cuban archaeology could not yet be considered a formal discipline since it consisted almost exclusively of the study of historical documentation and occasional discoveries. The chronicles of the Indies were the main source of information, and the accounts of aboriginal peoples they contain were used to extend Cuban history back prior to the Spanish conquest. Writers described material evidence of the island's prehistory in forms as diverse as novels, poems, and scientific articles on new discoveries. The discoveries of John L. Stephens (1841) in the Mayan area in October 1839 spurred dreams of greatness about the pre-Hispanic past on the part of Cubans. In prose and verse, the Cuban Indian served as the symbol of an emerging nationality, as seen in the works of Jos Fornaris y Luque and Juan Crist bal N poles Fajardo. Jos Fornaris Luque (1827-1890), an attorney, poet, and professor, wrote several books including Cantos del Ciboney. Juan Crist bal N poles Fajardo...

From Ordonnance for the Five Kinds of Columns after the Method of the Ancients 1683

Perrault did not limit his attack on academic authority to the issues thus far noted. A few months before the second edition of his translation of Vitruvius appeared, he published his own architectural treatise relating to the proportioning of column orders. The book grew out of a problem long known to Renaissance architects and raised again by Freart de Chambray - namely, that architects in both antiquity and in the Renaissance had worked with proportional ratios that were almost never the same. Even the Academy recognized this problem. In 1674 Colbert sent a talented young student, Antoine Desgodetz (1653-1728), to Rome with the missions of making a comprehensive measurement of the principal Roman monuments, in the hope that some classical system might be found. The trip started badly, as Desgodetz and his traveling companion were immediately kidnapped by pirates yet once ransomed, and after three years of labor, they returned home with disappointing results. No system had been...

British Classicism And Palladianism

Palladian design for London's Banqueting House, in Whitehall (1619-22). The second person to promote Renaissance architecture in Britain was the diplomat Henry Wotton. He had long resided in Italy after James I appointed him to be the ambassador to Venice in 1604, and upon retiring to London in 1624 he quickly wrote The Elements of Architecture, which summarized what he believed to be the rudiments of classical architecture. The small book is perhaps best known for the happy translation of the Vitruvian triad as Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight,'' but it is also a solid and scholarly recapitulation of Vitruvian theory augmented with the input of various Renaissance writers, chiefly Alberti, Palladio, and Philibert de l'Orme. I shall not neede (like the most part of Writers) to celebrate the Subject which I deliver. In that point I am at ease. For Architecture, can want no commendation, where there are Noble Men, or Noble mindes I will therefore spend this Preface, rather about those,...

Acoustic Emission Monitoring

The AE monitoring equipment adopted by the writers consists of piezoelectric transducers fitted with a preamplifier and calibrated on inclusive frequencies between 100 and 400 kHz. The threshold level of the signal recorded by the system, fixed at 100 xY is amplified up to 100 mV. The oscillation counting capacity is limited to 255 every 120 s of signal recording. In this way a single event is the result of two recorded minutes.

From An Essay in Defence of Ancient Architecture 1728

Perhaps the most prolific writer of the Palladian movement was Robert Morris, whose work also chronicles its rise and decline. Morris was a ''kinsman'' of the architect Roger Morris (1695-1749), a well-respected Palladian designer who was closely allied with the Earl of Pembroke. Robert Morris was also a native of Twickenham, which suggests a connection to Alexander Pope, whose poetry he often cites. In his dedication to An Essay in Defence of Ancient Architecture, he credits first Burlington and then Pembroke and Andrew Fountaine for being ''the principal Practitioners and Preservers'' of classicism.

Not a Home But an Adventure

The question of the multiplicity of languages cannot but be present for someone who has studied so deeply the moment of finis Austriae,89 the end of Austria, of the Habsbourgs' Empire (of which Venice was part until the unification of Italy). In an essay on Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Intransitabili utopie, Cacciari points out that the world and the language of the Austrian writer did not correspond to the cosmopolitan vision of the Enlightenment, nor to a totalizing idea of Europe, but to the multiplicity of languages that turn around the great Habsbourg Reich. 90 Against a conservative reading of Hofmannsthal, Cacciari insists on how important is Hofmannsthal's vision of the poet as a seismograph, recording all the movements of the earth. This image shows that the poet does not invent a language but carefully listens to traditions, to their most imperceptible movements, without trying to fuse them in a mythical unity.

The Size Of The City Region

Writers and planners deliberating about ideal city size tended to increase this size as the twentieth century developed. Howard, at the end of the nineteenth century, was suggesting satellite cities of 32000 and a central or core city of 58 000 people. The planned sizes of new towns built after the Second World War were increased progressively from 50 000 to 250 000. While arguments about the ideal size of cities have occupied the minds of some scholars, cities - particularly in the developing world - have grown at a very rapid rate, so that cities having a multimillion population are now common. Mexico city is an exemplar of the city that will become common as this century

The Evolution of Urban Studies

There had been extensive protests around urban issues in the immediate postwar period, dealing with displacement through urban renewal, with inadequate housing, with suburban sprawl, and generally with persisting poverty and inequality. A minority of writers and researchers in urban studies had called attention to these issues,5 while the field as a whole continued with the equanimity and supposed objectivity of the past. But in the late 1960s protests jelled in the form of what has become known as the new social movements, and these formed the impetus for the new turn in urban social science. Things have changed. By 1983 Chris Pickvance, one of the English pioneers in studying the new urban movements, was writing The study of urban movements has a problem urban movements have ceased to exist. 7 Indeed, despite the controversy that surrounds the fate of urban movements, much was indeed quite different from what had been anticipated even fifteen years earlier. Margaret...

Historical Nature of Design

In most of the textbook descriptions, Ford is blamed for its profits come first approach that was grounded in its cost-benefit analysis. However, as some writers point out, despite the fact that Ford's analysis was malformulated, it is not evident whether this analysis was really the decisive ground of its (mis)conduct (Birsch, 1994).2 Although this particular problem is beyond the scope of this chapter, I would like to use this case to highlight the issue concerning the definition of safety. Obviously, an automobile cannot by nature guarantee complete safety moreover, one cannot expect the same level of safety from a compact car as from a conventional large-sized car. In addition, the Ford Pinto is not said to have failed the safety regulations at the time (although there are some people who hold the view that this was a gray area). However, as Richard De George also noted, the reason Ford was attacked was not because of such facts but because, despite the existence of technological...

Gothic revival and remodelling of cathedrals in England

Particularly by various writers and poets. The magnificence of the great cathedrals of York, Salisbury and Durham was thus recognized in the midst of full Classicism, and the mysterious atmosphere of modest mediaeval cloisters appealed to sensitive poets such as John Milton who wrote in 'Il Penseroso' (c. 1631)

Boring Socketsdowel Holes

Any expedient should be adopted to ensure truly vertical boring of the sockets. If done by hand, using a Russell Jenning's pattern dowel-bit in a bit- or arm-brace, help should be enlisted in sighting for the upright. Drilling at an angle always presents problems, for the wings of the bit tend to follow the grain, and an expedient adopted in the writer's own workshops for precision compound angle drilling was to fix the work either horizontally or vertically, thread the spindle of a 1 3 hp (0.25 kW) electric motor for a 1 2 in (12.5 mm) capacity Jacob's chuck (or use a hand drill), mount the motor on a baseboard running between wood guide rails securely fixed at the correct compound angle, and feed the motorized bit forward to the correct socket

Werner Hegemann and Elbert Peets Summary

Werner Hegemann (1881-1936) was a leading German architectural journalist and urbanist, and Elbert Peets (1886-1968) an American architect, town planner, and writer. They published The American Vitruvius An Architect's Handbook of Civic Art in 1922, describing their project as a visual thesaurus. Indeed the edectic, but fairly encyclopedic, scrapbook of illustrations has proven to be the book's most useful and influential aspect, Hegemann, along with others of his generation, was precocious in his interest in American developments, although he is less interested in their presumed modernity than in connecting the emergent interest in monumental civic design fuelled by the City Beautiful movement and the accompanying classical revival to a long European tradition, which he saw as directly relevant to both the practical and aesthetic challenges of the modern city.

Expression of environmental control systems

According to one writer, this is 'One of the most technically expressive buildings in America.' Barreneche (1995), while another asserts that '.Bruder has managed to raise prosaic technology to the level of architecture by making it obey a formal order and by translating it into metaphorical terms corresponding to his concept of the public library as a late 20th-century popular

Discovery of the Middle Ages

Following in Goethe's footsteps, there were writers who appreciated Gothic cathedrals Wilhelm Heinse (1749-1803) spoke about the 'solemn Gothic cathedral and its enormous space created by rational barbarians' ((Ein feyerlicher gothischer Dom mit seinem freyen ungeheuren Raume, von vern nftigen Barbaren entworfen Heinse, in German, 1972 84), and another was Georg Forster (1754-94), who had travelled widely in Asia, and who always liked to visit Cologne cathedral, 'this splendid temple, to feel the thrill of the sublime', because, as he wrote in 1790, 'In the face of such bold masterpieces, the spirit prostrates itself, full of amazement and admiration then it rises again, and soars upwards beyond these works, which were just one conception of a congenial spirit'.11 In 1795, the magazine Der Neue Teutsche Merkur wrote about the situation of the cultural heritage in France, the legislation that had been established during the revolution, and about the reports of Abb Gr goire. In the same...

From Letters on the Architecture of the Ancients and the Moderns 1787

Little is known of this architect and writer, other than he was a younger brother of the more famous architect Charles-Fran ois Viel (1745-1819). The significance of these letters is that they reveal another side of French architectural theory in the closing years of the Ancien Regime. Viel de Saint-Maux was a caustic critic of the Vitruvian tradition and of the French Academy. In a footnote to one letter, he refers to Jacques-Fran ois Blondel as ''the Charlatan of architecture, and he was equally dismissive of Paris's most celebrated architect, Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, whom he accuses of plagiarism. He faults modern practice for lacking a ''distinctive character,'' and this freemason counters with a highly symbolic interpretation of architecture. In reviewing ancient architecture, he devotes much of his discussion to the still little-known architecture of India, Japan, China, Babylonia, and Persia. He underscores the cosmogony, cosmology, and fertility rituals originally giving rise...

Rational Design Method

Until the modern era, writers of architectural theory assumed no responsibility for providing a methodical procedure for the creation of a design. For the orders, yes, but not for the building as a whole. A strategy to achieve rational designs was set out by Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, in his Pr cis des le ons, which began to appear in 1802. Although the steps of his procedure were couched in terms of formal development, Durand's method assumed that the process was driven by the requirements of a functional program, even though compared to later theory his notion of such a program was confined to the macro level. Accordingly, the simplicity or complexity of the program would determine whether the building would be contained by a single mass or would include dependencies in the form of wings or attached pavilions. It would also determine whether the masses of the composition would be open or closed, accessible to the public or sequestered behind walls and whether the dependencies would...

Manufactured structural timber components

Most trussed rafter manufacturers deliver the components on special vehicles on which the trusses are stacked vertically - they should remain that way on site during handling and, of course, in their working position. It is the only way in which they can be considered to be a self supporting component. Flat stacking, although sometimes unavoidable, is not in the writer's opinion considered satisfactory, and certainly requires far more attention to correct preparation of the storage area on site.

William Morris and SPAB

Morris expressed himself as writer and poet, studying for example the folklore of Iceland his main works were much appreciated by contemporaries, and Ruskin himself admired his poems. Morris enjoyed reading the historical novels of Sir Walter Scott, and when he started his studies at Oxford in 1853, he was strongly influenced by Carlyle, Charlotte Yonge and especially by Ruskin's The Stones of Venice. He toured Belgium and northern France to study Flemish painting and Gothic architecture. In 1856, he entered G. E. Street's office as an apprentice, and met there with Philip Webb. Architect's work did not interest Morris, and, persuaded by D. G. Rossetti (1828-82), he left the office to take up painting. Webb, who had made serious studies of English Gothic architecture, came to see that 'modern medievalism was an open contradiction', and he tried to make buildings of the present day pleasant without pretences of style (Lethaby, 1979 18).

From Royal Academy Lectures on Architecture V Viii and XI 181215

Architectural inconsistency does not stop here. A celebrated writer on the principles of taste tells us that he 'ventured to build a house, ornamented with Gothic towers, battlements, pinnacles, and flying buttresses, without, and Grecian columns and entablatures, within,'3 and although this example, the author adds, has not been much followed, he has every reason to congratulate himself on the success of the experiment, he having at once an

The German Style Debate

The appearance of Germany as a cultural force throughout Europe was in part delayed by the fact that the country was never politically unified and existed as a confederation of states, in Renaissance times under the protection of the Habsburg Empire. This situation began to change in the second half of the eighteenth century with the ascendancy of Prussia under Frederick the Great. The latter defined Prussia as a military power, and with a state policy of religious and intellectual toleration it also became a haven for both persecuted religious groups and other exiles such as Voltaire. A ''German'' consciousness also first becomes evident during these years, and in quick succession a number of great writers and philosophers - among them Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Immanuel Kant, and Friedrich Schiller - laid the basis for Germanic cultural unity. Germany's first state-recognized architectural school - the Berlin Bauakademie - was founded in that city in 1799. The...

Worldwide Urbanization

Writer Erla Zwingle observes, Irresistible lure for dreamers, doers, and the desperate, urban areas will soon hold half the world's people. She gives the following numbers in 1950, only New York contained 10 million people, but by 2015, there will be 25 cities of roughly 10 million or more, 6 of those over 20 million. The number of urban areas with populations of 5 to 10 million is also pro

The grid as generator

What are those assumptions To put this in the most general terms, they resolve themselves into two powerful lines of thought. The first, which stems from the work of the Viennese writer Camillo Sitte, whose book City Planning according to Artistic Principles was published in 1889, can be called the doctrine of the visually ordered city. To Sitte the total city plan is the inspired and the all-encompassing work of art. But Sitte went further civic art must be an expression of the life of the community, and finally works of art cannot be created by committee but only by a single individual (Sitte 1898). The planner then is the inspired artist expressing in the total city plan the ambitions of a society. There are indeed many who, though not prepared to accept this total it would

The Origins and Limitations of Deconstructive Discourse

Deconstructive literary critics, who long dominated deconstructive thought in the United States, exhibited a distinct preference for those texts, like Tristram Shandy and Finnegans Wake, that seemed already to acknowledge the impossibility of integrated expression in their ludic and disseminated form but they also deconstructed traditional novels like Middlemarch and Jane Eyre, reading in them a submerged tension between the writer's desire to found meaning and value and language's tendency to float free of the writer's authority. In many cases, decon- Before I consider some deconstructive buildings, let me make clearer the philosophical and political claims of architectural deconstruction, and the serious weaknesses of those claims, by looking at the arguments of two representative writers in this vein Jennifer Bloomer and Mark Wigley. In Architecture and the Text The (S) crypts of Joyce and Piranesi, Bloomer continues in the now well-established tradition of feminist deconstructive...

How Can Architecture Be Critical

At the same time, efforts to integrate deconstructive insights into resonating social critique failed because, as Habermas has argued, the end of epistemologi-cal legitimation means the end of consensus. The corps of deconstruction-inspired scholars has been unable to agree upon even the most basic claims about human dignity and freedom and has therefore fragmented into various shifting identity politics camps, which have been known to trade among one another charges of sexism, homophobia, racism, and elitism. In a recent issue of the Village Voice, the author of an article titled Why They Won The Left Lost Touch writes in the wake of the devastating 1994 congressional elections that the left is finished because it paid too much attention to its tiny narcissisms and too little attention to the needs of most Americans. 40 The one-upmanship deconstructive intellectuals display among themselves is a small version of a larger problem among left thinkers in America today. Ordinary...

Serpentinefronted tallboy

This tallboy (459) was primarily designed as a contemporary interpretation of a traditional form and has been on permanent exhibition since first made in 1951. Figure 460 1 shows the elevation and 460 2, 3 the side sectional elevation. As can be seen the tallboy is composed of two separate carcass units with attached top and plinth stool. Carcass top and sides are 3 4 in (19 mm) finish first-quality solid African mahogany cut from flat planks over 4 ft (121 cm) wide sub tops, bases and solid divisions between drawers are 5 8 in (16 mm) selected western hemlock lipped with mahogany while the 3 4 in (19 mm) finish serpentine drawer fronts were made up from nin 32 in (2 mm) gaboon constructional veneers pressed between male and female formers forms in a screw-press and veneered with striped sapelewood. Drawer sides are 5 16 in (8 mm) English oak, flush drawer bottoms and backs 5 16 in (8 mm) English cedar, also the panelled backs with 2 in (50 mm) by 5 8 in (16 mm) stiles, rails and...

A significance for AP parking lots or learning from Las Vegas

Substance for a writer consists not merely of those realities he thinks he discovers it consists even more of those realities which have been made available to him by the literature and idioms of his own day and by the images that still have vitality in the literature of the past. Stylistically, a writer can express his feeling about this substance either by imitation, if it sits well with him, or by parody, if it doesn't. (Pourier 1967)

Time Saver Standards for Urban Design371

This concept of function comes to be assumed as a given in all architectural and urbanistic thinking and, particularly in the field ofgeography, leads to a functionalist and organicist characterization of a large part of modern architecture. In studies of the classification of cities, it overwhelms and takes priority over the urban landscape and form and although many writers express doubts as to the validity and exactitude of this type of classification, they argue that there is no other viable classification to offer as an alternative.

Conflicting approaches

Writers on safety and design have adopted varied approaches to how design might be considered, reflecting very different attitudes that the writers have to the public and the private realm within schemes. During the 1980s, authors tended to focus heavily on the need to ensure the safety of residents in their own home, whilst showing less concern for the safety of people-especially pedestrians-coming and going in neighbourhood streets. Some authors also tended to argue that the purpose of design should be to exclude non-residents from schemes in order to make the areas more secure and exclusive whilst reducing what the police refer to as 'potential escape routes'. More recently, theorists have begun to view this same group of people as being the 'eyes on the street', creating vitality and a greater perceived sense of safety. The purpose of design is therefore to ensure that residential areas are fully integrated with neighbouring areas so that they aren't cut off, but instead have an...

From Preface to Parallel of the Ancients and the Moderns with Regard to the Arts and Sciences 1688

Charles Perrault, who between 1662 and 1682 had been the personal secretary to Colbert, had held a number of prestigious and influential academic positions. He was a writer of considerable esteem, and in fact wrote many of the fairytales later collected by the Grimm brothers. Charles responded to his critics on this occasion with a four-part Socratic dialogue, Parallel of the Ancients and the Moderns (1688-97), in which he remained adamant in defending the right of his age to create its own art apart from the sanction of the past. His central theme is that his era had not only equaled the achievements of antiquity and the Renaissance, but (as progress in the sciences had shown) had even surpassed them.

History of the New Chronology

In 1999, the prominent writer, sociologist, logician, and philosopher A. A. Zinoviev, who had just returned to Russia after many years spent in emigration, got in touch with us. Having read some of our publications, he had decided that our concept was generally a correct one, concurring well with his own research in the field of history and historical falsifications. He offers some of ideas in the preface to the new edition of our Introduction to the New Chronology, 2001, Kraft Publishing.

Cesare Brandis theory of restoration

Born in Siena, Cesare Brandi (1906-1988) studied law and humanities, beginning his career in 1930 with the Soprintendenza of Monuments and Galleries, passing later to the Administration of Antiquities and Fine Arts, and being the first director of the new Instituto Centrale del Restauro in Rome, from 1939 to 1959. An active writer and art-critic, Brandi lectured on the history, theory and practice of restoration, as well as being professor of art history at the universities of Palermo and Rome. From 1948 he carried out several missions abroad for UNESCO.

Comparative Doric Orders

Palladian Doric Column Cad

In two respects, the proportions he establishes are not followed by Renaissance writers. First, he restricts the column height to 7 diameters, producing a rather bulky form, and second, presumably following Greek practice, he offers no dimensions for a moulded base, so that the Vitruvian column rises abruptly from the stylobate. A peculiarity of the Greek Doric adopted by Vitruvius is the downward slope of the soffit of the corona, subsequently dismissed by Chambers as producing an unstable appearance.

The Avenue of the Victory of Socialism Bucharest Romania a government precinct 197789 but continuing

The site chosen for the civic centre project was in the Uranus district of the city because of its historic importance and elevated location. A competition for the design of the civic centre was held in 1978 in order to give the appearance of democratic decision-making. It was a sham. The programme was announced verbally and Ceausescu chose the winner, Anca Petrescu, despite the presence of jury members drawn from the nation's architectural elite. Demolition of the site began in 1978 with many of the inhabitants being given only 24 hours notice to vacate their houses. Forty thousand people were displaced and relocated on the outskirts of the city. Their departure impoverished the social and intellectual life of central Bucharest because the displaced included artists, professors, writers and many craftspeople.

Why Tomorrow Never Dawns

The difficulty resides in the gap between the imagination of freedom and its social realisation, and preoccupies Marcuse throughout his philosophical development to lead him in his earliest and last works - from his doctoral thesis in 1922 to The Aesthetic Dimension (1978) - to dwell on an aesthetic dimension in which freedom is imagined. In between, his position undergoes several shifts in the thesis he identifies with artistic withdrawal to suggest that the marginal social position of the artist or writer is liberating, if at a cost then in his 1937 essay 'The Affirmative Character of Culture', written in exile from Nazi Germany, he attacks the tendency in bourgeois culture to displace hope for a better world to a compensatory aesthetic realm writing in the 1940s on French literature under the Nazi occupation he sees the novel of intimacy as expressing a freedom beyond the grasp of an authoritarian state. Through the 1950s and 1960s, he develops a revision of Freud through a...

Comparative Composite Orders

The Composite order is a more artificial invention of Renaissance writers than the other four. Many Roman Corinthian versions exhibit what might be termed proto-composite characteristics, especially in the treatment of the capital, but it does not emerge as a separate order in Roman architecture, and it is unknown to Vitruvius.

Architecture From 1928 To 1934 Architectural Pluralism

Also using the Mediterranean trope to justify emulations of local vernacular architecture in developing modern designs, one writer described Rava and Larco's Hotel at Khums (Figure 5.3) in terms of its masterful combination of diverse elements, noting the essential compatibility of the modern and the Mediterranean

Italians In The Colonies

Italian Colonies

But on what basis, if any, could Italians claim to be superior to the French and the British Most consistently, Italian colonialist writers invoked what they described as Italians' more refined innate aesthetic sensibilities. Even in the early colonial era, long before colonial architecture was a subject of analysis, Crispi had affirmed that art, which is the form of Italy's genius, would make Italy stand out among nations.134 According to such statements, Italians' unique heritage of Roman, Renaissance, and Baroque eras distinguished Italians from other Europeans - and, subtextually, made up for Italians' disadvantages in the political and commercial arenas. In the colonial territories, writers asserted that Italians' aesthetic gifts would distinguish them from other Europeans as well as from natives. In the chapters to come, we will see how integral such claims to unique aesthetic dispositions became to Italian colonialist discourses regarding architecture and cities.

Against Inauthentic European Architecture 1929

Sventramento Roma

In 1929, Rationalists had not yet come under attack for excessive internationalism, and here Rava made no attempt to justify drawing inspiration from local models. As a result, unlike articles from 1931 on, this piece did not rely on especially historicist or essentialist tropes, whereas later writers would lean heavily on claims that local vernacular architecture in Libya was really Roman or Italian, in form or in spirit. Rava did comment casually in this article that the Arab patio was intimately our own, since it goes back to the classical house of ancient Rome, 30 but this was not the main concern of the piece, and the argument was not crucial to his general claims.

East Africa 1880s 1900s

Arts and Crafts derivations, and even Swiss chalets with red trim (Figures 3.4, 3.5, 3.6).14 Early government buildings, on the other hand, initially resembled local ones just as they had in Massawa and Aseb (see Figure 3.1) one Italian writer dubbed them equatorial. 15 Ultimately, while there is no question that Eritreans rarely lived near Europeans on an equal and neighborly footing in the European quarter, we also know from many sources that day-to-day social barriers in Asmara were not as pronounced as they would be thirty years hence. Italian bourgeois women, for instance, regularly received madame, Eritrean women living with Italian men, in their Asmara homes before the turn of the century.27 In 1921, one writer identified different sorts of madame, asserting that those who had lived with Italian men the longest and had children by them possessed a measure of social legitimacy, forming a well-to-do caste. 28 And various Italian writers proudly attested to the cosmopolitan mix of...

Location and Orientation


Although a west orientation has a negative connotation in many societies (Mukerji 1962, 32), in many others no such disability pertains. In northern Ghana entrances always faces west. 'Because it is forbidden to build otherwise' was the usual response to the writer's queries on this point (Hunter 1967, 343). In fact, a westward orientation provides some protection against the frequent rainstorms that move from east to west there. A west orientation is also common in Madagascar (West 1951, 24).

Public Space Public Realm

With the cultural turn in urban theory there has been a move away from a focus on the distribution of public resources as materially defined to a more fluid and complex understanding of the public realm as defined by notions of the symbolic, the imaginary, performance, and theatricality. Though political economy approaches tended to ignore these realms, a long tradition of writing on the city and on public space from modernist to psychoanalytic writers had preceded the rather drier period of Marxist and neo-Marxist analysis which wrote out the more subtle understandings of subjectivity. Thus, for example, Virginia Woolf powerfully interwove the inner thoughts and musings of her characters with the spaces of the city through which they moved. In a late draft of The Years (Woolf 1998 appendix see Johnson 2000), we find Eleanor in London looking at a big shop that was being pulled down

CADoxiadis and the Science of Human Settlements

Tema History

Doxiadis was a prolific writer and published several seminal books. His doctoral thesis Raumordnung im Griechischen Staedtebau was published as a book in 1937, later translated into English as Architectural Space in Ancient Greece, 1972.2 In his book Architecture in Transition, 1963,3 he addresses the role of the architect in a world of confusion and rapid change. Based on his broad experience and astute analysis of the increasing complexity and severity of the problems surrounding mankind, he postulated the comprehensive approach relying on scientific research, connecting the past with the future, architecture with the context. In his eloquent and passionate plea he joined the pioneers of the modern movement, and a generation later, he sought solutions not in the individual monument but in simple, plain, human buildings within the overall evolution of the environment and society. Ekistics, the science of human settlements, was summarized in his book Ekistics in 1968.4 This new...

Introduction Terminology and Disciplines

Too often writers on architecture begin by paying lip service to the principle that architecture is the most social of all the arts, that unlike painting or sculpture it cannot be the expression of purely private taste or personal ideas, but must by its nature grow out of and uniquely witness to the common life and thought of its period, etc., etc. - then, having said this, they proceed to chose and write about precisely those works that were not typical of their periods, but that were great and original, and led on to the future.

The Neighbourhood And Its Critics

The third spatial unit for which the term neighbourhood has sometimes been used is the large district of a city, which will be referred to in this book from now as the quarter it is a unit of between 20 000 and 100 000 people. This, according to Lynch and Jacobs, should be the main governmental unit within and below the level of the city council (Jacobs, 1965 Lynch, 1981). Most writers since Jacobs would probably agree with her comments upon the vitality of cities and their quarters 'This ubiquitous principle is the need of cities for a most intricate and close-grained diversity of uses that give each other

Extension Of The Berlin Museum With The Department Jewish Museum

Jewish Museum Berlin Plan And Dimension

Four more 'aspects' of the Jewish experience were incorporated Arnold Schoenberg's Moses and Aaron, an allegorical opera 'whose subject', according to the writer and pianist Charles Rosen, is the impossibility of realizing an artistic vision two large volumes called the Gedenkbuch (The Book of Commemoration), just names, locations and dates of birth, deportation and murder during the Holocaust and Walter Benjamin's One Way Street. These became the four orientating 'aspects of the project , together with the existing building of the Berlin Museum to which its extension had to be tied, inseparably, in depth' through an underground connection. Libeskind made up clues, created cues, reached for handles to give shape to an unformalizable form. These were constraints, 'invisible', 'elliptical', as Libeskind calls such background material, significant but not sufficient to define a plan. The search continued.

The Dream Factory Mass Culture Media Conglomerates and Labor Struggles

The European critique of Hollywood has been historically matched by the assessments of American writers and intellectuals from the East Coast (such as John Dos Passos, William Faulkner, Aldous Huxley, and Dorothy Parker), who were drawn to the studios by the lucrative salaries offered for formulaic screen writing in the 1920s and 1930s, but often appalled at the corrupting effects on their artistic creativity.2 The controversial Hollywood as destroyer legend is best personified by the experience of F. Scott Fitzgerald (Fine 1993 3-6), who advantageously worked with the studios at the height of his career, but ended his life in indebted despair and drunkenness as an underemployed Hollywood screenwriter with his half-completed final manuscript, (The Love of) The Last Tycoon, which was posthumously published in 1941. The work at which these writers labored was mundane, hackneyed screen-writing and adaptations for the kind of production conventions that typified early Hollywood, such as...

Third Earl of Shaftesbury from Characteristics of Men Manners Opinions Times 1711

One would imagine that our philosophical writers, who pretend to treat of morals, should far out-do mere poets in recommending virtue, and representing what was fair and amiable in human actions. One would imagine that if they turned their eye towards remote countries (of which they affect so much to speak) they should search for that simplicity of manners and innocence of behaviour which has been often known among mere savages, ere they were corrupted by our commerce, and, by sad example, instructed in all kinds of treachery and inhumanity. 'Twould be of advantage to us to hear the causes of this strange corruption in ourselves, and be made to consider of our deviation from nature, and from that just purity of manners which might be expected, especially from a people so assisted and enlightened by religion. For who would not naturally expect more justice, fidelity, temperance, and honesty from Christians than from Mahometans or mere pagans But so far are our modern moralists from...

Of the Antiquity and General Causes of the Decay of Architecture

As Architecture has no Limits nor Bounds to its Beauties, so likewise its Continuance hitherto has no Determination of Time affixed, from Records, to its Rise and Foundation. Should we trace it back to the suppos'd Time of its first Invention, should we search the greatest Writers of all Ages who have endeavour'd to clear this Point they so disagree in their Sentiments and Conjectures, that it will be impossible to discover the Certainty of the Time of its primitive Institution. But beyond dispute, the Grecians were the first happy Inventers, they extracted the beauteous Ideas of it from rude and unshapen Trees, the Product of Nature, and embellish'd it, by degrees of Perfectness, with those necessary Ornaments, which have been since practised by those of the most sublime Genius's in all Ages. From hence Rome herself was furnished with all those excellent Gifts she so anciently enjoy'd those divine Ideas of moral Virtue and Philosophy, seem to have been first modell'd and fram'd by...

Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe

Gothic architecture had also remained very much alive in many pockets of Germany, a largely rural country still divided politically and culturally, and still unaffected by industrialization. The renewed interest in Gothic architecture around the turn of the eighteenth century, largely associated with the German Romantic movement, springs from this essay written by a youthful Goethe at the beginning of his Sturm und Drang (storm and stress) period. Goethe, of course, would become one of the most widely read and influential German writers over the lengthy course of his lifetime. Born in Frankfurt-on-Main, he attended Leipzig University in the mid-1760s

From The Seven Lamps of Architecture 1849

The British architectural debate of the early 1840s began to take on an entirely different character by the end of the decade, as the forces supporting classicism, the Gothic, the Renaissance, eclecticism, and the creation of an entirely new style now clashed in a highly spirited and for the most part quite sophisticated debate. Perhaps the most prominent figure to emerge during this decade was John Ruskin, a writer who would influence architectural theory in Britain and the United States like no author before him. Although he too had no formal architectural training, he was a man of high intellect and moral pretension, a complex, even fragile, personality, whose mind eventually cut itself off from commerce with the real world. While still a student at Oxford in the 1830s, he wrote several articles entitled ''The Poetry of Architecture'' for J. C. Loudon's Architectural Magazine, but he established his reputation as a critic with the first volume of Modern Painters, which appeared in...

From The Philosophy of Fine Art 1820s

One of the most important early German writers on architecture was the philosopher G. W. F. Hegel. The Philosophy of Fine Art is based on lectures he gave at the University of Berlin in the 1820s (especially between 1823 and 1827) they were not published in his lifetime, but later assembled from student notes of his lectures. His broader ideas on metaphysics and history are based on the premise that the human race is progressively advancing toward more self-conscious stages of awareness, always toward a higher understanding of the Absolute or Spirit. Art and architecture also strive toward this Absolute in three identifiable stages the Symbolic, the Classical, and the Romantic. In symbolic architecture, which Hegel identifies with preclassical times, the Ideal is still trapped, as it were, in inorganic matter and is thus unable to manifest itself fully because of its material limitations. With classical architecture, by contrast, buildings acquire a spiritual import independent of...

From The Hunchback of Notre Dame 1832

An avid onlooker to the rebellious proceedings at the French Academy in Rome was the Romantic novelist Victor Hugo. The writer had long opposed the vestiges of classicism in France and he, like many of his generation, was an enthusiast for Gothic architecture. The outlet for his beliefs was his novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, which he started in 1828. After some delays and under a tight deadline, Hugo submitted the novel to the publisher in mid-January 1831, but with some missing chapters. The question of why they were not included, or when or whether they were actually written, will perhaps never be answered, but it seems clear that in the fall or early winter of 1830 Hugo sought out Labrouste, who had just returned triumphantly from Rome, for his comments on chapters relating to architecture. The most important of these, ''Ceci tuera cela'' (This will kill that), first appeared in the revised edition of the book in 1832. The chapter is an excursus on a medieval conversation...

From The Covered Market of Paris 1872

Although this short passage from a novel of the writer Emile Zola falls outside of our chronological timeframe, it is nevertheless a fitting postscript to four decades of continuous discussion. As we have already seen (chapter 137 above), Victor Hugo in the second edition of Notre-Dame de Paris added his chapter ''Ceci tuera cela'' (''This will kill that''), in which he spoke of the death of (medieval) architecture at the hands of the printing press. The realist Zola reiterates this theme, only now it is the death of earlier conceptions of architecture through modern works erected in accordance with the realist spirit of the time. The Parisian church of Saint-Eustache - a quasi-Renaissance, late-Gothic church - was completed in 1532. Les Halles centrales were the famous iron structures that Victor Baltard erected between 1853 and 1870 to serve as the central marketplace for the city. The scene of this passage is a dialogue between two protagonists, taking place on a carriage ride...

From The Book ofEzekiel c586 bc

Almost contemporary with the writer of I Kings was the prophet Ezekiel, a Jewish priest who was carried away to Babylonia in captivity in 597 BC. Four years later he followed his call into the prophetic ministry and soon thereafter began warning his fellow exiles about the impending doom of Jerusalem, which he saw as divine punishment for Hebraic sinfulness. The first 33 chapters of Ezekiel were composed before the fall of Jerusalem, but after the city's destruction in 586 Ezekiel turned his prophetic vision to the rebuilding of the city and its holy shrines. In chapters 40 to 42 he speaks of rebuilding the Temple of Jerusalem, now to be constructed on a grander scale equal to the Babylonian temples with which he was familiar. Once again there is a great emphasis on the numerical and mathematical purity of the work (he may indeed have drawn upon I Kings), and again there is the great importance he places on symbolism.

What is adaptation Definitions

Another contemporary example illustrates this broad use of the word 'refurbishment'. The writer recently encountered in the west side of Edinburgh a developer's signboard on the front wall of a redundant listed printing works that was being converted into flats. The sign read 'Coming Soon A Refurbishment of this Historic Warehouse to Provide 1, 2 and 3 Bed Apartments'. Moreover, in relation to building conservation, general terms such as refurbishment, rehabilitation, renovation and restoration lack precise technical meaning (BS 7913, 1998). As suggested above, 'restoration', is normally restricted to major adaptation work to dilapidated, derelict or ruinous residential or public buildings. In the writer's experience its use is very rare in the context of commercial properties. In addition, technically 'renovation' can occur to residential as well as commercial buildings but usually infers to less substantial works than 'restoration'.

Renaissance architectural treatises

Apart from the buildings themselves, the most important source for the study of classical architecture was the treatise De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, an architect and engineer who had held a position in the rebuilding of Rome during the reign of Augustus. The treatise was probably written before 27 B.C., and during the first century a.d. it seems already to have been a standard work. The text survived in various manuscripts during the Middle Ages, the oldest of which dates from around the end of the seventh century. It was rediscovered in the library of Montecasino by Poggio Bracciolini in 1414. Copies were then made for wider distribution after the 1480s it was printed in numerous editions, of which that by Fra Gioconda (1511) merits special attention. Vitruvius became an invaluable source of traditional knowledge and a basic reference for architectural treatises from Alberti onwards. The architectural writers of the Renaissance all referred to lessons to be learnt from...

Planned Agricultural Settlements

The metropole were and that local Arabs were part of the settlers' everyday lives. In Balbo's own terms, the government intended the settlements to be ethnic Italian islands 5 and with very few exceptions, writers represented them as such. In practice, however, Italians in the settlements were anything but isolated. Libyan Arabs had been part of the labor force that built them they were the settlers' neighbors and they remained essential to the settlements' economies. Inevitably, signs of this contact developed, such as changes in Italians' eating habits and clothing.

From A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening 1841

Concomitant with the architectural discussions taking place within Emerson's Concord Circle were the not-unrelated ideas of Andrew Jackson Downing. Although his life was precipitously cut short by a drowning accident, Downing's influence on the American architectural profession was nothing less than momentous. Born to a niece of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States, Downing left school at the age of 16 to join the family nursery in the town of Newburgh, New York. In 1837 he began construction of his own ''Elizabethan'' residence, basing its design on plates from books by the British writers John Loudon and Francis So different indeed is the general character of the cottage and villa architecture of England, that many an American, on looking over the illustrated works of their writers on domestic architecture, while he acknowledges their high scenic beauty, generally regards them in much the same light as he does Moore's description of the vale of Cashmere, in...

Ebooks httpwwwhabitarescocc

He visits the monuments and art treasures as a guest of the writer Ku Hung Ming. Wright reist nach Peiping in China. Dort besucht er Bauten und Kunstsch tze als Gast des Schriftstellers Ku Hung Mings. Wright va Peiping en Chine. Il visite les monuments et les tr sors artistiques et r side chez L' crivain Ku Hung Ming.

The Arrival of the RF

At some point I completely ran out of money and as it was coming up to Christmas I felt compelled to act on the basis of money, which I hated. I put up a notice in Sarah's2 school in Nottingham that I would make toys, furniture and even a gazebo. I'd never made a gazebo before. From being a kid I used to make little shelters and loved it. I'd never built a building I had renovated a house but to this day I do not know why I wrote that I would make a gazebo. It was interesting that Bob Pescar, a writer for Channel 4, whose children went to the same school, had seen my notice and asked me to build him a gazebo. I thought Great At a time when I am looking for a life-changing event, I suddenly get more work and that was not what I was looking for.

Mediaeval Astronomy In The Old Testament Book Of Ezekiel

Ezekiel Face Wheel Pictures

We may be told that the mediaeval astronomers merely drew the extremely ancient Biblical images on their charts, which came to them from the pages of the Bible out of deep antiquity. This interpretation is highly dubious, in our opinion. Most probably, the astronomical objects were primary, and not their literary descriptions - in the Old Testament, for instance. All the astronomical images listed above are far from being illustrations to the Bible. They are filled with concrete scientific meaning orbital wheels, equinoctials, meridians, star hours, etc. These concepts were introduced by mediaeval astronomers who pursued pragmatic and scientific ends which were far away from the literary paradigm. It was only afterwards that the poets and the writers began to create their literary images after having studied the star charts. Mediaeval cosmology - the celestial temple with its orbital wheels - wasn't created by poets, but rather by astronomy scholars. The poets merely followed them in...

From Architecture in the United States 1844

Lishments, and that, in some degree, it is the union and embodiment of both. It ought not, then, to be viewed as less interesting than either. Its various stages of progress furnish abundant opportunity for reflection, and a wide theme for profitable remark. It has been regarded as so direct a means of inspiring the imagination, and creating sublime ideas in the mind, as to be assigned, by ingenious writers, to a high place among those causes which affect the character of an age, and exert a prominent influence over the moral and intellectual habits of a people. It is not, then, from any want of untouched matter, or of fresh subjects for the use of the pen, that so little notice of its present condition among us, has lately appeared in this Journal. On the contrary, there is quite enough in the recent works of our builders to engage the attention of the amateur, and demand the animadversions of the critic. We will readily admit, indeed, that the maxim, nil dictum quod non dictum...

Collections and restoration of antiquities

Restoration, were apparent and were reflected also in the treatment of ancient architecture. The revival of Classicism was based on the study of classical monuments, and was advanced in the architectural treatises of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. These treatises referred to principles of solid durable construction and maintenance, and also drew attention to the documentation and protection of the resources of the Renaissance, the ancient monuments themselves. At the same time, voices were sometimes heard beyond the style or the manner of building, and some writers recalled the values of even the rejected mediaeval structures.

Tropes The Assault On Libya

The rhetorical geography of the second era of Italian imperialism differed markedly from the first one. Rather than using tropes of incarceration, asphyxia, and starvation, it drew its force from images of promised land and Empire regained. By the time Italians attacked Tripoli, writers and poets contributed mightily to the elaboration of Italian colonial visions in the public sphere. Some of their formulations defined the debates, and in a few cases their expressions remained in parlance throughout the entire colonial era. The eminent writers Giosue Carducci, Gabriele d'Annunzio, and Giovanni Pascoli depicted Italy's magnificent imperial heritage in terms that made it seem attainable once more. Their poems gave the imperial impulse a lyrical dimension, and frequently voiced pseudo-mystical ideas of an essential Italian spirit (which would also appear in later architectural writings). D'Annunzio coined the expression fourth shore to describe Libya, suggesting that its (re)acquisition...

Typological Research and Renaissance Treatises

Eltham London Cemetery Map

Although typological-historical research has produced a wealth of detailed contributions on the theme of the Italian villa, particularly from the time of its codification by Renaissance writers (including developments in the various regional areas where the most remarkable examples are to be found), the question of the origins and first typological conversions of villas does not appear to have received the same exhaustive and systematic treatment from specialized historians. The reasons for this deficiency are probably not to be attributed to a continuing prejudice of a purist nature, but are chiefly related to the impossibility of reconstructing, in documented fashion, a sufficient quantity of typologically significant and classifiable original material covering the period of the urbanization of the city and region during the time of the Commune. The task is rendered more difficult by the lack of an unequivocal definition of sufficient available structural elements to identify this...

The Ideology of Villa Life in Florentine Culture and Society

Roanaoke Island

Historical writing (Florence as Rome's daughter and heir, referred to by Dante) and, perhaps more specifically, as an indication of a model of the countryside drawn from current Utopian-symbolic iconography, both lay and religious. There is no doubt, that the move to take possession of the countryside described by Villani was in turn supported and reinforced by motives and ideas that were more typical of feudal times, re-evoked by the literary works of the communal era in the decisive shift from the Latin tongue to Italian. We need only mention the more important writers the desire to escape to the country is the theme of Petrarch's Vita solitaria, domum parvam sed delectabilem et honestam struxf, writes Petrarch, cumque oliveta et aliquot vineas abunde quidem non magna modestaque familia suffecturas 2 ( I built a small but pleasant and respectable house, with some olive-groves and vineyards, large enough for a small and unpretentious family ). In Boccaccio's work the villa symbolizes...

The preservation movement in the USA

Experiences from European conservation and restoration were transmitted by lecturers and writers to the United States, and also through direct contacts by American travellers with societies, museums and worksites in England, France, Germany and Scandinavia. William Sumner Appleton (1874-1947), founder and corresponding secretary of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, made significant efforts in the early phase. He travelled in Europe and was in contact with SPAB, the English National Trust, the French Monuments historiques and the Skansen open-air museum in Stockholm. Appleton favoured the concepts of Ruskin and Morris, and became a pioneer in promoting restoration based on accurate recording and research even if his own restorations could contain conjectural elements (Hosmer, 1965 236 Hosmer, 1981 998ff).

Segregation And Contact In The New Addis Ababa Intentions And Facts

In fact, substantial portions of Addis Ababa had been looted and destroyed after Haile Selassie had left the city just prior to the arrival of the Italian troops -a destruction which Italian writers claimed only reinforced their point about the worthlessness of local structures. As it had done elsewhere, the Italian government quickly prohibited any restoration or new building, in hopes that the city's growth could be frozen until the guidance of a comprehensive masterplan was initiated.

Against Imitating Native Architecture 19251926

The writers to follow would voice similar sentiments, but with the added question of whether colonial superiority could be expressed while assimilating local, non-European architectural traits, or required excluding them altogether. The next publication to address Italy's colonial architecture concerned North Africa and, although it was brief, it struck the heart of the problem. In 1926 Sal-vatore Cardella, an architect with an interest in questions of modernism,15 voiced the crux of the historicist view, assessing the architecture of Italians and natives in terms of historic value. His article called on the government to take a hand in architectural developments in Tripoli, on the basis that borrowing the architectural forms of the dominated population betrayed a falsity or spiritual misery 16 which ran counter to the government's need for prestige. For Cardella, incorporating local design elements could be acceptable inasmuch as these were appropriate responses to the climate and...

The Nonobservance Of Native Policies

In sum, Italians displayed a partial indifference to difference. Non-Italian observers commonly remarked that Italians' laissez-faire practice in daily life extended to familiarity in everyday transactions, as a writer for National Geographic reported in 1935, before the racial laws were put in place Equally shocking to many foreign observers was that Italian laborers worked alongside natives, without displays of superiority or distance. The Irish writer Gerald Hanley described relations in Somalia in the period of racial laws, as follows

Construction And Domestic Spaces

We have seen that by the late 1930s, architects' discussions about proper colonial style had waned, and their attention had turned to plans. The single Italian writer who carefully documented local vernacular housing forms in Addis Ababa was Rigotti, who examined tukul shapes as well as house-shops . . . belonging to Arabs or Levantines . . . made of masonry, and a single storey high. 47 In part, his interest in all matters of construction in the capital was practical, extending to materials and to advice on the use of local laborers - and transposing Italians' scale of civilizations to their respective abilities But Rigotti's text is interesting above all in its analyses of social-spatial arrangements in Europeans' residences. In Tripoli, architectural writers could undoubtedly have commented on divisions of space within domestic households, but they had not. In Addis Ababa, by contrast, the new interest in segregation raised questions of contact and separateness at home.

The Greek Orders Doric Ionic And Corinthian

The starting point for any study of the orders is Ancient Greece. The great succession of Renaissance writers who regularised the orders more or less ignored Greece, partly because of its comparative inaccessibility, although Vitruvius had been in no doubt, to judge from the references to Greek architecture which articulate his treatise, of the significance of the Greek origins of Roman architectural form. It was not until after the middle of the eighteenth century, with the explorations of such Western visitors as The Society of Dilettante, and in particular the commencement of The Antiquities of Athens by Stuart and Revett, that notice began to be taken of Greek precedents.

From On German Architecture

And there cultivated his interest in literature and art (he was an avid reader of Winckelmann). An illness forced him back home, and his father, who disapproved of his wish to be a writer, sent him to the (then German) town of Strasbourg to study law. There his interest in medieval times was piqued by the writer Johann Gottfried Herder, a few years his elder, and by the great Gothic cathedral or minster in this city, the work in part of the architect Ervin von Steinbach. This essay serves as a personal and heartfelt tribute to Steinbach and the quasi-mystical spirit of Gothic architecture, which Goethe believed to represent the intensive feelings of the German people. But interestingly, this essay and its feelings would represent only a temporary pause in Goethe's intellectual development, as the poet would later develop a keen appreciation for Greek classicism. Nevertheless, this essay was widely admired by German Romantic writers and philosophers, and it strongly influenced the...

Preface to the first edition

The Editors wish to acknowledge with gratitude those who contributed new work, revised previous work, or who reviewed and corrected submitted drafts. Each contributor, section editor, technical writer, and reviewer is listed at the beginning of each section Kyle D. Srown, Assistant Editor and Technical Writer, for his extraordinary organizational ability, his understanding of information technology, and for his invaluable critical perspective.

First Avantgarde From The Painters Studio To The Banks Of The Seine

There is a second aspect, also transposed from the term's military origin, of risk. The avant-garde spies out the terrain and may encounter enemy forces before the main army arrives. As a small, intrepid force it is vulnerable but gains (or is graced by) special knowledge. In cultural terms, the idea of a risk-taking avant-garde informs Romantic culture's refusal of the certainties of classicism. Anita Brookner argues that for Stendhal and David risk is found in the act of innovation 'There are no precedents to fall back on, and this is what distinguishes Stendhal's definition of Romanticism from all those writers and painters who are simply trying to replace the classical tradition with an alternative mythology' (Brookner, 1971 48). The avant-garde, then, leads the way, and has a celebratory and informative function. It gives form to the moment of change (as in David's festivals during the Jacobin period), and it instils new ideas in a programmatic way.

Relation To Previous Writing

There are two differences between this book and my previous writing first, I write here in the first person, having previously used the academic third person because it seemed to place greater value on the material than on my view of it. Perhaps now I am relaxed enough to see 'I' as affirming a legitimate presence of the writer in what is discussed. The second difference is a shift in position since I wrote Art, Space and the City a move away from public art - which I now see as a departure subsumed back into a main stream that has itself become more fractured and interesting - towards cultural practices which are critical regardless of category or site, and which in many cases collapse the boundaries of production and reception. If it all looks like work at the edges, this only suggests the obsolescence of the categories used hitherto. Manfredo Tafuri argues that 'It is useless to propose purely architectural alternatives' (Tafuri, 1976 181) and Iain Borden notes the death of an...

From Essays on the Picturesque 1794

The actual consolidation of picturesque theory took place in the 1790s and was tackled by three individuals a landscape architect and two exceptional writers. The gardener was Humphry Repton, a disciple of Brown the two promulgators of picturesque theory were Uvedale Price and Richard Payne Knight.

The Multicentered Form and the Interventionist State

It is often argued that metropolitan regions are a product of capital. Some writers, such as Harvey (1982, 1985a, 1985b, 1996) or Smith (1996) consider this factor exclusively as the determining force. Most of the LA School geographers follow suit (see the work of Scott, Storper, for example). Such economism is wrong. For this reason I like to begin discussions about the causes of contemporary urban development by focusing on the actions of the state, which are not always taken in the service of capital and which are too often overlooked by writers who proclaim new modes of production and new economic structures as explaining contemporary patterns. sonal gain. Government spending is not just a branch of capital, as writers like Harvey persist in implying. It is a separate means by which both individuals and companies can become wealthy.

From The Cathedral in Cologne 1814

The combative journalist and writer Joseph Gorres was a man of many causes. As a youth he was a supporter of the French Revolution, but then became disenchanted with the French following their occupation of the west bank of the Rhine in 1794, even more so with Napoleon's creation of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806 (incorporating much of western and southern Germany in France). The years 1813-15, however, changed everything. On the heels of the Emperor's crushing defeat at Leipzig in October 1813, Napoleon began a retreat that - with his abdication - would eventually take him to the island of Elba. The Congress of Vienna opened in September 1814, where the issue of a national German ''Confederation'' of states - addressed here by Gorres - was first proposed by the European powers as a hedge against French aggression. Napoleon's escape from Elba in March 1815 complicated political matters, and, following Waterloo, the Congress of Vienna eventually decided to place Catholic...

Race Poverty and the Humane Metropolis

1942 Uruguay

The truth is, I hadn't thought much about William H. Whyte for almost a decade until Rutherford Platt came to my office to discuss a conference on the humane metropolis, celebrating Whyte's life and work. I explained to him that I have long been dismayed that most writers I had read on urban design seemed to have little understanding of the role that issues of race had played in the shaping of the nation's cities and land policies. I told him that I had been enthusiastic about the writings of Holly Whyte over the years. I did not, however, see how one could have a contemporary conference about the humane metropolis without considering issues of race and environmental justice as set forth brilliantly in the book Sprawl City, edited by Robert Bullard and others (2000). A review of Whyte's writings reveals that his work on environment and development from the mid 1950s until his death seemed to move him progressively closer to embracing the challenges of racial diversity. His insight...

From Supplementary Report on Design 1852

It is this merely imitative character of architecture which has so largely contributed to decorative shams, to the age of putty, papier mache, and gutta percha. These react upon architecture and, from the cheapness with which such ornament can be applied and its apparent excellence, the florid and the gaudy take the place of the simple and the true. A popular writer describes the wearer of cheap finery as having his jewellery ''a size larger than anybody else '' and so it is with the cheap finery of imitative ornament it is always ''a size larger'' than it should be - bolder, coarser, and more impudent than the true thing it excites our contempt by its flashy tawdriness, so incongruous with the meanness and vulgarity it is intended to adorn.

Dreamland An Oriental Vision of the Occident

In the early 1990s, a desire to extend the summer resorts' leisure time and spaces to Cairo grew fast if the lifestyle of the summer resort was appealing to many elite Cairenes, why not extend this type to Cairo all year long In the meantime, the state was busy deregulating not only the country's financescape, but also its mediascape. (I want to suggest that the deregulation of the media played a crucial role akin to that carried out by nineteenth-century writers, painters, and World Fairs.26) True that since the days of infitah, not only tangible Western commodities such as Coca-Cola and Levi jeans had

Italian postwar developments

The development of modern Italian restoration approach owes much to the contribution of Benedetto Croce (1866-1952), an eminent philosopher, writer, teacher and historian as well as politician. Together with Henri Bergson, he has been identified as part of the 'contextualist' line in the modern philosophy of aesthetics. His scholarship, humour and common sense inspired the rebuilding of modern Italy, and he became the symbolic figure in the fight against Fascism. His thinking was based on the 'organistic' Hegelian school in classical Romantic philosophy. He contributed especially to the development of the modern concept of history, and modern historiography, conceiving History as the unique 'mediational' principle for all moments of human consciousness, which itself remained completely spontaneous, without a predetermined structure. He emphasized the quality of the whole of an object over the qualities of its details. He created a method of aesthetic appreciation, which was...

Sustainable Development

There seems to be widespread agreement that solving global problems means the adoption of policies and programmes that lead to sustainable development. Sustainable development, however, has many different meanings (Pearce, 1989). The shades of meaning given to sustainable development closely mirror - or perhaps match - the writer's intellectual or emotional position along the spectrum of green philosophy. There is also a great danger that the concept will become meaningless, or simply be used as another wordy panacea instead of action for dealing with the environmental ills that befall the planet. The pursuit of a sustainable future for the human race in an environment of quality will require the design of effective policies and programmes which directly address the related problems of unsustainable activities and environmental degradation they must also be politically acceptable in the jurisdiction where they are proposed. If these policies and programmes are grouped beneath the...

The Narrative of Loss

This leads to a larger point it is assumed that the 'Moslem' (Arab) has been unable to develop, grow, and in turn modernize - in short go beyond the twelfth century, the pinnacle of Moslem civilization. S he is thus condemned to remain within this historic perspective. This, of course, has been the Orientalist reading of the Moslem Arab mind initially exposed by Edward Said from a literary perspective (Said,1979) but examined through writers such as Zeynep elik dismantling the colonial French discourse in Algiers ( elik, 1997), and Timothy Mitchell exploring colonial policies in Egypt, to cite a few (Mitchell, 1988). Shirine Hammadeh puts forward an interesting argument pertaining to the origins of the 'traditional' city concept which in her view comes from French colonial discourse as a way to dominate an unruly and exotic populace. The dual city construct - having both a 'traditional' settlement and a European one - is construed as a 'freezing of the image of a society in time and...

The State Socialist Period

First, a word is necessary about the family resemblance among state socialist societies. Writers on state socialist societies approach them using a theoretical model of state socialism which has the following structural features Before examining interpretations of state socialist urban development a brief digression is necessary on theories of urbanization in the Third World. Early writers on Third World urbanization treated the path of Western economic Weberian writers, such as Pahl (1975), had generalized from the notion of access to housing controlled by gatekeepers to the idea of urban resources controlled by urban managers and had argued that their decisions could either exacerbate, reproduce, or reduce income inequalities, or, in another language, have regressive, reproductive, or redistributive effects. For Pahl, urban managers were the independent variable in urban resource allocation and their decisions would reflect their professional values. Marxist writers, on the other...

The Role of Real Estate in the Production of the Multicentered Metropolitan Region

To the present (Feagin 1983 Fishman 1987 Frug 1997). By attempting to validate the opposite emphasis, in order to valorize the work of a select group located in a particular place, the LA Schoolers miss the most significant research implication of contemporary real estate development patterns. Quite literally, the important theory of Henri Lefebvre and its refinement by subsequent writers on the ubiquitous use of real estate as a means to acquire profits, which is studied seriously by scholars from Singapore to Seattle, from Hollywood to Helsinki, from New York to Sao Paulo, and from London to Moscow, seems to pass over the heads of these LA School avatars.

Surrealistic Exuberance Dark Matters

Many secular writers have interpreted the visions of St Teresa, and particularly Bernini's great sculpture, Ecstasy of St Teresa, at the Santa Maria della Vittoria church in Rome (1647-52), as darkly erotic. The intention here is to explore this exuberant dark eroticism and its poetic potential. It is also to point out that most of our contemporary architecture has forsaken this dimension of architectural discourse and its potential for exceptional spaces.

The Foundation Of Cuban Archaeology

Interest in archaeological remains was well established in Cuba prior to the Revolution and can be viewed as a long-standing expression of pride in national heritage that is also reflected in the works of numerous nineteenth-century writers such as Jos Mart , the Cuban national poet. As Fern ndez Leiva (1992) and Davis (1996) have pointed out, a strong sense of patria (fatherland) and curiosity about the archaeological history of the country existed before the Revolution. This earliest work was highly descriptive and speculative and was performed by schoolteachers, engineers, and doctors, who pursued their interests as an elite avocation. During the later part of the century, the study of the past began to become more scholarly. While archaeology had not yet become a formally recognized science, several scientific papers were published that brought local findings to the attention of scholars outside of Cuba. Excellent summaries of these early works can be found in Ortiz (1922a) and...

Changing Technologies and Urban Form

Urban 20th Century

Technological changes will come in surprising forms. If we design to allow for change, will that suffice Or will present patterns of building and demolishing suffice Will arcologies, as Paolo Soleri suggested, be the future generic urban design model for cities and their precincts Science fiction writers seem to think so. We do know that past predictions of what our present world would be like have been way off the mark (see Mansfield, 1990, for examples see also Figure 11.10).

A W N Pugin Edward Lacy Garbett and Robert Kerr from The Builder 1850

Only a few months after Ruskin threw his hat into the ring on the matter of style, a lively controversy erupted over the issue in the pages of Britain's weekly architectural journal, The Builder. This latter had been founded in 1842 by George Godwin (1815-88), an architect with keen social interests who seemed to enjoy fanning debate on a variety of issues. Here it is both the eloquence of the various writers and the intensity of the debate that make these articles so lively and rewarding. The prompt to the debate was a complaint that Pugin had sent to another journal, The Rambler - that the lack of money for church building was forcing builders to skimp on materials and thus compromise the truth of design. Pugin, of course, was Britain's leading crusader for the Gothic I beg to offer a few remarks on a letter which appeared in your last number relative to a recent pamphlet of mine. I may premise that I am totally unacquainted with the writer, and therefore my observations must not be...

Renaissance Rendering

Whereas the Gothic churches were constructed far from the influence of the Church of Rome, the architects of Italy had to work in constant consultation with the popes. As the heads of the church were vitally interested in the appearance of the new buildings, it was necessary to make as many pictures of the proposed structures as possible. The stage had been set for the invention of scientific perspective by the painters of architectural subjects, who, although they had no rules, used perspective by eye. Paolo IJccello, a Florentine, and Andrea Mantegna of Padua were among the firsi writers on the rules of perspective. Others, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, and (liulio Romano, followed. During the sixteenth century more elaborate books were written on the subject by Serlio and Vignola, and still later, in the seventeenth century, a thorough treatise on perspective was published by Pozzo.